Presentation on theme: "Presented by EDWARD J. LATESSA, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESN’T IN REDUCING RECIDIVISM The Principles of Effective Intervention Presented byEDWARD J. LATESSA, Ph.D.Center for Criminal Justice ResearchDivision of Criminal JusticeUniversity of Cincinnati
2 Evidence Based – What does it mean? There are different forms of evidence:The lowest form is anecdotal evidence, but it makes us feel goodThe highest form is empirical evidence – results from controlled studies, but it doesn’t make us feel good
3 Another important concept is risk: Risk: Refers to risk of reoffending. Recidivism rates are compared over a standard and specified follow-up period.
4 What does the Research tell us? There is often a Misapplication of Research: “XXX Study Says”- the problem is if you believe every study we wouldn’t eat anything (but we would drink a lot of red wine!)Looking at one study can be a mistakeNeed to examine a body of researchSo, what does the body of knowledge about correctional interventions tell us?
5 FROM THE EARLIEST REVIEWS: Not a single reviewer of studies of the effects of official punishment alone (custody, mandatory arrests, increased surveillance, etc.) has found consistent evidence of reduced recidivism.At least 40% and up to 60% of the studies of correctional treatment services reported reduced recidivism rates relative to various comparison conditions, in every published review.
6 Criminal Sanctions versus Treatment Mean PhiReduced Recidivism0.15Increased Recidivism-0.07Treatment .15 (Number of Studies=124)CS -.07 (Number of Studies=30)
7 Criminal Sanctions vs Treatment for Youthful Offenders Number of studies=175Number of studies=522.214.171.124.080.060.040.02-0.02-0.04Criminal SanctionsTreatmentYes-0.020.13Source: Dowden and Andrews (1999), What Works in Young Offender Treatment: A Meta Analysis. Forum on Correctional Research.
8 People Who Appear to be Resistant to Punishment Psychopathic risk takersThose under the influence of a substanceThose with a history of being punished
9 Most researchers who study correctional interventions have concluded: Without some form of human intervention or services there is unlikely to be much effect on recidivism from punishment aloneThe evidence also indicates that while treatment is more effective in reducing recidivism than punishment – Not all treatment programs are equally effective
10 Behavioral vs. NonBehavioral Reduced RecidivismIncreased RecidivismAndrews, D.A An Overview of Treatment Effectiveness. Research and Clinical Principles, Department of Psychology, Carleton University. The N refers to the number of studies.
11 Meta-Analysis of Treatment for Females by Dowden and Andrews Dowden, C., and D. Andrews (1999). What Works for Female Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Review. Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 45 No. 4.
12 What are the risk factors correlated with criminal conduct? Another important body of knowledge to understand is the research on risk factorsWhat are the risk factors correlated with criminal conduct?
13 Factors Correlated With Risk Mean r # of studiesLower class originsPersonal distress/psychopathologyEducational/Vocational achievementParental/Family FactorsTemperament/misconduct/personalityAntisocial attitudes/associatesNote: A re-analysis of Gendreau, Andrews, Goggin & Chanteloupe (1992) by Andrews & Bonta (1994)
14 Correlates of Criminal Conduct and Gender by Simourd and Andrews Factor Male FemaleLower class origins (58) .03(12)Personal distress/psychopathology .09(157) .08(19)Personal education/vocational achievement .11(96) .13(7)Parental/family factors (180) .16(43)Temperament/misconduct/personality .18(461) .23(38)Antisocial attitudes/associates .21(113) .23(12)Simourd, L., and D.A. Andrews, Correlates of Delinquency: A Look at Gender Differences. Forum on Corrections Research, Vol. 6: 26-31
15 Research by Andrews, Gendreau and others has led to the identification of some major risk/need factors
16 Major Set of Risk/Need Factors Antisocial/prociminal attitudes, values, beliefs and cognitive-emotional states
17 Cognitive Emotional States RageAngerDefianceCriminal Identity
18 Identifying Procriminal Attitudes, Values & Beliefs Procriminal sentiments are what people think, not how people think; they comprise the content of thought, not the skills of thinking.What to listen for:Negative expression about the lawNegative expression about conventional institutions, values, rules, & procedures; including authorityNegative expressions about self-management of behavior; including problem solving abilityNegative attitudes toward self and one’s ability to achieve through conventional meansLack of empathy and sensitivity toward others
19 Neutralization & Minimizations Offenders often neutralize their behavior. Neutralizations are a set of verbalizations which function to say that in particular situations, it is “OK” to violate the lawNeutralization Techniques include:Denial of Responsibility: Criminal acts are due to factors beyond the control of the individual, thus, the individual is guilt free to act.Denial of Injury: Admits responsibility for the act, but minimizes the extent of harm or denies any harmDenial of the Victim: Reverses the role of offender & victim & blames the victim“System Bashing”: Those who disapprove of the offender’s acts are defined as immoral, hypocritical, or criminal themselves.Appeal to Higher Loyalties: “Live by a different code” – the demands of larger society are sacrificed for the demands of more immediate loyalties.
