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Copyright ed young, Ph.D. 1 SECTION 7 TEACHING THE CONCEPTS OF CAUSATION AND CONSEQUENCE TO TEENS UNDER CONSTRUCTION Presented by THE NATURAL SYSTEMS INSTITUTE.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ed young, Ph.D. 1 SECTION 7 TEACHING THE CONCEPTS OF CAUSATION AND CONSEQUENCE TO TEENS UNDER CONSTRUCTION Presented by THE NATURAL SYSTEMS INSTITUTE."— Presentation transcript:

1 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 1 SECTION 7 TEACHING THE CONCEPTS OF CAUSATION AND CONSEQUENCE TO TEENS UNDER CONSTRUCTION Presented by THE NATURAL SYSTEMS INSTITUTE LESSON 1. Understanding of Causation Evolves as the Teen Moves Up Through Stages of Maturity

2 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 2 LESSON 1. Understanding of Causation Evolves as the Teen Moves Up Through Stages of Maturity

3 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 3 Development of Ideas of Cause, Blame, Explanation, and Rationalization and Their Relation to the Growth of a Strong Ego As soon as a parent is able to talk to their child, they begin to ask the child, ‘Why?’, ‘Why did you do that?’ and then to say, ‘no, that’s bad; you should not have done that; that is wrong; that’s not right; don’t ever do that again’. The attitude the parent exhibits along with these statements is condemnation, displeasure, or blame. The child learns to try to find an explanation that will satisfy the parent and avoid blame and punishment. The child unconsciously observes the parents and other children giving explanations for their own behavior and tries these. The child develops a range of things to assign blame to other than its self because assigning blame to a deliberate conscious intention seems to be the thing the parent is searching for in order to blame and punish. When the child has done wrong, or made a mistake, whether accidental or deliberate, it gives explanations designed to avoid blame. Explanations or assignment of blame for bad (incorrect) behavior fall into basically three categories. –Something outside of the self was the cause and therefore deserves the blame. –Something in the `self’ that is the least blameworthy. –Something about the body or things ingested that register with the parent as plausible explanations. Typically, there is a verbal battle over what the blame will be assigned to. When one explanation does not work, the child learns to shift to another type of explanation, to shift blame to another category. Eventually the process of blame shifting is internalized and the child begins to immediately shift blame in its own mind to avoid a sense of guilt or shame. Occasionally a child will learn that the only thing that satisfies the parent is to assign blame to deliberate intentions and to take the parent’s attitude of condemnation toward its own self and even to punish its own self. The basic question to ask is: “what reaction to incorrect behavior will develop the strongest ego?”

4 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 4 DYNAMICS OF HOW THE SELF ASSIGNS BLAME OR DETERMINES CAUSES FOR ITS PROBLEMS OR MISTAKES LEARNED OR TAUGHT STYLES OF ATTRIBUTING BLAME OR SHIFTING THE BLAME OR CAUSE:  Attribute to or Blame something outside the self: others, circumstances, the situation, cosmic or supernatural forces.  Attribute to or Blame the self.  Attribute to or Blame one’s body or ingested elements such as food, chemicals, drugs.  THINGS PERSONS LEARN TO ATTRIBUTE CAUSES OR BLAME FOR: Lack of motivation, lack of energy, feeling ill or bad, failure, accidents or harm to self or others, substandard performance, rejection, forgetting and missing cues or schedules, being unprepared, poor judgment, mistakes, deliberate wrong doing. Body Self Externa l A. COSMIC OR SUPERNATURAL FORCES, SITUATION, CIRCUMSTANCE, OTHER PEOPLE B. SELF C. BODY OR INGESTED ELEMENTS 1. If you can not assign blame to something outside yourself 2. Assign the blame to your Self 3. Assign blame to your Body 3. Assign the blame to something outside yourself 1. If you can not assign the blame to something in your self 2. Assign blame to your Body 3. Assign the blame to something outside yourself 2. Assign the blame to your Self 1. If you can not assign the blame to your body It’s their (his/her) fault.Its my fault.I’m sick. They (he/she) made me do it. There is something wrong with my body. They (he/she) did it. I could have controlled it or done something different. It’s genetic. It is some medicine I am taking or something I am eating. I thought it or wished for it so I am really, or just as much, to blame. SHIFT They or it had nothing to do with it. I had nothing to do with it. There is nothing wrong with my body I am not sick. SHIFTING THE BLAME PREVENTS THE PERSON FROM ADDRESSING, DEALING WITH, AND CORRECTING THE TRUE CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM. BLAME FOR PROBLEMS AND MISTAKES CAN BE ASSIGNED TO: DYNAMICS OF SHIFTING BLAME then or thenor then or LANGUAGE USED TO ASSIGN BLAME LANGUAGE USED TO AVOID ASSIGNING BLAME

