1 Power Review Session 2 Classical Civilizations (600 BCE – 600 CE) AP WORLD HISTORYPower Review Session 2Classical Civilizations(600 BCE – 600 CE)
2 Remember to focus tonight and take the review seriously Remember to focus tonight and take the review seriously. Don’t make me show this guy again.
3 EMPIRE COMMONALITIES Conrad Demarest Model of Empire Empires grow due to an expansionist ideology like HellenismEmpires often expand too rapidly and cannot defend selves adequately, leading to collapseStrong central authority like an emperor (Aztec, Inca, Greek, Roman, Han, Caliphates, Gupta, etc.)Trade control / wealth extraction (Mongols)Social integration of conquered people (Rome)
4 EMPIRES (continued)Rome granted citizenship to conquered peoples (keep people loyal as citizens)Mongols “allowed” conquered people to join ranks of militaryAztecs integrated conquered people into their religious services…hey what’s that knife for?Persia (Cyrus the Great) kept local officials in place and treated conquered people well (toleration model)
5 THE GREEKS Ca. 800 BCE -to 200 BCE City-states like Sparta and Athens Grew to huge empire under leadership of Alexander the Great (Macedonians conquered the other city-states like Athens)Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta 431 BCETrade and colonization were necessary because of resource scarcity in GreeceCommon cultural identity (Hellenism) that unified the city-states and lasted past the end of the empireTrade and colonization a necessity due to resource scarcityPhilosophy, arts, architecture, democracy, math and scienceSlavery allowed for democracy to develop (landowning class had the free time to vote)Rivals with the Persians (many wars fought)Broke up into 3 empires (Antigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid)
6 IMPERIAL ROME 500 BCE – 476 CE Republic then dictatorship (Caesar) Social stratification (Patricians over Plebeians, slaves at the bottom)Pax Romana (control of trade through force; time of economic stability)Art, architecture, aqueducts, domes, road network for troops and tradePolytheistic with gods based on the Greeks until Christianity in the 4th century CE and beyondCodified legal system (Twelve Tables of Rome)Rome fought with Carthage (N. Africa) and finally became the dominant power in the Mediterranean regionConstantine’s conversion to Christianity changed Europe forever
7 MAURYAN EMPIRE of INDIA Mauryan Empire 321 BCE-185 BCECentralized government w/ bureaucracyChandragupta Maurya – founder, HinduStrong military (conquest)Asoka converts to Buddhism (non-violence)Asoka’s Rock and Pillar edicts reminded the people how to live virtuous lives
8 GUPTA INDIA320 CE – 550 CEChandra Gupta based his empire on Mauryan Empire and his hero Chandragupta MauryaNamesake of ChandraguptaBack to Hinduism from Buddhism (women lose status along with the caste system reinforcement)Math and science achievements (pi, zero)Child marriage became more common for girls
9 QIN DYNASTY CHINA 221-209 BCE Short dynasty Strong agricultural economyGreat Wall of China gets connectedLegalism was favored philosophyQin Shihuangdi was emperor
10 HAN DYNASTY CHINA 200 BCE – 200 CE China’s golden age (expansion, unification, Confucianism)Civil Service Examinations for a strong bureaucracy based on Confucian conceptsConfucianism becomes the preferred philosophy, although Daoism and Legalism are still presentSilk Roads bring Chinese products to Europe and help enhance the image of China in the world as provider of excellent products (silk, porcelain)
11 WHAT GOES UP… MUST COME DOWN. MAYANS COLLAPSE by the 7th century CE probably due to systems failure (internal collapse due to lack of resources for surging population)HAN DYNASTY COLLAPSES by the 3rd century CE due to overextension of the borders causing high taxes and conscription, famines, floods; regional kingdoms developed for 400 yearsGUPTA EMPIRE COLLAPSES by the 6th century CE after invasions by Huns weakened the empire; never a never strong military (theater state)ROMAN EMPIRE splits in two (Byzantine will survive much longer than the western empire)Greek Empire falls in the 3rd century BCE as Rome risesMUST COME DOWN.
