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Physiology of Cells Chapter 4 Anatomy and Physiology.

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Presentation on theme: "Physiology of Cells Chapter 4 Anatomy and Physiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physiology of Cells Chapter 4 Anatomy and Physiology

2 Transportation Processes  Passive transport: no energy needed Diffusion Dialysis Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion Filtration  Active Transport: energy used Sodium-potassium pump Endocytosis  Phagocytosis  Pinocytosis Exocytosis

3 Diffusion  Tendency of small particles to spread out evenly in any given space  Occurs down a concentration gradient-from high concentration to low concentration

4 Dialysis  Form of diffusion in which a selectively permeable membrane causes separation of smaller solute particles from larger solute particles

5 Osmosis  Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

6 Facilitated Diffusion  Movement of molecules is facilitated by the action of carrier mechanisms in cell membrane

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8 Filtration  Passage of water and solutes through a membrane by the force of hydrostatic pressure

9 Sodium-potassium pump  Transports sodium out of cells and potassium into cells

10 Endocytosis  Phagocytosis: microorganisms are other large particles are engulfed by the plasma membrane  Pinocytosis: process in which fluid and substances dissolved in fluid enter the cell

11 Exocytosis  Process in which large molecules can leave the cell  Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane and releases its contents outside the cell

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13 Cell Metabolism  Enzymes  Catabolism-Cellular respiration Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Electron transport System  Anabolism DNA Transcription Translation

14 Enzymes  Functional proteins  Act as chemical catalyst

15 Structure of Enzymes  Active site: portion of the enzyme that chemically “fits” substrate molecules

16 Function of Enzymes  Enzymes are specific in their action  Allosteric effect: various physical or chemical agents activate or inhibit enzyme action by changing the shape of enzyme

17 End Product Inhibition  Chemical product at end of a metabolic pathway binds to the enzyme & inhibit the synthesis of more product

18 Cellular respiration  Process by which cells break down glucose into CO 2 and water  Glycolysis  Citric Acid Cycle  Electron Transport System

19 Glycolysis  Glucose  2 pyruvic acid  Anaerobic (no O 2 )  Releases energy in the form of ATP & NADH  Occurs in cytosol

20 Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs cycle)  Aerobic  Pyruvic acid  Acetyl CoA  Citric acid cycle  Occurs in mitochondria

21 Electron Transport System  Protons build up in outer chamber of mitochondria then begin movement thru the membrane into the inner chamber, energy is transferred to ATP

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23 Anabolism  DNA  Transcription  Translation

24 DNA  Sugar + phosphate group+nitrogenous base  Nitrogenous bases Purines  Adenine  Guanine Pyrimidines  Thymine  Cystosine

25 Transcription  Synthesis of mRNA from DNA  Introns removed from the mRNA molecule leaving only exons  Occurs in nucleus

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27 Translation  At the ribosome  tRNA carry amino acids for placement in the sequence

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29 Mitosis  Process of organizing and distributing nuclear DNA during cell division  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase

30 Mitosis Meiosis  One phase  Remain diploid #  Somatic cells  Two phases  From diploid to haploid #  Sex cells

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33 Image Citations  Slide 3: Diffusion animation, 7/11/06,  Slide 4: Dialysis, 7/11/06, 1/ch5_dialysis.jpg 1/ch5_dialysis.jpg  Slide 5: Osmosis, 7/11/06,  Slide 6: Facilitated diffusion, 7/11/06,  Slide 8: Sodium-potassium pump animation, 7/11/06, Bio%20Pix.htm Bio%20Pix.htm  Slide 10: Animation showing exocytosis, 7/11/06,  Slide 15: Competitive inhibition of enzyme activity, 7/11/06, tsyn/regulation/u4fg5a.html

34 Image Citations  Slide 16: Cellular respiration, 7/12/06,  Slide 17: Glycolysis, 7/12/06, ml  Slide 19: Animation of ATP synthesis in mitochondria, 7/12/06,  Slide 21: DNA, 7/12/06,  Slide 22: Transcription, 7/12/06,  Slide 23: Translation, 7/12/06, ation.htm ation.htm  Slide 24: Mitosis animation, 7/12/06,


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