Presentation on theme: "Conservation Agriculture with Trees (CAwT): Enhancing Agroforestry Economic Benefits and Environmental Services Agustin R Mercado Jr World Agroforestry."— Presentation transcript:
Conservation Agriculture with Trees (CAwT): Enhancing Agroforestry Economic Benefits and Environmental Services Agustin R Mercado Jr World Agroforestry Centre
Outline of the Talk Agroforestry and its benefits Implementation of agroforestry through “Conservation Agriculture with Trees on Slopes” (Sloping Land Management) Ways on improving the benefits of agroforestry on sloping lands Summary
ICRAF Mindanao Staff Agustin R. Mercado, Jr. – Site Coordinator Caroline Duque-Pinon – RUPES Don Immanuel Edralin - SANREM Jesusa Rafinan – Admin Officer HernaneFranje – Admin Support 12 daily paid field workers
ICRAF-Philippines R&D Themes Trees and tree-seed systems Conservation farming and agroforestry Community-based NRM (i.e., Landcare) Climate change and environmental services
only land-locked municipality of Misamis Oriental Consist of 24 barangays/villages Land area of 82,500 has Population of 48,000 Claveria Research Site Cagayan de Oro city Claveria
Claveria, Misamis Oriental elevation ranges from 450 to 1200 meters above sea level maize, cassava and upland rice cropping dominate the lower elevation (<600masl), while vegetable and maize in rotation dominate the upper elevation. landscape is derived from pyroclastic materials. Soils are deep, fine mixed isohyperthermic Ultic Haplorthox Soils are acidic with pH ranges from 4.2 to 5.2. Rainfall is 2500 mm well distributed throughout the year. Farm sizes range from 0.25 to 5.0 ha, averaging 2.0 ha. Represents 10M hectares in the Philippines; 181 M in Southeast Asia
Challenges in the uplands Soils are inherently acidic and poor Inappropriate farming practices Soil erosion is high Declining farm productivity Declining farm size due population pressure Deforestation in upper watersheds Upper watersheds of lowland communities and cities impacting the lives and livelihoods of people living down stream
Upland areas can be highly productive
Enhancing agroforestry benefits environmental services and community resilience to changing climate in the uplands Overall hypothesis In tree-depleted upland areas with poor soils and risks prone environments, farming systems purely based on annual food crops are not sustainable, but diversified tree-based farming systems are feasible and offer better prospects.
Conservation Agriculture with Trees (CAwT) on Slopes CAwT on slopes is a dynamic and ecologically based sustainable land management system that diversifies and increases production, while simultaneously promoting social, economic and environmental services for all land users
5 Important principles of CAwT Integration of trees Minimal soil disturbance Continuous mulch or ground cover Diverse crop species Integrated nutrient and pest management
Context of Conservation Agriculture Flat lands: >100 M hectares Brazil, Cambodia and other places Sloping lands: Philippines (10 M ha); DPRK ?
In the context of sloping lands, there’s a need for deliberate integration of trees.....
Agroforestry definition An approach to land use in which woody perennial (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos) are deliberately grown on the same land management unit as agricultural crops and/or animals, either on some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. In agroforestry systems, there are both environmental and economic interactions between the different components” (Lundgren and Raintree, 1983)
Agroforestry systems Forestry Agriculture
Agroforestry = agriculture + forestry Agroforestry = crops + animals + trees – grown separately (spatial or temporal) – grown simultaneously) (trees + crops or animals) with environmental (ecological) and economic interactions /benefits to address: – poverty (increase income) – food security (subsistence farming) – land degradation/ degraded soils – shortage of fodder, fuel, constructions materials etc – lack of capital – Deforestation
17 Key Attributes of AF Systems Maintain or enhance productivity (economic benefits) Maintain or enhance environmental quality (environmental services) Be acceptable to local farmers and communities (social benefits)
AF Environmental services a)Soil conservation/soil amelioration Prevents or minimize soil erosion (roots and stem serve as physical barriers); High organic matter (serve as buffer against rainfall impact; increases soil aggregation/infiltration) Serves as wind breaks (protection against wind- induced erosion); Litter falls (source of nutrients); Improves soil properties (efficient nutrient cycling/nutrient pump, symbiotic associates with beneficial microorganism, improves soil porosity, infiltration rate and structure).