12 CLASSICAL ERA RELIGIONS/PHILOSOPHIES BuddhismChristianityLegalismDaoismConfucianism
13 BUDDHISMBegan in India/Nepal in 5th century BCE, emerging out of HinduismSiddhartha Gautama founded the philosophy based on Four Noble Truths:Life is SufferingSuffering is caused by desireOne can be freed of desireThe Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of desire
14 BUDDHISM continuedNirvana is the ultimate goal (like Moksha in Hinduism) and end the cycle of life/death/rebirth to a state of perfect peace and harmony with the universeDislike of the caste system led to Buddhism and led many Hindus to convert in IndiaOpen social structure (more egalitarian)Spread to China, Southeast Asia through trade and missionary efforts
15 CHRISTIANITYBased on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, circa 30 C.E. in Roman occupied PalestineEmerging out of Judaism, Jesus emphasized love of God and of neighborJesus was executed by the Roman Empire after offending the Jewish leadership of the regionNew Testament and Old Testament are sacred text (The Bible)Paul of Tarsus does missionary work and spreads the religion to Asia Minor and to EuropeJews and Christians split around the year 90 C.E. and have never quite resumed fellowship (divisive issue of humanity/divinity of Jesus and monotheism)Egalitarian nature allowed the poor and women to gain status in the religion and helped it spread globallyPersecuted originally by the Roman Empire, it gained widespread acceptance after Constantine’s conversion in early 4th century CE
16 LEGALISM Founded in China during the Qin Dynasty (3rd century BCE) Same time as Confucianism and DaoismTaught that peace and stability would only be achieved through tight control by the government, based on a distrust of human nature (people are essentially evil)Strict laws and harsh punishments used to keep order in societyAppreciated farmers and soldiers and had little use for other social classes
17 CONFUCIANISM5th Century BCE philosopher Kong Fu Zi espoused the importance of filial piety and social hierarchyHonor Parents and Family NameFather over mother, elder sibling over younger sibling, ruler over subject, etc.Teachings collected in the AnalectsTaught how to restore political and social order amidst the chaos of the time period
18 DAOISM Founded by Lao-Tzu in the 6th century BCE Emphasis on nature and the Dao, an eternal principle governing the worldGovernment was pointless, as was education and businessThe best action is inaction (wuwei)Human nature is neither good nor evilPeople should balance their male andfemale sides (yin and yang)
19 Diffusion of Belief Systems in the Classical Era Buddhism spread from India to China and Southeast AsiaChristianity spread from Southwest Asia to EuropeConfucianism, Daoism, and Legalism stayed predominantly in East Asia
20 Trade Networks of the Classical Era Silk Roads connected China to Southwest Asia, Europe, and Africa (land based trade)Maritime Trade in the Mediterranean and the Indian OceanTrade items included:Chinese silkSpices from Southeast Asia and IndiaCotton from IndiaGold and Ivory from Africa
21 CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES Religious/Belief Systems change in how the goal of the religion/philosophy is not to appease gods to avoid destruction but rather to find internal peace, having figured out nature…somewhat (canals, dams, etc.)Continuities in building empires with conquest and trade dominance (Greece & Mauryan); and falling empires due to overexpansion/inability to protect borders (Rome & Han)Women continued to be subservient to men in most societies and enjoy few rights (Gupta India); but some belief systems enabled women to gain some status (Christianity & Buddhism)Beginning of more interdependent societies based on trade (Silk Roads, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean)
22 TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS of the Classical Age Stirrups enabled horsemen to be more deadly archers (allowing easier conquest)Dikes and canals for irrigation prevented flooding and promoted year round agricultureAqueducts carried water to cities in the Roman EmpireCalendarsPaper, gunpowder, windmills, wheelbarrows in Han ChinaMauryan & Gupta India came up with concept of zero
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