5 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 5 Examples of the Long and Short Term Consequences of Two Examples of Types of Explanation or Styles of Assigning Blame. What are the short and long term consequences for the ego of using supernatural explanations? What are the short and long term consequences for the ego of using genetic explanations? How can the child be taught to make realistic connections between consequences in the world and personal acts and intentional processes? How can the child learn to objectively observe and correct itself so as to be able to effectively cope with the challenges of reality?

6 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 6 What Are the Consequences of Making Causation Attributions Which Are Divorced From Intentional Processes? What Happens When Some Act and Its Consequences Are Attributed to Supernatural Causes? There is a Failure to Examine Natural Causes or Causes Amenable To Change. Long Term Consequence: Lack Of Development Of The Ego, Repetition Of Problematic Behaviors. EVENT-PERSON INTERACTION What Happens When Some Act and Its Consequences Are Attributed to a Genetic Cause? There is a Failure to Examine Self-Ego Related Causes Or Social Environmental Causes Amenable To Change. Long Term Consequence: Lack Of Development Of The Ego And Lack Of Learning Of Social Skills. SHORT TERM CONSEQUENCES LONG TERM CONSEQUENCES

7 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 7 DEALING WITH INTOLERABLE OR DISORIENTING FEELINGS A NATURAL SYSTEMS VERSUS A MEDICAL MODEL APPROACH

8 copyright ed young, Ph.D Escalating -Eruption 3 3..Escalating -Out of control The Disorganization of Thought Processes Under the Influence of Intense Emotion 4. Bizarre, Chaotic - Illusions and Delusions. Thought totally under the control of emotion Escalating - Irrational As emotions, such as anger, passion, fear, increase in intensity, temporal and social perspectives diminish and thinking becomes more irrational and less grounded in reality Escalating -Intense 2 2..Intense -Biased 1 1. Thinking: Cool, Rational 1. Initialemotionalexperience 1

9 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 9 The Right-Now-Relief-Medicine Versus Enduring Suffering and Learning to Grow I’m anxious ! I’m angry! I’m depressed! I’m keyed up! I have painful longing! I’m confused! I need relief from this intolerable psychological discomfort right away. I’ll ask my doctor for a pill. Ahhh! Relief at last. Now we don’t have to cope with those awful feelings anymore. We don’t have to try to make our egos grow and understand the situation causing the discomfort, what it is about us that makes us react that way, get a perspective on experiencing feelings like that, or learn, practice, and master strategies for handling the situation and our feelings. All that takes so much work and takes so long. We’d rather take the pill the rest of our lives than to have to go through all that growth stuff before we gain mastery and then get relief.

10 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 10 Observing a person from the outside and at a distance, we do not see or understand the processes that are going on inside their head or mind. We never can under any circumstances. TAKING A LOOK AT THE MICROSCOPIC PROCESSES INSIDE THE MIND Listening and observing carefully and deeply, over time, we begin to understand these inner processes. Magnified by careful listening and observation

11 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 11 CHOOSING OUR LEVEL OF PERSPECTIVE FOR UNDERSTANDING OTHERS Perceptions, feelings, reactions, thoughts, projections and strategizing, intentions, feedback and evaluating, self correcting, and storing in memory all occur together, usually in sequence, and flow in patterns. These patterns are written large and written small. Larger patterns are replicated but with respect to finer detail within smaller patterns. We choose the level of perspective from which we try to understand the other person. At whatever level of perspective we take, we can check repeatedly with the person to see if our guess as to what is going on is correct in order to try to understand the other person more deeply and correctly.

