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Cooperative Learning An old idea whose time has come!! We > I.

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Presentation on theme: "Cooperative Learning An old idea whose time has come!! We > I."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cooperative Learning An old idea whose time has come!! We > I

3 George Jacobs Tel: WWW:

4 Acknowledgements CL Center, U. of Minnesota (USA) - Success for All Foundation - Kagan Publications and Professional Development -

5 Write-Pair-Switch Each S works alone to write answers (2 mins) In pairs, Ss share answers (2 mins) Ss switch partners & share their former partner’s ideas with their new partner (2 mins)

6 Questions Name, subject, etc. Experience with groups as S or T Current knowledge about CL Want to learn about CL 2 questions of your own

7 How Can We Use Write- Pair-Switch? Meeting new group members Before lesson to discuss what Ss know about topic/remember from last lesson During a lesson for Ss to practice concepts taught or to give their own ideas Afterwards to discuss what they have learned & still need to learn

8 Write-Pair-Switch: Examples Books read during USSR/Extensive Reading How did you choose the book? Is it fiction or non-fiction? What did you like about the book? What do you plan to read next?

9 Write-Pair-Switch: Examples Plants What plants do you know about? How did you learn about them? What plants are useful to you? How do you use them? If you could grow a plant, which one would you grow? Why?

10 Write-Pair-Switch: Your Ideas Level? Subject? Topic? What questions? How much time for each step? Use questions without 1 right answer or that need an explanation of the entire answer

11 Outline Potential advantages of groups Problems with groups Definition of CL Dimensions of CL

12 Attention Signal T claps - T’s hand raised Ss’ hands raised, mouths closed, eyes on T Ss alert classmates who do not see T’s hand raised

13 Quick, easy way to get Ss’ attention. The longer it takes to get Ss’ attention, the more time is lost.

14 RSP A Raise hand Stop talking Pass signal A ttention to teacher

15 Circle of Speakers 2 groups of 2 within each foursome 1 gives an idea 2 gives an idea 1 gives another idea 2 gives another idea T calls on Ss to share partner’s ideas

16 Topic for Discussion What are potential advantages of groups? Explain, please. 2: You’re full of good ideas! 1: You’re smart! I learned something from you.

17 Potential Advantages of Grps 1. Quantity of learner speech can increase

18 Maximum Peer Interaction Small groups Less whole-class reporting How do Write-Pair-Switch and Circle of Speakers encourage Maximum Peer Interaction?

19 2. Individualization can increase

20 Equal Opportunity to Participate Does everyone have a structured chance to take part? How do Write-Pair-Switch and Circle of Speakers encourage Equal Opportunity to Participate?

21 Potential Advantages cont Anxiety can be reduced 4. Thinking can increase

22 Individual Accountability Each group member has to make a significant contribution to achieving the group's goal How do Write-Pair-Switch and Circle of Speakers encourage Individual Accountability?

23 Potential Advantages cont Motivation can increase

24 Positive Interdependence Do Ss feel that they sink or swim together? Ss need to collaborate to achieve their goal? How do Write-Pair-Switch and Circle of Speakers encourage Positive Interdependence?

25 6. Enjoyment can increase

26 Potential Advantages cont Independence can increase 8. Social integration can increase

27 Potential Advantages cont Students can learn to collaborate

28 Collaborative Skills Do students show that they know how to work together? checking for understanding disagreeing politely asking for help speaking with 15 cm voices making suggestions asking for repetition

29 10. Learning can increase

30 How Can You Use Circle of Speakers? What question or task will you give the pairs?

31 Circle of Speakers: Examples 5 times table: 1 says 5 x 1 = 5; x 2 = 10; x 3 = 15, etc. 1 says a present tense verb; 2 says the past tense form. Reverse roles. Mammals: 1 says ‘rabbit’; 2 says ‘deer’; 1 says orangutan, etc.

32 Outline Potential advantages of groups Problems with groups

33 Circle of Writers Groups of 2 One partner is 1; Other is 2 1 and 2 write at the same time They exchange papers, read what their partner wrote, & discuss 1 & 2 share the other’s ideas with the class

34 Topic Potential problems with groups w hy the problem occurs effects of the problem experience with the consequences of the problem as S or T

35 Example Problem: too much noise Why: Ss get very excited Effects: headache, other Ts complain Experience: My Ss played a word game in groups. They were shouting and laughing. Later that day, another T told me I had disturbed her next door class.

