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Power Review Session 2 Classical Civilizations (600 BCE – 600 CE)

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1 Power Review Session 2 Classical Civilizations (600 BCE – 600 CE)
AP WORLD HISTORY Power Review Session 2 Classical Civilizations (600 BCE – 600 CE)

2 Remember to focus tonight and take the review seriously
Remember to focus tonight and take the review seriously. Don’t make me show this guy again.

3 EMPIRE COMMONALITIES Conrad Demarest Model of Empire
Empires grow due to an expansionist ideology like Hellenism Empires often expand too rapidly and cannot defend selves adequately, leading to collapse Strong central authority like an emperor (Aztec, Inca, Greek, Roman, Han, Caliphates, Gupta, etc.) Trade control / wealth extraction (Mongols) Social integration of conquered people (Rome)

4 EMPIRES (continued) Rome granted citizenship to conquered peoples (keep people loyal as citizens) Mongols “allowed” conquered people to join ranks of military Aztecs integrated conquered people into their religious services…hey what’s that knife for? Persia (Cyrus the Great) kept local officials in place and treated conquered people well (toleration model)

5 THE GREEKS Ca. 800 BCE -to 200 BCE City-states like Sparta and Athens
Grew to huge empire under leadership of Alexander the Great (Macedonians conquered the other city-states like Athens) Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta 431 BCE Trade and colonization were necessary because of resource scarcity in Greece Common cultural identity (Hellenism) that unified the city-states and lasted past the end of the empire Trade and colonization a necessity due to resource scarcity Philosophy, arts, architecture, democracy, math and science Slavery allowed for democracy to develop (landowning class had the free time to vote) Rivals with the Persians (many wars fought) Broke up into 3 empires (Antigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid)

6 IMPERIAL ROME 500 BCE – 476 CE Republic then dictatorship (Caesar)
Social stratification (Patricians over Plebeians, slaves at the bottom) Pax Romana (control of trade through force; time of economic stability) Art, architecture, aqueducts, domes, road network for troops and trade Polytheistic with gods based on the Greeks until Christianity in the 4th century CE and beyond Codified legal system (Twelve Tables of Rome) Rome fought with Carthage (N. Africa) and finally became the dominant power in the Mediterranean region Constantine’s conversion to Christianity changed Europe forever

Mauryan Empire 321 BCE-185 BCE Centralized government w/ bureaucracy Chandragupta Maurya – founder, Hindu Strong military (conquest) Asoka converts to Buddhism (non-violence) Asoka’s Rock and Pillar edicts reminded the people how to live virtuous lives

8 GUPTA INDIA 320 CE – 550 CE Chandra Gupta based his empire on Mauryan Empire and his hero Chandragupta Maurya Namesake of Chandragupta Back to Hinduism from Buddhism (women lose status along with the caste system reinforcement) Math and science achievements (pi, zero) Child marriage became more common for girls

9 QIN DYNASTY CHINA 221-209 BCE Short dynasty
Strong agricultural economy Great Wall of China gets connected Legalism was favored philosophy Qin Shihuangdi was emperor

China’s golden age (expansion, unification, Confucianism) Civil Service Examinations for a strong bureaucracy based on Confucian concepts Confucianism becomes the preferred philosophy, although Daoism and Legalism are still present Silk Roads bring Chinese products to Europe and help enhance the image of China in the world as provider of excellent products (silk, porcelain)

MAYANS COLLAPSE by the 7th century CE probably due to systems failure (internal collapse due to lack of resources for surging population) HAN DYNASTY COLLAPSES by the 3rd century CE due to overextension of the borders causing high taxes and conscription, famines, floods; regional kingdoms developed for 400 years GUPTA EMPIRE COLLAPSES by the 6th century CE after invasions by Huns weakened the empire; never a never strong military (theater state) ROMAN EMPIRE splits in two (Byzantine will survive much longer than the western empire) Greek Empire falls in the 3rd century BCE as Rome rises MUST COME DOWN.

Buddhism Christianity Legalism Daoism Confucianism

13 BUDDHISM Began in India/Nepal in 5th century BCE, emerging out of Hinduism Siddhartha Gautama founded the philosophy based on Four Noble Truths: Life is Suffering Suffering is caused by desire One can be freed of desire The Eightfold Path will lead to the cessation of desire

14 BUDDHISM continued Nirvana is the ultimate goal (like Moksha in Hinduism) and end the cycle of life/death/rebirth to a state of perfect peace and harmony with the universe Dislike of the caste system led to Buddhism and led many Hindus to convert in India Open social structure (more egalitarian) Spread to China, Southeast Asia through trade and missionary efforts

15 CHRISTIANITY Based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, circa 30 C.E. in Roman occupied Palestine Emerging out of Judaism, Jesus emphasized love of God and of neighbor Jesus was executed by the Roman Empire after offending the Jewish leadership of the region New Testament and Old Testament are sacred text (The Bible) Paul of Tarsus does missionary work and spreads the religion to Asia Minor and to Europe Jews and Christians split around the year 90 C.E. and have never quite resumed fellowship (divisive issue of humanity/divinity of Jesus and monotheism) Egalitarian nature allowed the poor and women to gain status in the religion and helped it spread globally Persecuted originally by the Roman Empire, it gained widespread acceptance after Constantine’s conversion in early 4th century CE

16 LEGALISM Founded in China during the Qin Dynasty (3rd century BCE)
Same time as Confucianism and Daoism Taught that peace and stability would only be achieved through tight control by the government, based on a distrust of human nature (people are essentially evil) Strict laws and harsh punishments used to keep order in society Appreciated farmers and soldiers and had little use for other social classes

17 CONFUCIANISM 5th Century BCE philosopher Kong Fu Zi espoused the importance of filial piety and social hierarchy Honor Parents and Family Name Father over mother, elder sibling over younger sibling, ruler over subject, etc. Teachings collected in the Analects Taught how to restore political and social order amidst the chaos of the time period

18 DAOISM Founded by Lao-Tzu in the 6th century BCE
Emphasis on nature and the Dao, an eternal principle governing the world Government was pointless, as was education and business The best action is inaction (wuwei) Human nature is neither good nor evil People should balance their male and female sides (yin and yang)

19 Diffusion of Belief Systems in the Classical Era
Buddhism spread from India to China and Southeast Asia Christianity spread from Southwest Asia to Europe Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism stayed predominantly in East Asia

20 Trade Networks of the Classical Era
Silk Roads connected China to Southwest Asia, Europe, and Africa (land based trade) Maritime Trade in the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean Trade items included: Chinese silk Spices from Southeast Asia and India Cotton from India Gold and Ivory from Africa

Religious/Belief Systems change in how the goal of the religion/philosophy is not to appease gods to avoid destruction but rather to find internal peace, having figured out nature…somewhat (canals, dams, etc.) Continuities in building empires with conquest and trade dominance (Greece & Mauryan); and falling empires due to overexpansion/inability to protect borders (Rome & Han) Women continued to be subservient to men in most societies and enjoy few rights (Gupta India); but some belief systems enabled women to gain some status (Christianity & Buddhism) Beginning of more interdependent societies based on trade (Silk Roads, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean)

22 TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS of the Classical Age
Stirrups enabled horsemen to be more deadly archers (allowing easier conquest) Dikes and canals for irrigation prevented flooding and promoted year round agriculture Aqueducts carried water to cities in the Roman Empire Calendars Paper, gunpowder, windmills, wheelbarrows in Han China Mauryan & Gupta India came up with concept of zero

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