Presentation on theme: "Regional Protection Programme in the Eastern Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1 Regional Protection Programme in the Eastern Europe BelarusMoldovaUkraineFunded by the European Union and being implemented by UNHCR
2 Part 1: Migration and Protection (structure of presentation) Who cross the borders?What are the main obligations of the States vis-à-vis the different categories of persons?What statistics tell us?The role of each stakeholder:StatesUNHCRNGOsBorder and immigration control officials
3 Who cross the borders? All kinds of persons Refugees, migrants (regular/irregular)Reasons including human rights violations, poverty, warSome can not go back to their countries
4 Case example:“My name is Sheila. I come from Nigeria. I met the border guard Mr. Pinchuk at Kyiv airport. He was at passport control and he noticed that I was carrying a false passport. He took me to a room at the airport’s immigration police station and spoke to me until he realized that I did not understand anything he said. Later, he came back with an interpreter. I was able to explain that I was in my 7th month of pregnancy and needed help. Then other people came and helped me”.Refugee Documentary (5 min)
5 Some of aspects of these stories: Human needsThe entry officials can make a real difference in people’s livesPeople have gone through difficult journeyOther
6 Irregular migrants have rights like anybody else In States of destination and transitBecause these States have ratified international and regional treatiesThese treaties are applicable to all persons regardless of their nationality
7 Which treaties say so ? The Human Rights Bill: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)International Covenant on Civil&Political Rights (19660)International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (1990)
8 Which rights ? Right to life Right to seek and to enjoy asylum in other countries from persecutionProhibition against torture and inhuman or degrading treatmentFreedom from slavery and forced labourRight to non-discriminationFreedom of movement / limited detentionRight to a hearing with the assistance of an interpreter if necessaryHealth care
9 The most important obligation of States in relation to Refugees is not to return them to persecution 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees:Fear of PersecutionFive possible grounds for persecutionOutside the country of nationality (or residence)Can not return to it, or is not willing to do so, because of that fearArticle 31: right to non refoulementArticle 33: Prohibition of expulsion or returnConvention Against Torture, Article 3
10 What the statistics tell us? Number of asylum-seekers amongst migrants dropped in Ukraine (governmental statistics):2,500 applications in 20081,233 applications in 20091,328 applications (1500 persons) in 2010Recognition rate is 135 persons ( 9 %)131 asylum applications transferred from border authorities in 2010 and 178 – from the Ministry of Internal Affairs
11 UNHCR’s role globally MANDATE To provide international protection to refugeesTo seek durable solutions to their problemsUNHCR has a supervisory responsibility over Governments’ implementation of the 1951 Refugee Convention, Art. 35
12 UNHCR’s role globally Activities: UNHCR works with Governments and NGOs towards:Securing the admission of asylum-seekers into the territory of States and to asylum proceduresPreventing refoulementAssuring minimum standards of treatment of asylum-seekers and refugeesPromoting the reunification of separated refugee families
13 UNHCR’s 10 Point Plan: Refugee protection in mixed migration To assist States in recognizing and addressing refugee protection needs in situations of mixed migration:Cooperation among key partnersData collection and analysisProtection-sensitive entry systemsReception arrangementsMechanisms for profiling and referralDifferentiated processes and proceduresSolutions for refugeesAddressing secondary movementsReturn arrangements for non-refugees and alternative migration optionsInformation strategy
14 The role of entry officials As the first authority to enter into contact with people arriving, they must identify persons at border areas who may have protection needs and:Ensure non-refoulementEnsure access to asylum procedures to anyone who applies for asylum, whether expressively or implicitlyIdentify victims of trafficking and tehir traffickersIdentify persons with specific needs: unaccompanied/separated children, irregular migrants with health care or other needs, family unity, etc.Link up with national referral institutions to respond to the identified needs.
15 The role of entry officials: To reconcile border controls with the protection of those crossing borders, entry officials must:Become very familiar with international norms and the main protection principlesDevelop good communication skills with persons from different cultures and experiences (e.g. trauma, etc)Develop operating procedures to deal with identified needsMaintain close working relationship with national referral institutions
16 Part 2: The Legal Framework The 1951 Refugee Convention in relation to the national asylum legislationThe principle of non-refoulement in the context of 1951 Refugee Convention and human rights law instruments
17 Question 1:As Ukraine has adopted its own asylum and immigration legislation, should Ukraine make sure that border control measures are in accordance with those norms?They are no longer bound by the more general 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees - Is this statement correct? Justify your reply.
18 Queston 1: Key messagesUkraine ratified the 1951 Convention so is bound by the rules of the Convention as international legal obligations cannot be derogated from through national laws - the latter must be adapted in order to comply with international law.Articles 55 (c) and 56 of the UN Charter on duty to promote and respect human rights;Article 103 of the UN Charter - obligations under the UN Charter prevails obligations under any other international agreement.Constitution of Ukraine (Article 9)
19 Question 2:“A person attempting to cross Ukraine’s external border by means of a false passport only applies for asylum at the point where he is stopped by the border authority. The person is refused entry to the territory of Ukraine and may be sanctioned for fraudulent use of personal documentation, as established in national legislation”.• Is this statement correct or incorrect?• Which international legal provisions are relevant in this context?
