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Institute of Electronics 2014/10/11 National Chiao Tung University Bluetooth Radio and Baseband Kuei-Ann Wen

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Presentation on theme: "Institute of Electronics 2014/10/11 National Chiao Tung University Bluetooth Radio and Baseband Kuei-Ann Wen"— Presentation transcript:

1 Institute of Electronics 2014/10/11 National Chiao Tung University Bluetooth Radio and Baseband Kuei-Ann Wen

2 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 2 Part A RADIO SPECIFICATION

3 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 3 CONTENTS 1 Scope 2 Frequency Bands and Channel Arrangement 3 Transmitter Characteristics 4 Receiver Characteristics 5 Appendix A 6 Appendix B

4 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 4 2 FREQUENCY BANDS AND CHANNEL ARRANGEMENT

5 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 5

6 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 6 3 Transmitter Characteristics 3.1 Modulation Characteristics 3.2 Spurious Emissions In-band Spurious Emission Out-of-Band Spurious Emission 3.3 Radio Frequency Tolerance

7 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 7 TRANSMITTER POWER CHARACTERISTICS

8 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page MODULATION CHARACTERISTICS  GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) with a BT=0.5.  The Modulation index must be between 0.28 and  A binary one is represented by a positive frequency deviation.  The symbol timing shall be better than +20 ppm.

9 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page In-band Spurious Emission

10 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page Out-of-Band Spurious Emission

11 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 11 4 Receiver Characteristics 4.1 Actual Sensitivity Level 4.2 Interference Performance 4.3 Out-of-band Blocking 4.4 Intermodulation Characteristics 4.5 Maximum Useable Level 4.6 Spurious Emissions 4.7 Receiver Signal Strength Indicator (optional) 4.8 Reference Interference-signal Definition

12 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page ACTUAL SENSITIVITY LEVEL The actual sensitivity level is defined as the input level for which a raw bit error rate (BER) of 0.1% is met. The requirement for a Bluetooth receiver is an actual sensitivity level of -70 dBm or better. In order to measure the bit error rate performance; the equipment must have a loop back facility as specified in Test Mode Specification.

13 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 13 The signal to interference ratio shall be:

14 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 14 In-band Interference

15 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page OUT-OF-BAND BLOCKING The out of band blocking is measured with the wanted signal 3 dB over the reference sensitivity level. The interfering signal shall be a continuous wave signal. The BER shall be  0.1 %. The Out of band blocking requirements:

16 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 16 Out-of-Band Interference

17 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page INTERMODULATION CHARACTERISTICS The reference sensitivity performance, BER = 0.1%, shall be met under the following conditions: 1. The wanted signal at frequency f 0 with a power level 6 dB over the reference sensitivity level. 2. A static sine wave signal at f 1 with a power level of -39 dBm. 3. A Bluetooth modulated signal at f 2 with a power level of - 39dBm. Such that f 0 =2f 1 -f 2 and  f 2 -f 1  =n*1 MHz where n can be 3, 4, or 5. The system must fulfil one of the three alternatives.

18 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 18 Intermodulation characteristic

19 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page MAXIMUM USEABLE LEVEL The maximum useable input level the receiver shall operate at shall be better than -20 dBm. The BER shall be less or equal to 0,1% at -20 dBm input power. 4.6 SPURIOUS EMISSIONS The spurious emission for a Bluetooth receiver shall not be more than:

20 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page REFERENCE INTERFERENCE-SIGNAL DEFINITION A Bluetooth modulated interfering signal is defined as: Modulation = GFSK Modulation index = 0.32% BT= 0.5+1% Bit Rate = 1 Mbps +1 ppm Modulating Data = PRBS9 Frequency accuracy better than +1 ppm.

21 Institute of Electronics 2014/10/11 National Chiao Tung University Bluetooth Baseband

22 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 22 Bluetooth hardware Baseband HCI Physical Bus(USB, PCCard…) Firmware LM B luetooth hardware Baseband HCI Physical Bus(USB, PCCard…) Firmware LM Bluetooth Host Other Higher Layer Driver HCI Driver Physical Bus Driver (USB, PCCard) Bluetooth Host Other Higher Layer Driver HCI Driver Physical Bus Driver (USB, PCCard…) Baseband Packet 2.4GHz BT Radio BT Link Controller BT Link Manager & I/O HOST 1. General Description

23 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 23 System Partition SH Interface Packet Composer Code r Hop Net Encry. CLK 32k CLK 13M Packet Composer GFSK fc=1M Demod Control Buffer 2871bx2 0~ X VCO DA X 2M~81M 2.4Ghz X AD FH Acq 2M~81M2.4Ghz 1M1M

24 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 24 Specification Overview : HCI Packet OpCode (2 bytes) Parameter Length (1 byte) Parameters (the rest of the packet) Command Packet: Parameters… Parameters (the rest of the packet) Event Packet: Parameter Length (1 byte) Event Code (1 byte)