36 1: I enjoy working with you! 2: _____________________!

37 Keep Up The Good Work But don’t ask me to help

38 Problems with Groups 1. Freeloading 2. Take-overs 3. Arguing

39 Problems cont Socializing 5. Crowd control 6. Furniture

40 Problems, cont Appearances 8. Ignorance 9. Coverage 10. Assessment

41 How Can We Use Circle of Writers? During or after a lecture, CD-ROM, etc., Circle of Writers lets us assess students’ understanding Variation: Ss can take turns to write Circle of Writers and Circle of Speakers can be combined

42 Using Circle of Writers What question or task will you give the pairs? How much time? Use questions/tasks that promote discussion Give prompts for questions to encourage fuller answer?

43 Circle of Writers: Example What is one method of saving paper? How does the method work? Do you already do this? Why does it save paper? Can you convince other people to use this method?

44 Circle of Writers: Example Describe one plant Parts? Habitat? Its place in the web of life?

45 Outline Potential advantages of groups Problems with groups Definition of CL

46 Focused Discussion Pairs (Johnson & Johnson, 1991)* T asks a question - Ss work alone Partners share answers with each other and try to improve them All Ss need to be able to present and explain their new answer T calls on Ss at random to share the answer their group developed * Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T. (1991). Cooperative learning lesson structures. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.

47 Task - Part 1 Choose 1 problem with groups that does/would cause you difficulties Explain why the one problem is important and give an example of the problem

48 Task - Part 2 Take the problem you described in Part 1. Think of ways to solve the problem. Explain why you think your solutions will work. Perhaps CL techniques can help.

49 Focus on Collaborative Skills What is one thing a grp member did to help your group work together as a team? Who did it? What did they say/do? Be incredibly specific.

50 Collaborative Skills: Examples Leong asked, “Please explain positive interdependence to me.” Asking for help Azizah referred us to the two questions and gave examples. Giving examples Renu said to me, “You always have good ideas. What do you think?” Encouraging others to participate

51 How can you use Focused Discussion Pairs?

52 Using Focused Discussion Pairs T teaches, then gives Ss a question or task to check understanding Be sure to ask for reasons or for how the answer was obtained ?s/tasks w/ many possible answers or parts let many Ss answer

53 FDP: Example T explains how to do division Ss do division problems in groups T calls a number Ss with that number take turns to explain one step that their group took in solving the problem

54 FDP: Example T asks Ss to design a robot that uses photosynthesis Ss put their heads together T calls a number Ss with that number explain what their robot looks like and how it functions

55 Definition of CL Concepts and techniques for enhancing the value of group activities

56 Definition of CL, cont.... What CL is NOT: 1. Not new 2. Not all the time 3. Not magic

57 What CL is NOT, cont Not usually by itself 5. Not simple 6. Not as easy for Ts as for workshop leaders

58 What CL Is NOT, cont Not switched to all at once 8. Not mainly about groups 9. Not a fad

59 What CL Is NOT, cont Not just for students *** Not just with a small classroom group

60 Outline Potential advantages of groups Problems with groups Definition of CL Dimensions of CL

61 Dimensions of CL - #1 Group Size Group Composition

62 Write-Circle of Speakers Each partner writes alone 1 talks for 2 mins.; 2 listens 2 talks for 2 mins.; 1 listens 1 & 2 share the other’s ideas with the class

63 Write-Circle of Speakers 1. Is 4 a good size for groups? Why or why not? 2. Should T choose the group members? Why or why not?