12 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 12 Thoughts keep cycling in patterns. Sometimes, under painful or terrifying emotions, thoughts wildly whirl and one’s mind seems out of control. This magnifies the terror. Thoughts are no longer capable of being rational or in one’s best interest. Behavior becomes impelled by the painful emotions. What Happens When We Do Get Inside the Head of Another? This is what we see!

13 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 13 Sometimes thoughts plummet down in despair, becomes ponderous, then sink into a black hole of nothingness. This also magnifies the terror. Yet, now, the painful, numbing emotions immobilize as though one were dead. Getting Inside the Mind of Another Is Somewhat Like Seeing a Galaxy Through a Hubbell Telescope. Sometimes You See a Whirling Mass of Chaos and Sometimes You See a Black Hole. Fueled by Emotion

14 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 14 RESORTING TO A NON PERSONAL SOLUTION OR TREATMENT The Sense of Powerlessness Over the Dysfunctional Patterns of Thinking and Emotion Makes One Feel As Though Something Outside Oneself Must Stop the Madness. That Something Outside Must Not Be Anyone Who Is a Part of the Problem, Like Family Members. In This State, the Person Wants No Intruders That Might Judge or Advise. This Is Highly Frustrating to Close Family and Friends Who, Then, Turn to Mechanical or Chemical Antidotes. Please, if you won’t listen to us, go to a doctor and take a pill so we can relax!! Ego getting weaker and weaker and more and more fragile. Dependency and withdrawal pain increase, confirming the need for the medicine. Thank goodness that now I don’t have to worry about how to cope and grow. I can just take something quick and no one will be bent out of shape over the way I’m feeling, thinking, or acting!!!

15 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 15 Relating to the Intolerable Emotion Emotions becoming intolerable. Thoughts whirling into extreme confusion or blanking out completely from the intensity of the emotion.

16 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 16 Learning to Gradually Simmer Down. I’m going to stop and focus on the emotion. Really sense what it is like. Really think about what it is like, why I am having it, what it is doing to me. And now I’m going to stop and realize this emotion is not going to kill me and is not going to last forever. The causal situation is not going to last forever, or I will eventually be able to cope with it, or to live with it, but I can survive it! Life will go on. I’m starting to calm down a little. I bet if I keep this up and then start focusing on something non threatening outside of myself, I will really calm down. Then I can start over and try to think the situation through rationally.

17 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 17 Escalating Emotions and Irrationality Vs. Deescalating and Rationality.. I’m getting angry. How can I communicate what I feel?.. Listen, please. I want you to hear what I am going to say and to understand what I feel. I’ll say it as calmly and clearly as I can... OK. Now that you understand what I am getting angry about, can we try to work something out, negotiate a compromise? I feel better about this already. Two scenarios for dealing with anger. The first case focuses outside of the self on the source of the anger. The second case focuses on one’s own feelings and trying to communicate clearly about the issue to the other person. In the first case, anger (and other extreme emotions) escalates and nothing is communicated or solved. Hard feelings will be lurking in wait for the next encounter. In the second case, anger is understood and communicated, deescalates, and the problem is resolved... Stop it! You’re making me angry... I’m really getting mad. I hate you! Get out. I’m breaking everything... FirstFirst SecondSecond Learning to cope and develop a stronger ego.