25 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 25 Specification Overview Connection Handle (12 bits) Flags (4 bits) Data (the rest of the packet) ACL Packet: SCO Packet: Length (2 bytes) Connection Handle (12 bits) Data (the rest of the packet) Length (1 byte) Data Reserved (4 bits)

26 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 26 Create_Connection Hold_Mode Write_Page_Timeout Read_BD_ADD Read_RSSI Examples Specification Overview Command Groups(OGF) Link Control Link Policy Host Controller & Baseband Informational Status Testing

27 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page

28 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 28 Propagation Scheme:

29 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 29 v Band Selection : 79MHz or 64MHz v Channel Selection : 1MHz v With digital synthesizer being controlled by LM/HCI signaling 2. PHYSICAL CHANNEL

30 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 30 FH (1600 hops/s)/TDD Channel Slot numbering range : 0 ~  s t t master slave f(2k)f(2k+1)f(2k+2)

31 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 31 FSK DATA MODULATION PERIODIC CHANGES IN THE CARRIER FREQUENCY SPREADS THE SIGNAL CARRIER FREQUENCY CHANGES AT A SPECIFIED HOP RATE CARRIER FREQUENCY HOPS AFTER A PRESCRIBED TIME TOTAL SYSTEM BANDWIDTH INCLUDES ALL OF THE CHANNEL FREQUENCIES USED IN HOPPING Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum AMPLITUDE FREQUENCY AP TIME f1 f2 f3 f4 f5

32 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 32 f(2k)f(2k+1)f(2k+2) 625  s t TX 1250  s RXTX Master Timing

33 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page  s t 1250  s TXRX f(2k)f(2k+1)f(2k+2) Slave Timing

34 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 34 Multi-slot Packets f(k) 625  s f(k+1)f(k+2)f(k+3)f(k+4) f(k+3)f(k+4)f(k) f(k+5)

35 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 35 oSynchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO) Link circuit switching symmetric, synchronous services slot reservation at fixed intervals oAsynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) Link packet switching (a)symmetric, asynchronous services polling access scheme SCO(Synchronous Connection-Oriented Link ) : 1. LM protocol sending SCO setup ( Tsco ( counted in slots), Dsco ) 2. SCO send in Tsco 3. Clock wrap-around should be resolved with LMP setup message. 4. CLK(k+1)=CLK(k)+Tsco 3. PHYSICAL LINKS

36 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 36 Packet Format access codepacket headerpayload Packets

37 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 37 Access Code Composer Preamble+Sync.+(Tail) HeaderComposer AM_ADDR +TYPE +FLOW+SEQN +ARQN +HEC Payload Composer PACKET COMPOSER 6.Logical Channel 8.9.TX/RX Routine & Timing 14.Security Link Controller Link Manager 10 Channel Control Controler 13.BD_ADD, 10CLK Sync. Code Composer 5..ARQ Handler 5.Coder HEC - CRC- FEC 12.Voice Coding Coder 7.Whitening GFSK 11.Hopper Modem

38 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 38 Access Code PREAMBLESYNC WORDTRAILER LSB MSB BCH LAP BRKR

39 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page Generate information sequence; 2. XOR this with the “information covering” part of the PN overlay sequence; 3. Generate the extended BCH codeword; 4. XOR the codeword with all 64 bits of the PN overlay sequence; SYNC WORD 145

40 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 40 Access Code Types oDevice Access Code (DAC): vunit identifier vderived from unit LAP oChannel Access Code (CAC): vchannel identifier vderived from master LAP oInquiry Access Code (IAC): vreserved identifier vderived from reserved address

41 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 41 Packet Header AM_ADDRHEC 3 18 AM_ADDR TYPE FLOW ARQN slave active member address payload type LC flow control ACK/NAK parameter information FLOW 1 ARQN 1 SEQN TYPE 4 SEQN retransmit ordering HEC header error check

42 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 42 Packet Types NULL POLL FHS DM1 NULL POLL FHS DM HV1 HV2 HV3 DH1 2 DV DM3 DH DM5 DH5 4 TYPE SEGMENT ACL linkSCO link AUX1

43 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 43 Link Control Packets oID packet oIQ packet oNULL packet oPOLL packet oFHS packet ID packet consists of DAC or IAC. It has a fixed length of 68 bits. It is a very robust packet since the receiver uses a bit corrector to match the received packet to the known bit sequence of the ID packet. Parity bits | Lap | NA| SR| SP| UAP |NAP | Class of | AM-ADDR | CLK 27-2 | Page Scan device Mode

44 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 44 Data Rates (kb/s) Maximum packet size: 28x8+16(crc)+72(access)+54(header)=366