20 Major set Risk/needs continued: 2. Procriminal associates and isolation from prosocial others
21 Reducing Negative Peer Associations Restrict associatesSet and enforce curfewsBan hangouts, etc.Teach offender to recognize & avoid negative influences (people, places, things)Practice new skills (like being assertive instead of passive)Teach how to maintain relationships w/o getting into troubleIdentify or develop positive associations: mentors, family, friends, teachers, employer, etc.Train family and friends to assist offenderSet goal of one new friend (positive association) per monthDevelop sober/prosocial leisure activities
22 Major set Risk/Needs continued: 3. Temperamental & anti social personality pattern conducive to criminal activity including:Weak SocializationImpulsivityAdventurousPleasure seekingRestless AggressiveEgocentrismBelow Average Verbal intelligenceA Taste For RiskWeak Problem-Solving/lack of Coping & Self-Regulation Skills
23 Major set of Risk/Need factors continued: A history of antisocial behavior:Evident from a young ageIn a variety of settingsInvolving a number and variety of different acts
24 Major set of Risk/Needs Continued: 5. Family factors that include criminality and a variety of psychological problems in the family of origin including:Low levels of affection, caring and cohesivenessPoor parental supervision and discipline practicesOut right neglect and abuse
25 Major set of Risk/Needs continued: 6. Low levels of personal educational, vocational or financial achievement
26 Major Risk and/or Need Factor and Promising Intermediate Targets for Reduced Recidivism Factor Risk Dynamic NeedHistory of Antisocial Early & continued Build noncriminalBehavior involvement in a number alternative behaviorsantisocial acts in risky situationsAntisocial personality Adventurous, pleasure Build problem-solving, self-seeking, weak self management, anger mgt &control, restlessly aggressive coping skillsAntisocial cognition Attitudes, values, beliefs Reduce antisocial cognition,& rationalizations recognize risky thinking &supportive of crime, feelings, build up alternativecognitive emotional states less risky thinking & feelingsof anger, resentment, & Adopt a reform and/ordefiance anticriminal identityAntisocial associates Close association with Reduce association w/criminals & relative isolation criminals, enhancefrom prosocial people association w/ prosocial peopleAdopted from Andrews, D.A. et al, (2006). The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52 (1).
27 Major Risk and/or Need Factor and Promising Intermediate Targets for Reduced Recidivism Factor Risk Dynamic NeedFamily and/or marital Two key elements are Reduce conflict, buildnurturance and/or caring positive relationships, better monitoring and/or communication, enhancesupervision monitoring & supervisionSchool and/or work Low levels of performance Enhance performance,& satisfaction rewards, & satisfactionLeisure and/or recreation Low levels of involvement Enhancement involvement& satisfaction in anti- & satisfaction in prosocialcriminal leisure activities activitiesSubstance Abuse Abuse of alcohol and/or Reduce SA, reduce thedrugs personal & interpersonalsupports for SA behavior,enhance alternatives to SAAdopted from Andrews, D.A. et al, (2006). The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52 (1).
28 This research has led to the identification of some principles
29 Principles of Effective Intervention Risk Principle – target higher risk offenders (WHO)Need Principle – target criminogenic risk/need factors (WHAT)Treatment Principle – use behavioral approaches (HOW)Fidelity Principle – implement program as designed (HOW WELL)
30 Risk PrincipleTarget those offender with higher probability of recidivismProvide most intensive treatment to higher risk offendersIntensive treatment for lower risk offender can increase recidivism
31 The Risk Principle & Correctional Intervention Results from Meta Analysis Dowden & Andrews, 1999
32 Results—Recidivism (new felony adjudication or commitment) by Placement Type and Risk
33 Average Effect Size for Juvenile Residential Facilities compared to Community Programs and Adherence to Risk Principle
34 Need Principle By assessing and targeting criminogenic needs for change, agencies can reduce the probability of recidivismCriminogenicAnti social attitudesAnti social friendsSubstance abuseLack of empathyImpulsive behaviorNon-CriminogenicAnxietyLow self esteemCreative abilitiesMedical needsPhysical conditioning
35 Targeting Criminogenic Need: Results from Meta-Analyses Reduction in RecidivismIncrease in RecidivismSource: Gendreau, P., French, S.A., and A.Taylor (2002). What Works (What Doesn’t Work) Revised Invited Submission to the International Community Corrections Association Monograph Series Project
37 Assessment is the engine that drives effective correctional programs
38 Why is it Important? Helps you meet the risk principle: Tells you who needs the most interventionHelps prevent iatrogenic effectsHelps you meet the need principleTells you what criminogenic needs to targetHelps guide decision makingHelps reduces biasImproves placement of offendersHelps better utilize resourcesHelps you know if offender has improvedCan lead to enhanced PUBLIC SAFETY
39 Some Goals of Assessment To identify risk of recidivismTo identify appropriate offenders for programsTo identify criminogenic needsTo identify factors that can affect program successTo provide risk & need levels that will facilitate development of case planTo facilitate reassessment of offender to determine which risk & need factors have changedIdeally a process will be utilized that allows for all of these goals to be accomplished.