18 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 18 ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF DEALING WITH INTOLERABLE OR DISORIENTING FEELINGS Temporarily Increase Psychotherapy Visits. Stay In Close Contact With A Friend Or Relative, Who Is Not A Part Of The Problem, As A Supporter, Especially Evenings And Nights. Work Out A Regimen To Help In Getting Through The Tough Time. Make As Few Additional Major Changes As Possible. Temporarily Avoid Being Around Disturbing Family, Friends, Or Associates. Keep Up A Healthy Diet. Take Mega Vitamins, Minerals, And Amino Acids Daily. Take Time, Several Times A Day, For 15 To 20 Minutes Each Time, To Engage In Relaxation. Do Light Exercise Before Going To Bed, Followed By A Warm Shower Ending With Luke Warm. Regularly Write About Feelings And Situations In A Journal, Especially Before Going To Bed. Use Relaxation Techniques And Tapes In Bed At Night To Relax, Do Not Try To Sleep, Do Not Try To Control Thoughts. Briefly Write Disturbing Thoughts In Journal And Then Lie Back Down To Relax. Accept The Fact That You Will Have To Expend Great Energy And Time On Your Therapy At This Time And Will Have To Endure The Discomfort Until You Grow, Gain Mastery, And Develop Ego Strength. Life Will Become Bearable Again.

19 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 19 A Sense of Mastery Comes From Realizing You Made It Through the Emotional Storm, on Your Own, With Minimal Medication. You Feel So Much Stronger. I did it!

20 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 20 Explanations for Events Outside of the Self When an event occurs in the daily life of the young child, it initially does not wonder why the event occurs. Subsequently, when the child is asked to give explanations for its behavior, it begins to think in terms of causes. The parent is almost always interpreting the causes of the child’s acts and their consequences as intentional. The parent asserts in some way that the child ‘did it intentionally’. Now, when an event occurs in the daily life of the child, since it has no concept of cause and effect, it interprets the reason for the occurrence of the event as intentional. Physical events that have nothing to do with humans are nevertheless interpreted as having intent. Since the child’s world, in the beginning, is the parent and the parent seems to have control over and cause almost everything, the child begins to feel that, even when the parent is not around, the parent has control over, has awareness of, or causes everything. Experimentation eventually leads to a sense that physical events are determined by physical, or non-human, rules. When something unexpectedly falls off a shelf, the sense the child has is that something purely physical causes it, like something knocking it off. The child experiments with physical objects to try to understand their rules since they seem to operate non- intentionally. However, when something physical occurs and there is no immediately apparent physical cause, the child can fall back on the intentional theory of causation. If the parent has a tendency to try to fool the child into thinking they have the power to influence everything and know everything, even when they are not around, and particularly if the parent tries to control the child by extreme fear, the child may continue indefinitely to interpret physical events as having intentional causes. If the child is made to feel that their intentions cause unwanted or disapproved events that are completely beyond its control, the child can begin to, and indefinitely continue to, believe that events over which it has no control, that are unrelated to it, that are even remote, are still, nevertheless, somehow related to or caused by it, its thoughts, its wishes, or even that the physical event is a form of punishment for some secret bad deed, or the event is a sign or warning from some parent-like or god-like spirit. In some cases, the child, as it grows up, can be left feeling that all social events surrounding it, no matter how remote in reality, are, nevertheless, somehow related to it.

21 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 21 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Taking a Traditional Blaming and Punishing Approach Versus a Problem Solving and Corrective Approach Examining the Underlying Psycho-dynamics and Psychological Effects of Each Approach

22 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 22 The Real Effects of Punishment You go to your room, you’re grounded!!! No telephone, no TV, no radio. You just sit there and think about what you did for the next two days. Then maybe you’ll think twice before you ever do that I hate you. You’re stupid. I didn’t do anything wrong. It was a mistake, an accident, when that’s happened to the other kids, their parents don’t punish them. Why me? Now I’m going to miss out on the big game and I’ll lose my place and it will be all your fault!!!

23 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 23 Two Days to Think About What He Has Done Wrong and How to Correct Himself So He Never Does It Again--BUT What Really Happens Is Two Days of Smoldering Anger, Self Justification and Strategizing. Darn, I won’t get to see my sweetheart at all because of him. What can I do to get back at him? I know, I’ll puncture his tires when no one is looking, or, I’ll sneak back in the house and mess up his computer. When they go to sleep tonight I’ll sneak out and see my sweetheart and they’ll never know. Gosh, I wish this grounding was over, I hate just sitting here doing nothing. I hate him. He thinks he’s so smart, like he never does anything wrong. Yea! And who grounds him? He can get away with anything. He doesn’t understand, he never listens, I hate him. I know, I just won’t eat, like I’m going to starve myself, like a hunger strike. That will get his goat and he won’t be able to do anything about it. Don’t worry, I’ll get back at him.