64 Dimensions of CL Grps sit close together so they see/hear each other easily & do not bother other grps 2. Seating Arrangement

65 Dimensions of CL Instead of: Ss assumed / hoped to know how to work together 3. Collaborative Skills

66 Collaborative Skills CL: Collaborative skills taught

67 Collaborative Skills Encouraging others to participate Asking for help Thanking others who give help Making suggestions Disagreeing

68 Collaborative Skills Checking that others understand Asking for reasons Praising others Listening attentively Speaking quietly in groups

69 Circle of Speakers What are collaborative skills your students need to improve?

70 Circle of Speakers 1 gives an idea 2 gives an idea 1 gives another idea 2 gives another idea T calls a S to share partner’s ideas

71 Dimensions of CL Instead of: When grps finish an activity, the group disbands 4. Duration of Groups

72 Group Duration CL: Grps often exist for more than one activity, and discuss how they function

73 Dimensions of CL Instead of: Ss assumed / hoped to feel solidarity with and care about grp members 5. Group Solidarity

74 Group Solidarity CL: Ts attempt to build grp solidarity - Positive Interdependence

75 Goal Resource Identity Role Reward

76 Circle of Writers How can we encourage Ss to care about their groupmates’ learning?

77 Dimensions of CL Instead of: Grp members assumed / hoped to want to participate / learn 6. Individual Participation/Learning

78 Individual Participation/Learning CL: Activities foster participation / learning by all - Individual Accountability

79 Dimensions of CL Instead of: When Ss in grps, Ts catch up on paperwork 7. Teachers’ Roles

80 Teachers’ Role CL: Ts actively monitor grp learning/ functioning

81 Dimensions of CL Instead of: As far as Ss know, Ts don’t participate in grps 8. Teachers’ Roles

82 Teachers’ Role CL: Ts discuss / model how they collaborate with fellow educators and others

83 Discussion Question How do you or how could you collaborate with other Ts?

84 Snowball (Kearney, 1993) * Each S works alone to list ideas or information Pairs explain their lists to each other and make a combined list with no duplications Pair One and Pair Two present, explain, and combine their lists with no duplications * Kearney, P. (1993). Cooperative learning techniques. Hobart, Tasmania: Artemis Publishing.

85 Dimensions of CL Instead of: No attention given to creating solidarity beyond the grp 9. Solidarity Beyond the Group

86 Solidarity Beyond the Group CL: Ts try to create solidarity throughout the class and beyond

87 Dimensions of CL Instead of: Cooperation just a way of learning, not an instructional theme 10. Solidarity Beyond the Group

88 Solidarity Beyond the Group CL: Cooperation not only a way of learning but also a topic for learning

89 Write-Pair-Switch Each S works alone to write answers (2 mins) In pairs, Ss share answers (2 mins) Ss switch partners & share their former partner’s ideas with their new partner (2 mins)

90 Topic What is one CL idea you would like to try?

91 Examples I want to try … - Write-Pair-Switch - Attention Signal

92 Circle of Writers: Example 4 pieces of paper per group Each S writes & then passes the paper to their left Ss read what the other S has written, continue based on that, and then pass the paper Ss pass & write until papers return to original writers

93 Circle of Writers - Topic One question about CL When you receive someone else’s paper, respond to that question Thus, each question will have 3 responses

94 Example I wonder what to do with Ss who don’t say anything in their group How can I use CL if there are more than 40 students in my class? Can I cover the syllabus if I use CL?

95 Circle of Speakers The class has a topic or question with multiple answers One at a time, each S stands and tells groupmates their response

96 Circle of Speakers - Topic Give your reaction to the Circle of Writers responses that your groupmates wrote to your question about CL

97 Using Circle of Writers Can be All at Once (1 paper /person) or One at a Time (1 paper/grp)

98 Using Circle of Writers Each S begins a story & passes to a groupmate who continues the story Each S does one part of a mathematics problem that has multiple steps 4 sheets: each with a different animal. Ss write one characteristic of the animal and how that affects the animal’s behaviour.

99 Using Circle of Speakers What is one thing you learned in today’s class? Explain it.

100 5% Lecture 10% Reading 20% Audio-visual 30% Demonstration 50% Discussion Group 75% Practice by Doing 90% Teach Others LEARNING PYRAMID % of Average Retention Rate CRAIGEN, J. & GREEN, N.

101 INQUIRING EXPLORING UNDERSTANDING REFLECTING Cooperative Learning Independent Learning Whole Class Learning WE ALL ME Cooperative Independent Learning Grades 7-12 Peel School District, Canada A HEALTHY BALANCE

102 Direct Teaching = Learning ?

103 Who’s Teaching Whom?

104 Please Thank Your Partners


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