40 Classification & Assessment of Offenders Primary measures have been identifiedBest predictors of criminal behavior:Static factors – past criminal behaviorDynamic factors – crime producing needsBest assessment method is the actuarial (statistical) approachBest practices allow for risk management and risk reduction through effective treatmentLatest generation of instruments allow for measurement of change in offender
41 Effective programs assess offenders: Program has screening criteriaOffenders are assessed on all major risk, need & responsivity factorsAssessment process is objective and standardizedLevels of risk, need & responsivity are determined by assessment processInstruments are normed and validated
42 Some Common Problems with Offender Assessment Assess offenders but process ignores important factorsAssess offenders but don’t distinguish levels (high, moderate, low)Assess offenders then don’t use it – everyone gets the same treatmentMake errors and don’t correctDon’t assess offenders at allDo not adequately train staff in use or interpretationAssessment instruments are not validated or normed
43 Treatment Principle The most effective interventions are behavioral: Focus on current factors that influence behaviorAction orientedOffender behavior is appropriately reinforced
44 Most Effective Behavioral Models Structured social learning where new skills and behavioral are modeledCognitive behavioral approaches that target criminogenic risk factorsFamily based approaches that train family on appropriate techniques
45 Social LearningRefers to several processes through which individuals acquire attitudes, behavior, or knowledge from the persons around them. Both modeling and instrumental conditioning appear to play a role in such learning
46 The Four Principles of Cognitive Intervention Thinking affects behaviorAntisocial, distorted, unproductive irrational thinking causes antisocial and unproductive behaviorThinking can be influencedWe can change how we feel and behave by changing what we think
47 Some Examples of Cognitive Behavioral Correctional Curriculums Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage It (CALM and CALMER)Aggression Replacement Therapy (ART)Criminal Conduct and Substance Abuse Treatment (adult & adolescent version)Thinking for a Change (T4C)Choices, Changes & ChallengesPersistently Violent CurriculumCorrective Thinking/TruthoughtReasoning and RehabilitationMoral Reconation TherapyDrug Abuse Treatment Program (FBOP)Moving On (Female Offenders)
48 Recent Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Offenders by Landenberger & Lipsey (2005)*Reviewed 58 studies:19 random samples23 matched samples16 convenience samplesFound that on average CBT reduced recidivism by 25%, but the most effective configurations found more than 50% reductions
49 Factors Not significant: Type of research designSetting - prison (generally closer to end of sentence) versus communityJuvenile versus adultMinorities or femalesBrand name
50 Significant Findings (effects were stronger if): Sessions per week (2 or more)Implementation monitoredStaff trained on CBTHigher proportion of treatment completersHigher risk offendersHigher if CBT is combined with other services
51 Effects based on Cognitive targets: Cognitive restructuringAnger controlIndividual attention in addition to group sessions*Landenberger, N, and M. Lispey (2005). The Positive Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology.
53 Lakota tribal wisdom says that when you discover you are riding a dead horse, the best strategy is to dismount. However, in corrections, and in other affairs, we often try other strategies, including the following:Buy a stronger whip.Change ridersSay things like “This is the way we always have ridden this horse.”Appoint a committee to study the horse.Arrange to visit other sites to see how they ride dead horses.Create a training session to increase our riding ability.Harness several dead horses together for increased speed.Declare that “No horse is too dead to beat.”Provide additional funding to increase the horse’s performance.Declare the horse is “better, faster, and cheaper” dead.Study alternative uses for dead horses.Promote the dead horse to a supervisory position.
54 Ineffective Approaches Drug prevention classes focused on fear and other emotional appealsShaming offendersDrug education programsNon-directive, client centered approachesBibliotherapyFreudian approachesTalking curesSelf-Help programsVague unstructured rehabilitation programsMedical modelFostering self-regard (self-esteem)“Punishing smarter” (boot camps, scared straight, etc.)
56 Effective programs evaluate what they do: Quality assurance processes (both internal and externalAssess offenders in meeting target behaviorsTrack offender recidivismHave an evaluator working with the program
60 Lessons Learned from the Research Who you put in a program is important – pay attention to riskWhat you target is important – pay attention to criminogenic needsHow you target offender for change is important – use behavioral approaches
61 Important Considerations Offender assessment is the engine that drives effective programshelps you know who & what to targetDesign programs around empirical researchhelps you know how to target offendersProgram Integrity make a differenceService delivery, disruption of criminal networks, training/supervision of staff, support for program, QA, evaluation