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Physiology of Cells Chapter 4 Anatomy and Physiology
Transportation Processes Passive transport: no energy needed Diffusion Dialysis Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion Filtration Active Transport: energy used Sodium-potassium pump Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Exocytosis
Diffusion Tendency of small particles to spread out evenly in any given space Occurs down a concentration gradient-from high concentration to low concentration
Dialysis Form of diffusion in which a selectively permeable membrane causes separation of smaller solute particles from larger solute particles
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Facilitated Diffusion Movement of molecules is facilitated by the action of carrier mechanisms in cell membrane
Filtration Passage of water and solutes through a membrane by the force of hydrostatic pressure
Sodium-potassium pump Transports sodium out of cells and potassium into cells
Endocytosis Phagocytosis: microorganisms are other large particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane Pinocytosis: process in which fluid and substances dissolved in fluid enter the cell
Exocytosis Process in which large molecules can leave the cell Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane and releases its contents outside the cell
Cell Metabolism Enzymes Catabolism-Cellular respiration Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Electron transport System Anabolism DNA Transcription Translation
Enzymes Functional proteins Act as chemical catalyst
Structure of Enzymes Active site: portion of the enzyme that chemically “fits” substrate molecules
Function of Enzymes Enzymes are specific in their action Allosteric effect: various physical or chemical agents activate or inhibit enzyme action by changing the shape of enzyme
End Product Inhibition Chemical product at end of a metabolic pathway binds to the enzyme & inhibit the synthesis of more product
Cellular respiration Process by which cells break down glucose into CO 2 and water Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport System
Glycolysis Glucose 2 pyruvic acid Anaerobic (no O 2 ) Releases energy in the form of ATP & NADH Occurs in cytosol
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs cycle) Aerobic Pyruvic acid Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Occurs in mitochondria
Electron Transport System Protons build up in outer chamber of mitochondria then begin movement thru the membrane into the inner chamber, energy is transferred to ATP
Anabolism DNA Transcription Translation
DNA Sugar + phosphate group+nitrogenous base Nitrogenous bases Purines Adenine Guanine Pyrimidines Thymine Cystosine
Transcription Synthesis of mRNA from DNA Introns removed from the mRNA molecule leaving only exons Occurs in nucleus
Translation At the ribosome tRNA carry amino acids for placement in the sequence
Mitosis Process of organizing and distributing nuclear DNA during cell division Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Mitosis Meiosis One phase Remain diploid # Somatic cells Two phases From diploid to haploid # Sex cells
Image Citations Slide 3: Diffusion animation, 7/11/06, Slide 4: Dialysis, 7/11/06, 1/ch5_dialysis.jpg 1/ch5_dialysis.jpg Slide 5: Osmosis, 7/11/06, Slide 6: Facilitated diffusion, 7/11/06, Slide 8: Sodium-potassium pump animation, 7/11/06, Bio%20Pix.htm Bio%20Pix.htm Slide 10: Animation showing exocytosis, 7/11/06, Slide 15: Competitive inhibition of enzyme activity, 7/11/06, tsyn/regulation/u4fg5a.html
Image Citations Slide 16: Cellular respiration, 7/12/06, Slide 17: Glycolysis, 7/12/06, ml Slide 19: Animation of ATP synthesis in mitochondria, 7/12/06, Slide 21: DNA, 7/12/06, Slide 22: Transcription, 7/12/06, Slide 23: Translation, 7/12/06, ation.htm ation.htm Slide 24: Mitosis animation, 7/12/06,
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