20 Queston 2: Key messagesArticle 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – “ the right to seek and enjoy asylum” is recognized as a basic human right. In exercising this right asylum-seekers are often forced to arrive at, or enter, a territory 'illegally'.Art. 31 of the 1951 Convention states: “The Contracting State shall not impose penalties, on account of their illegal entry or presence, on refugees who, coming directly from a territory where their life or freedom was threatened in the sense of Article 1, present themselves without delay to the authorities and show good cause for their illegal entry or presence”.This is called the principle of non-penalization for illegal entry. It applies not only to recognized refugees but also to asylum-seekers pending determination of their status.
21 Question 3:“A person was apprehended at the border for an attempt of irregular border crossing into the EU. He was sanctioned for an administrative offence (violations of immigration rules) through the court decision referring him to the deportation. At the time of apprehension, the person claimed that he wanted to seek asylum in the EU but he wanted to apply for asylum in Ukraine too since he fears for his safety if returned to his home country”.• Should this person be deported to his country of asylum?• Which international legal provisions are relevant in this context?
22 Question 3: Key messages Article 33 of the 1951 Refugee Convention:“No Contracting State shall expel or return (‘refouler’) a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion”.
23 Question 3: Key messages Material scope of the Article 33 (1):“..in any manner whatsoever..”- At the border when considering entry- During asylum procedures- During consideration of deportation or expulsion, even to third countries- During extradition procedures- Working with victims of trafficking and smuggling
24 Question 3: Key messages Personal scope of Article 33:- Refugees - except for those falling under Article 33(2)- Asylum seekers- Persons considered to be at risk of torture or ill-treatment, persons being considered for return to a situation of generalised violenceInternational humanitarian law: Art. 3 Convention Against Torture, Art. 3 of ECHR
26 Part 3: Who is a Refugee? Objectives: Understand the basic elements of refugee status determinationKnow who is responsible for deciding whether someone is a refugeeDifferentiate between a potential refugee and the broader category of migrants
27 A person is a refugee as soon as he or she fulfils the criteria contained in the 1951 Convention Recognition of refugee status is a declaratory actRefugee status determination procedures in each country for asylum-seekersAll refugee can be asylum-seekers while only some asylum-seekers are refugees1951 Refugee Convention and 1967 ProtocolNational legislation
28 The role of border guards In general, national legislation DOES NOT foresee any refugee status determination role for border guardsBorder guards often have the key to access to asylum proceduresRefugees often ignore their right to international protectionBorder guards have a DUTY to understand:Who is a refugeeThe circumstances in which refugee try to access international protection (incl. smuggling & trafficking networks)
29 The role of UNHCRUNHCR has a responsibility to SUPERVISE the application of the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees (Art. 35 of 1951 Conv. & Para. 8 of UNHCR statute)UNHCR conducts RSD some times:To ascertain whether a person is a refugee and is therefore entitled to international protectionTo decide on the resettlement of refugees to another countryTo give governments advice on refugee status of individuals within their territory
30 The five elements of the refugee definition: Outside the country of nationality/former habitual residenceWell-founded fearPersecutionGrounds (race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion)Unable or unwilling to seek that country’s protection OR TO RETURN there
31 The subjective element: FEAR A state of mindFear does not have to be explicitly stated:An expression of unwillingness to return already signals some kind of fearSometimes objective conditions in country of origin can imply fear: i.e. if there is a clear risk of persecutionApplying for asylum also presupposes the existence of fear
32 The objective element : Well - Founded The context of the situation in the applicant’s country of origin: COI (country of origin information)In light of his / her personal circumstances:ProfileBackgroundExperienceCredibility assessmentNo need to prove fear “beyond reasonable doubt”
33 PersecutionA threat to life or physical freedome as well as to the enjoyment of fundamental rights:Not every situation of discrimination re. Enjoyment of rights is persecutionSerious violations of non-derogable rightsCumulative grounds: combined effect of discriminatory measures which, if taken separately, would not amount to persecution.
34 GROUNDS of persecution RaceReligionNationalityMembership of a particular social groupPolitical opinion
35 GENDER may seriously affect the reasons and the form of persecution Since mid-1980’s the effect of gender on persecution is broadly acknowledged:Forms of persecution (sexual violence and rape of men and women, female genital mutilation, forced marriage, trafficking - such as for forced prostitution, discriminatory laws or practices)Reasons for persecution (homosexuals in restrictive communities, women who fail to adhere to specific codes of behaviour, etc)
36 Some individuals would meet initial criteria but DO NOT DESERVE recognition as refugees Conditions spelled out in the 1951 Convention: “exclusion clauses”:Crimes against peaceWar crimesCrimes against humanityNon political crimes outside country of refuge prior to admission to that countryActs contrary to the purposes and principles of the UNTo be interpreted RESTRICTIVELY & to consider:Individual responsibilityProportionality