24 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 24 The Real Lessons Learned: Learning Deception, Deviousness, and Manipulation Well, do you think you have learned your lesson? Sure Dad. You can bet I’ll never do that again! At least I’ll be sure you don’t catch me next time. You old Now let me get the H out of here and go see my friends.

25 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 25 Reducing the Alienation and Deception and Teaching How to Take a Corrective Approach Rather Than a Blaming and Punishing Approach OK, so this looks like it was a pretty serious incident. How did it happen? You’re not mad, are you? I didn’t mean to do any harm. It is just that _______ and then I _______, and then 1. I got real angry and ___ 2. Had too much on my mind and forgot ______ 3. Was asked to go _____ and thought I would have time to get back and finish ____. Etc. etc. OK, but I want you to know I’m sorry. But I don’t know what to say. OK, it sounds like you are feeling kind of bad and little worried about how I am going to react, right? So, instead of making things worse, let’s go over exactly what happened and see what you didn’t know and how you might do things differently next time, OK? Can we handle that?

26 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 26 INEFFECTIVE EXPLANATIONS FOR NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE BEHAVIOR What Do Youths and Parents Give As the Reason for the Youth’s Mistakes, Violations of Rules, Misdeeds, and Failures VERSUS Good Deeds and Success? When teens do something bad, to avoid rebuke and punishment, they tend to say it was because bad luck, bad circumstances, or someone else caused it. When teens do something good, to receive praise, approval, or reward, they tend to say it was due their good intentions, their good personality traits, their superior ability, but not because of extra time and hard work. They want their success to attest to their inherent superiority. ‘It was easy, nothing to it. I just have the knack.’ When parents know their teen did something bad, to make sure the teen never does it again, they want to focus on the teen’s bad intentions, bad personality traits, lack of ability, opposition or refusal to comply, lack of motivation to succeed so they can rebuke and punishment and teach the teen a lesson they will never forget and therefore never do it again. When parents know their teen did something good, achieved some success, to avoid the possibility that the teen gets too big of an ego, thinks they are unique and outstanding, they tend to say the success of good deed was a result of unusually favorable circumstances or good luck.

27 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 27 ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR INEFFECTIVE APPROACHES YOUTH’S INEFFECTIVE CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS for their own behavior: –A. For Mistakes; Violations of Rules, Misdeeds; & Failures, Attribute To: SITUATION; BAD LUCK –The situation, circumstances, or bad luck caused the bad behavior. It was someone else's fault –B. For Successes; Achievements; Good Deeds, Attribute To: DISPOSITION; ABILITY –The cause was their own good intentions, their good traits, or their superior ability but not their effort. PARENT’S or STAFF MEMBER'S INEFFECTIVE ATTRIBUTIONS for YOUTH’S behavior: –A. For Mistakes; Violations of Rules, Misdeeds; & Failures, Attribute To: DISPOSITION; LACK OF ABILITY –The youth is bad, or has bad intentions, or at best lacks native ability to do right, comply, or succeed –B. For Successes; Achievements; Good Deeds, Attribute To: SITUATION; GOOD LUCK –The situation, circumstances, or good luck made it possible to do good achieve, or succeed

28 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 28 EFFECTIVE EXPLANATIONS FOR NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE BEHAVIOR What Do Youths and Parents Give As the Reason for the Youth’s Mistakes, Violations of Rules, Misdeeds, and Failures VERSUS Good Deeds and Successes?