AF Environmental Services b)Water conservation Increase soil porosity and infiltration; Increase water retaining capacity (organic matter/litter and crown shade minimize soil moisture evaporation, organic matter acts as “sponge” or mulch).
AF Environmental Services … c)Microclimate amelioration Shading effect, lower temperature, less air turbulence; Less intense solar radiation, dampens environmental fluctuations; Favorable soil environment for earthworms and other organisms d)Other benefits Enhance aesthetics and landscape beauty; Provide food and shelter for wildlife; Bio-diversed structure prevents pest and disease epidemics
2. Socio-Economic Benefits of AF Source of food Fuelwood Fodder Timber and other raw materials for buildings Handicraft/cottage industries, Source of employment/income Carbon stocks (tradable) Other tradable environmental services
10 meters 20 meters Rubber Banana Durian or other fruit trees Maize/upland rice/vegetable Forage grasses and legumes Rubber agroforestry system (RAS) on slopes
Examples of Environmental benefits of AF
Biomass and carbon stocks of rubber trees as influenced by different density of planting simulated using SeXi- FS model. Claveria, Misamis Oriental SExI-FS – Spatially explicit Individual-based Forest Simulator developed by World Agroforestry Centre, Bogor, Indonesia.
Latex yield and income of rubber as influenced by spacing simulated using SeXi-FS model. Claveria, Misamis Oriental Note: Latex yield and price are expressed in dry rubber
Total carbon stocks (t/ha) of different systems at 12 years in comparison with corn continuous cropping.
CAwT: Good practices 1) Natural vegetative filter strips establishment Establishment of natural vegetative filter strips along contour lines is the initial and simple low cost conservation measure allowing natural vegetation to grow at 50-cm width strips spaced at 8-10 meters apart to effectively protect the soil from erosion. NVS systems provide foundation for the establishment of cash perennials on the contour strips.
CAwT: Good practices 2) Cash perennials integration and improved cropping pattern Cash perennials such as rubber, timber and fruit trees including bananas, forage grasses and legumes established as enrichment from NVS provide farm agri- diversity and income. High root length densities of banana, creeping forage legumes and grasses provide soil binding function, and tree roots provide soil anchorage which will protect sloping lands against landslide. Crop rotation of vegetables, maize, upland rice and grain legumes reduces pest and diseases and enhances fertilizer use efficiency. Integration of upland rice complements lowland rice production and addresses Philippine self- sufficiency in rice.
CAwT: Good practices 3) Timber- and fruit- based agroforestry Inclusion of timber trees enhances farming system diversity and profit as well as the capacity to sequester carbon. Integration of upland rice, maize and cowpea into the tree based system promotes food security. Moreover, the inclusion of N 2 -fixing grain legumes increases sustainability in the productivity of upland soils.
CAwT: Good practices 4) Vegetable agroforestry Properly managed trees improve vegetable yields up to 40% as a result of having a desirable microclimate with low wind speed, increased relative humidity, high soil moisture and soil organic matter content. Trees also provide environmental services such as habitat for wildlife, control for soil erosion and carbon sequestration for climate change apart from providing additional nutrients to crops through N 2- fixation
CAwT: Good practices 5) Livestock integration Livestocks, such as cattle, goats, pigs, chicken and ducks, can provide additional income, food (meat and milk), draft power and manure. Animal manures can be useful for biogas for the household energy requirement as well as substrate for vermicomposting. The integration of livestock into the farm increases farm agri-diversity and risk management strategy for climate change.
CAwT: Good practices 6) Rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting addresses rainfall variability during climate change making water available to crops as well as to livestocks during dry spells. It increases water infiltration thus providing subsurface irrigation to perennial crops. It also provides additional income to farmers by having fish, frog and duck culture. Raising fish, frogs and ducks, while increasing farmers income, will improve nutrient loads to the pond water which will improve crop growth if used for irrigation.
CAwT: Good practices 7) Organic fertilizer production Organic fertilizer like vermicomposting is important in addressing Farmers’ fertilizer requirements. The use of organic fertilizers increases soil organic matter (OM) improving soil moisture during drought thus making a suitable growing environment for crops. Its use also mitigates climate change through avoiding CO 2 emission through fertilizer substitution from the use of inorganic fertilizers, injection of carbon into the soil and potential of mass participation of smallholders to climate change mitigation.
