Jyl Wheaton-Abraham Chels Marshall NOBODYZ TRASH MARINE DEBRIS AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
CONNECTING PEOPLE & OCEANS Pollution, Indigenous People and the Marine Environment
NOBODYZ TRASH Somebody DESIGN D Somebody MANUFACTURE S Somebody PRODUCTION D Somebody USING Somebody MARKETING TURES Somebody CONSUMIN G Somebody DEMAND D DESIGN DISCARD Land Fill Somebody SELLING Recycle Somebodies Choice
The modern trend is for all nearly all consumer goods to contain and/or be contained by plastic. Major drivers of plastic use include inexpensive production costs, prolonged shelf life for foods, and mass production capability. Disposable plastics are the main source of plastic pollution
Our watery world is “drowning” in marine debris This has received worldwide attention with the discovery of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch – a floating “continent” of plastics (mostly) – 1 760 000 square kilometres in size (bigger than Qld = 1 730 648 km 2 ) – 100 million tonnes of debris
However, debris is not just confined to the North Pacific Gyre Widespread issue across the globe Massive impacts on: – human health – biology and ecology or marine organisms – local, regional and worldwide economies Marine Debris is a GLOBAL Problem
Debris Facts and Figures “any manufactured or processed solid waste material (typically inert) that enters the marine environment from any source whether on land or at sea” (APEC, 2009) ~ 6.4 million tonnes of debris reach the ocean every year (UNEP, 2005) ~ 8 million items are discarded into the sea every day (UNEP 2005)
Plastics are the most prevalent debris items (~60- 80% of total) ~ 80% of marine debris enters the ocean from land-based sources ~ 20% from ships/marine sources Discarded Fishing Gear (DFG) is a major part of ship-sourced debris
Shipping – propeller fouling, blocked cooling fittings etc. Fishing – reduced catches – sorting debris from catches (time costs) Tourism – lost income due to aesthetic and health issues – barrier to new investment Estimated cost of US $1.265 billion in 2008
Wildlife Impacts Entanglement Ingestion Smothering Loss of Habitat Changes or Loss in biodiversity Photo: Ramon Dominquez Neri
Contamination of water supplies Leaching of toxic chemicals from plastics General loss of wellbeing if environment is fouled
While scientists and industries call for further research, plastic marine debris continues to accumulate.
Reuse or reject plastic Beach clean-ups, trash as art Local bans of plastic products Laws and regulations regarding dumping and catchment Creating “greener” plastics Individual Communities Global
Plastic Pollution and Political Ecology Many indigenous communities have customs and beliefs, and often live in conditions which increase their exposure to plastic marine debris in the world ocean. Power imbalances due to factors such as wealth, age, gender, beliefs, and race. The politics of environmental change. Human/environmental relations including how power relations can determine human use and access to an environment.
Unequal ability to manage health, environmental, and traditional concerns Exposure to debris and chemicals in water or on shore Exposure to chemicals and debris through marine food resources Marine Plastic Debris and Indigenous Communities Photo Source: Scott Dickerson
Participation and Capacity-Building “Difficulties arose in Alaska and Hawaii, when groups…did not follow through due in some part to cultural issues…Future efforts [will] require a significant endorsement of the local tribal communities in Alaska, and special attention in Hawaii to cultural concerns on the various islands,” (Ocean Conservancy, 2007). Health, economic, and environmental concerns of indigenous people may be prioritized differently than traditional research models. Concerns may have strong connections to spirituality and cultural practice, which is not often considered nor studied.
Participatory Mapping Combines modern cartographic tools with community participatory methods. Capture the local perspective of the place where we live and the elements that are important within that place. Expression of local spatial knowledge in a geographic framework that is easy to understand and universally recognized.
www.databasin.org www.databasin.org/groups/d0a624e24d934ab99f189bc1fc6d1 46e Data Basin is a free online data sharing and mapping application used by communities, students and educators, natural resource practitioners and scientists interested in environmental issues around the world.
7,675 public datasets 873 public maps 171 public groups 5,983 members
Barriers to Overcome Lack of Understanding of the Problem The Prevalence and Persistence of Plastic Photo source: Surfrider
NobodyZ Trash Team and Contributors Jyl M. Wheaton-Abraham- Marine Anthropologist M.A. Candidate, Applied Anthropology Oregon State University Kootenai Tribe of Idaho Chels Marshall- Marine PlannerGIPABaga Baga / Ngnambaa Gumbaynggirr Tribe Kai Henifin – GIS AnalystConservation Biology USA Steve Smith – Marine BiologistSouthern Cross University Australia Tim ExleyBaga Surf JapanEcologist, Data Analyst Laise Harris - GIS Nth OLD Dry Tropics Ngati Kahungunu (whale rider decendants), Miyajima Hiroshima and Ngapuhi. Chris Edwards Aboriginal artist /designer Wirimbi DesignBaga Baga / Ngnambaa Gumbaynggirr Tribe Fabri Blacklock Aboriginal artist /designer Wirimbi Design Ngarabal/Anaiwan people from Glen Innes and Tingha and the Biripi people from Dingo Creek in New South Wales Melissa George Traditional Owner Magnetic Island Liz HawkinDolphin Research Australia Riki GunnGhost Nets Australia Heidi TaylorTangaroha Blue