29 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 29 EFFECTIVE APPROACHES FACILITATING GROWTH IN STRENGTH AND HEALTH YOUTH’S CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS for their own behavior: YOUTH’S IDEAL ATTRIBUTIONS TO SELF –A. For Mistakes; Violations of Rules, Misdeeds; & Failures, Attribute To: DISPOSITION; LACK OF EFFORT; LACK OF KNOWLEDGE –Honest admission of guilt with intent to change, honest assessment of deficient effort or knowledge plus intent to correct –B. For Successes; Achievements; Good Deeds, AttributeTo: DISPOSITION; EFFORT; CHARACTER –Acknowledgment, with humility that they did have good intentions, or that it does take effort and determination and good will on their part PARENT’S or STAFF MEMBER'S ATTRIBUTIONS for YOUTH’S behavior: PARENT’S IDEAL ATTRIBUTIONS TO YOUTH –A. For Mistakes; Violations of Rules, Misdeeds; & Failures, Attribute To: SITUATION; LACK OF EFFORT; LACK OF KNOWLEDGE –Giving the benefit of the doubt but stressing need for correction and remediation –B. For Successes; Achievements; Good Deeds, Attribute: DISPOSITION; EFFORT; CHARACTER –Recognizing the possibility of good intentions and/or good character traits, as well as considerable effort to succeed or do good ATTRIBUTIONS FOR CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR

30 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 30

31 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 31 Boundaries Between Developmental Levels of Child, Adolescent, and Adult Within the Developmental Level of the Adult, There Is an Increasing Sophistication With Respect to: – The Connections Between One's Past, Future, and Present –Between the Internal World and External World –Between Acts and Consequences –And Between One's Self Correction and Changes in Others Typically, Adults and Adolescents Forget Their Long and Gradual Stages of Development and Generalize Their Own Condition and Level of Development to Everyone Else Without Realizing That Every Person's Knowledge and Awareness Is Confined to Their Own Stage of Development The Boundaries Between Stages of Development Are Typically Rigid. This Results in Perpetual Misunderstanding Between Persons and Those at More Primitive or Advanced Stages of Development. This Rigidity of Boundaries Between Stages of Development and Consequent Perpetual Misunderstanding Results in: – Mutual Animosity and Frustration, –Criticism and Punishment by the Higher and Retaliation and Rebellion by the Lower, –And, an Inability to Bond With and Learn From Each Other.

32 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 32 BOUNDARIES BETWEEN CHILD, ADOLESCENT, AND ADULT CHILD ADOLESCENT ADULT Memory increasingly fades for each prior phase of life.

33 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 33 Myths of Local Explanations in Science and the Media As soon as a scientific finding that is supposed to be beneficial to humans is announced in the media, contradictory findings are announced. Each is announced as though it were irrefutable. The public is supposed to believe each message - it is for their welfare. Tragic events appear on the media and described as though they were local events, as though each citizen should be concerned about it happening to them. But it doesn’t. Political events are reported as though each person should be interested and involved, as though it will directly affect them, as though they can have an impact on them. Things which were once distant and never entered the minds of the average citizen now are the subject of their constant focus. For many it becomes impossible to distinguish what is truly relevant to their lives and what is not, boundaries of reality have become blurred. We hear of an incident in the life of a friend, whether good or bad, and wonder if we somehow contributed to it. We wonder if we influenced some act far removed from us. Did they steal our idea? Are they conspiring against me? Since we did or thought something similar once, perhaps we got a whole fashion trend, or social movement, or dietary preference, or belief, etc. started. There is no way to test whether or not the whole world revolves around us. If it makes us feel important and there is no contrary evidence, we tend to believe these delusions. If they are scary delusions, we will awaken with nightmares. If they are grand delusions, we will spend hours fantasizing about them. In a similar vein, parents swear by parenting techniques passed down through generations. To an outsider, it may look strange because their technique seldom works. But, if it works for the parent every other time, or even one time in six, they feel they have confirmation. The times of failure must have been due to some unknown, extraneous factor. And, after all, what do they mean by works? Their criteria also are passed down through generations or acquired locally. We learn locally. We develop our schemata of the world locally. We do not know what might exist beyond the local and therefore have nothing to compare with or make us doubt our local beliefs. We are mainly concerned with living our daily lives and surviving. Our focus is entrained on our narrow world and narrow goals. There is no impetus to suppose our explanations and beliefs might be limited or incorrect and our criteria embryonic. Our egos also get involved. If it is our theory, then it must be good, and we must defend it against outsiders. We innocently put cultural blinders on and bristle when anyone challenges us. We refuse to look. We don’t know what we don’t know and we’re not going to find out. Oddly, many beliefs that are frequently discussed and revered do not match our actual behavior. As belief and behavior are thusly separate and compartmentalized, they never have the chance to undergo scrutiny or be tested.