CAwT: Good practices 8) Minimum tillage, mulch and cover crops Minimum tillage, mulch and cover crop maintain soil cover throughout the year which reduce soil erosion, increase water infiltration, reduce weed pressures and improve soil fertility. They also improve soil carbon thus help mitigate climate change. Cover crop like Arachis pintoi provides nitrogen and renders phosphorus available to the associated crops.
Typical tree- crop interaction
4 Ways of Improving Economic Benefit of Agroforestry System 1. Increase the value of trees (T) 2. Increase the value of complementarity (Y2) 3. Decrease or eliminate competition value (Y1) 4. Decrease or eliminate the value of crop displacement area (D)
Increasing the value of T (Trees) (1) Optimize vertical use of aboveground resources (space and light) by using multi-canopy levels hedgerow systems (e.g. trees + banana + grasses) Optimize use of vertical and horizontal belowground resources (space, water and nutrients) by using deep rooted indigenous trees) Optimize use of inert resources such as air and CO 2 by using N 2 - fixing trees (e.g. Acacia mangium, Narra Pterocarpus indicus and fast growing trees (e.g lauaan for timber and carbon sequestration) Choose trees with premium products like quality timber, latex or fruits.
Increasing the value of Y2 (2) ( complementarity zone ) through the use of: Optimum tree line/ hedge spacing (20-25m) Responsive alley crops to micro-climate improvement Deep-rooted hedgerow species Optimum tree pruning regime (silviculture) Appropriate tree species or other hedgerow species (less competitive)
Decreasing the value of Y1 (3) (competition zone) through the use of: Adapted alleycrops (cassava vs maize) Appropriate tree species – Medium to narrow and light canopies – Deep rooted – N 2 -fixing (if possible) Appropriate tree pruning regime (canopy removal and timing) Supplemental water and nutrient application at competition zone (e.g. skewing the application of prunnings and fertilizer, application of drip irrigation) Orient the tree rows parallel to the direction of the sun (east- west if possible)
Decreasing or eliminating the value of D (crop displacement area) (4) Ensure that the value of T is greater than opportunity cost of D Use of early maturing hedges in combination with indigenous trees (clonally propagated trees: rubber, coffee, timber and fruit trees (marcotting vs grafting; use of rooting hormones (IBA, ANAA, etc); forage grasses and legumes Reduce the displacement area by having fewer hedges (e.g. 20 meters instead of 5-6 meters apart) thus enhancing AF complementarity effect
Percent yield increase of vegetables under tree based system Vegetables Wet season (June – Sept) Dry season (Feb – May) Average Chinese cabbage Cabbage1307 Tomato Bell pepper Carrots Mean291618
Schematic diagram of single tree-line agroforestry system CAPS 20 m
Schematic diagram of double -tree line agroforestry system CAPS 20 m
90cm 30cm 20 m cowpea maize 90cm 30cm Single Tree-Line Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees (CAPST)
Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees 20 m Single Tree-Line Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees (CAPST) Legume (Cowpea) + Maize
Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees 20m Single Tree-Line Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees (CAPST) Maize + Arachis pintoi (Cover crop)
Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees Single Tree-Line Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees (CAPST) 20 m Maize+Stylo Stylo fallow Maize + Stylosanthes – Stylosanthes alone – Maize alone
Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees Older Than 3 Years Old 5 m 20 m cowpea maize Single Tree-Line Conservation Agriculture Production System with Trees (CAPST) maize 5 m m
Double tree-line conservation agriculture production system (CAPS) with Trees 2 m 30cm cowpea maize Maize + Cowpea – Upland rice + cowpea Rubber/ Fruit/ Timber trees 20m x 2m x 3m; 30m x 2m x 3m
Summary Agroforestry provides environmental services and socio-economic benefits CAwT on slopes in the context of agroforestry is a delivery mechanism for multi-functional agriculture (MFA) and landscapes Better ways of managing agroforestry systems enhance environmental services and socio-economic benefits and make agroforestry more acceptable to farmers
Thank you very much! Acknowledgement and Contact Thank you organizers of this Reward for Environmental Services (RES) Forum in Mindanao. Agustin R. Mercado, Jr.. PhD World Agroforestry Centre Claveria Research Site, MOSCAT Campus, Claveria, Misamis Oriental, 9004 Philippines