5Issues in Credibility Credibility of Informal Sources Credibility of Formal SourcesCredibility of Spokespersons and Endorsers ( supporters )Message Credibility
6Endorser CredibilityEndorser credibility is important when message comprehension is lowMatch must exist between product attributes and endorser attributesCredibility is higher when endorser’s demographic characteristics are similar to those of target audienceEndorser credibility is not a substitute for corporate credibility
7Sleeper EffectThe idea that both positive and negative credibility effects tend to disappear after a period of time.
8Barriers to Communication Selective PerceptionWandering, Zipping, and Channel SurfingCombat with Road blocking (overcrowding)Psychological NoiseCombat with repeated exposures, contrast in the copy, and teasers
9Figure 9.3 Comprehensive Communication Model CommercialNon-ProfitIndividualFormal vs. InformalVerbal vs. Nonverbal1-sided vs. 2-sidedFactual vs. EmotionalSelective ExposureIndividualsTarget AudienceIntermediary AudienceUnintended AudiencesMediated by: InvolvementMoodExperiencePersonal Charac.EncodesMessageChannel(Medium)Sender(Source)Receiver(Consumer)DecodesSymbolsPicturesWordsImagesPaid vs. UnpaidPrint, Broadcast, ElectronicPersonal vs. ImpersonalResponds Appropriately?YesNoMiscomprehends?YesPretests to Ensure Message Will be ReceivedPosttests to Ensure Message Was ReceivedNoFeedback
10Issues in Designing Persuasive Communications Communications strategyMedia strategyMessage strategy
12Figure 9.4 Perception/ Experience/ Memory Model of Advertising Pre-experience Exposure(phase)Post-experience Exposure(phase)Framing (ftn)PerceptionEnhancingExperienceOrganizingMemoryExpectation (effect)AnticipationInterpretationSensoryEnhancementSocialCueingBrandingInterpretation
13Media Strategy Consumer profiles Audience profiles A cost-effective media choice is onethat closely matches theadvertiser’s consumer profilewith the medium’s audience profile.(tailoring your message to audience needs)
14Excerpts from Table 9.2 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Newspaper) Access to large audiencesEffective for local reachFlexibleFastFeedback possible through coupon redemption (release), etc.Not selectiveShort message lifeClutter (confusion/disorder)Cost varies based on ad size and circulation
15Excerpts from Table 9.2 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Magazines) Highly selectiveSelective binding possibleHigh quality productionHigh credibilityLong message lifeHigh pass along rateLong lead timeHigh clutterDelayed and indirect feedbackRates vary based on circulation and selectivity
16Excerpts from Table 9.2 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Television) Large audiences possibleAppeals to many sensesEmotion and attention possibleDemonstration possibleVery high costs overallLong lead timeHigh clutterShort message lifeViewers can avoid exposure with zapping, etc.Day-after recall tests for feedback
17Excerpts from Table 9.2 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Radio) High geographic and demographic selectivityShort lead timeRelatively inexpensiveGood local coverageShort exposure timeAudio onlyHigh clutterZapping possibleDelayed feedback through day-after recall tests
18Excerpts from Table 9.2 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Internet) Potential for audience selectivityCustomized tracking possible and other feedback tools possibleUseful for branding and reinforcement of messagesDemographic skew to audienceVery high clutterZapping possibleGreat variation in pricingPrivacy concerns
19Excerpts from Table 9.2 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Direct Mail) High audience selectivityPersonalization possibleNovel, interesting stimuli possibleLow clutterPerception of junk mailFeedback possible through responseHigh cost per contact
20Excerpts from Table 9.2 Persuasive Capabilities and Limitations of Major Media (Direct Marketing) Development of databasesHigh audience selectivityRelatively free of clutterPrivacy concernsMeasurable responsesCost per inquiry, cost per sale, revenue per ad can be calculated
21Table 9.3 Buyer Personalities and Advertising Strategies PragmaticRighteousSocialHow might advertising be designedfor these three distinct buyer types?
22Involvement Theory and Persuasion The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) proposes that marketers use the•central route to persuasion for high involvement products and the•peripheral route to persuasion for low involvement products
32Table 9.4 Impact of Humor on Advertising Humor attracts attention.Humor does not harm comprehension.Humor is not more effective at increasing persuasion.Humor does not enhance source credibility.Humor enhances liking.Humor that is relevant to the product is superior to humor that is unrelated to the product.Audience demographic factors affect the response to humorous advertising appeals.The nature of the product affects the appropriateness of a humorous treatment.Humor is more effective with existing products than with new products.Humor is more appropriate for low-involvement products and feeling-oriented products than for high-involvement products.