45 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 45 Payload Header reserved L_CHFLOW UA/UI LM reserved continuation of L2CAP message start of L2CAP message LMP message L_CHchannelinformation LENGTH 4

46 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 46 oForward-Error Correction (FEC) v1/3 rate: bit-repeat code v2/3 rate: (15,10) shortened Hamming code oAutomatic Retransmission Query (ARQ) v1-bit fast ACK/NAK v1-bit sequence number vheader piggy-backing 5. Error Control Coding

47 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 47 ARQ (I)

48 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 48 ARQ (II) CRC check ACK/NAK RX new retransmission TX ACK/NAK

49 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 49 ARQ Scheme

50 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 50 Error Checking oHEC oCRC

51 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 51 Error Checking oHEC oCRC

52 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page Logical Channels Logical Channels oControl Channels: vLClink control vLMlink manager oTraffic Channels: vUSsynchronous user data vUAasynchronous user data vUIisochronous user data

53 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page Data Whitening For Header and Payload

54 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page TX/RX Routines

55 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 55 BITSTREAM PROCESSES

56 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page TX/RX Timing RX/TX cycle of Bluetooth master transceiver in normal mode for single-slot packets.

57 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 57 RX/TX cycle of Bluetooth transceiver in PAGE mode.

58 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 58 SLAVE RESPONSE/MASTER RESPONSE

59 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 59 Multi-slave transmission

60 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page Channel Control CLKN native clock CLKE estimated clock CLK master clock

61 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 61 Clock Derivation

62 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 62 State Transition

63 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 63 Overall standby initiating? sent out DAC?waken by DAC? page scaninquiry scanpageinquiry Master response? Slave response? inquiry response? connection YES NO MASTERSLAVE

64 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 64 Page / Page Scan masterslave page scan window T w DAC (slave ID) Slave ID FHS (ack) (data) standby page Master response connection standby page scan Slave response connection yes no

65

66 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 66 Page Trains f(k)f(k+1)f(k-8)f(k-7)f(k+7) A f(k-9)f(k+8)f(k-16)f(k-15)f(k+15) B

67 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 67 Connection Setup train AAAABB 10 ms MASTER SLAVE ms BB FHS scan f(k) sleep CONNECTION f(k+1) 1.25ms

68 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 68

69 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 69 Inquiry / Inquiry Scan masterslave inquiry scan window T w IAC (slave ID) FHS standby Inquiry Inquired? (page...) standby Inquiry scan Inquiry response (page...) yes no

70 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 70 Inquire train AAAAB 10 ms INQUIRER STANDBY ms A FHS scan f(k) sleep RAND2 f(k+1) 1.25ms f(k) A f(k+1) FHS f(k+2) sleep RAND1 AAA AAAA

71 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page  s FHS f(k+1)f’(k+1)f(k+4)f(k) f(k+1) f’(k) IQ Inquiry Response

72 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 72 Sniff Example MASTER SLAVE 1 SLAVE 2 ACL SNIFF INTERVAL ACL lost

73 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 73 Park Mode master active slave parked slaves  BEACON  PM_ADDR

74 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 74 Park Example

75 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page segment 1 segment 2 segment 3  Europe/US Japan/France/Spain Segment length # of hops  11. Hop Selection

76 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 76 ADD XORXOR PERM5 ADD XOR mod 79 Y2 X AB Y1 C DEF Block diagram of the hop selection kernel for the 79-hop system

77 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 77

78 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 78

79 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 79

80 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 80

81 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 81 Continous Variable Slope Delta-Modulation (CVSD) Bluetooth Audio

82 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page Bluetooth Address  Bluetooth Device Address (BD_ADDR) l 48-bit IEEE 802 address l 24-bit lower address part (LAP) l 8-bit upper address part (UAP) u Active Member Address (AM_ADDR) l 3-bit active slave address l all-zero broadcast address u Parked Member Address (PM_ADDR) l 8-bit parked slave address

83 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page Bluetooth Security In order to accommodate for different types of applications, four types of link keys have been defined: the combination key K AB the unit key K A the temporary key K master the initialisation key K init

84 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 84 REFERENCE DESIGNS

85 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 85 RF ASICBB ASIC Flash - Rx/Tx - regulators - clocking - Rx/Tx Control - ARM7TDI - CVSD codec - Applic. IF Control Data Bluetooth Module Vappl 1.8V, 2.78 or 3.3V Applic. IF V 13MHz 1.8 V MHz 32 kHz HW Blocks

86 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 86 BB ASIC: Block Diagram Receiver HW Link Controller MCU Subsystem Clock, Reset, Watchdog Power Control Unit Data IF Unit ResetX 13 MHz SysResetX Clock Truncs Buffer/MCU RAM

87 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 87 VLSI Technologies

88 National Chiao Tung University Stella Kuei Ann Wen 2014/10/11 Page 88 HAVE A NICE LUNCH


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