34 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 34 The following is a list of folk, scientific, and general cultural sources of explanations. It is possible that some may have true explanatory value. However, it is unlikely that any is comprehensively explanatory. Life operates as a whole. Isolated explanations are probably leaving large spectrums of the whole picture out and leaving us with ineffective solutions to problems. Supernatural- Spiritual Divine Pre Design Divine Historical Intervention Unknown, Powerful, Conspirators Aliens From A Different Dimension Or Planet Influences From Witch Craft & Spells Demons, Devils, Possession By Spirits Divine Social Intervention (Favoritism) Divine Individual Intervention-Miracles Divine Communication Angels, Ghosts, Spirits Of The Dead Psychic Communication Out Of Body Experiences Parapsychology Influences, ESP Material Species-Genetic-Evolutionary Determinism Gender-Morphological Determinism Familial-Genetic-Biological Chemical-Dietary Immediate Stimulus-Sensation Physical-Environmental Morphological Body And Gland Structure Deformity, Disease, And Injury Innate Brain Structure And Processes Physiological Genetic-Unconditioned Biological Drives Predisposition-Activator Relations Physiologically Based Preferences Conditioned Drives And Preferences Psychological Personality Components And Processes Cognitive Components And Processes Configuration of Social Institutions Social- Environmental Structures Within Institutions Family-Social-Life History Developmental Stage Specific Social Influences Situational Influences Role-Relationship Networks Relationship Influences Economic Welfare Historical Cultural Determinism Historical Determinism Leit-Motif Of An Epoch National Trends Media-Political Conspiracy SPHERES OF CAUSATIVE SOURCES OR AGENTS

35 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 35 Folk Beliefs and Explanations As Guides for Behavior and Their Relation to the Growth of a Strong Ego Folk beliefs function as a kind of psychology or repository of wisdom for living. Folk beliefs cover a wide range of topics such as: gender identity, what life is like and therefore what one must be resigned to do with one’s life, the nature of fate and luck and the role they play in one’s good and bad fortunes, what outsiders are like and how one is supposed to relate to them, why people get sick and how you are supposed to feel about people when they get sick, what the remedies are for physical illness, what sex and love is all about and how one is supposed to relate to the opposite gender, what the nature of the world of work is like and how to adapt to it, philosophies of money and material possessions, how one is supposed to act and feel on significant occasions like deaths, births, marriage, tragic accidents, criminal victimization, divorce, natural disasters, radical change of circumstances, and many other common experiences in life. These beliefs help guide people in how to act in new, unfamiliar, and intimidating situations so as to reduce anxiety and help in coping with difficulties and misfortunes. Folk explanations and guidelines reduce anxiety and maintain a comfortable sense of place in one’s society. However, folk explanation prevent the person from inquiring, questioning, following curiosity, experimenting, and testing. In essence folk explanations and wisdom prevent the person from developing an expanded knowledge of the real world and from learning new techniques for coping with the wide range of challenges and possibilities presented by life. The result is that the person is kept contained within their local, provincial group and mind set and kept from developing a stronger, more flexible ego.

36 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 36 Belief That Invisible, Supernatural Spirits or Forces Are Watching and Manipulating Events to Teach You a Lesson or Rescue You. Oh no! He just ran over my dog! Why did that have to happen to me? Never mind about looking out for my pets, I just better not steal any more cookies!! Lesson Learned: Because, I saw you steal those cookies? You didn’t think you would get away with that did you? I want you to remember that I am always watching.

37 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 37 CONSEQUENCES CONSEQUENCES in the MIND of the CHILD PSYCHOLOGICAL GROWTH of KNOWLEDGE of CONSEQUENCES from INFANCY through CHILDHOOD and ADOLESCENCE, to ADULTHOOD This Lifetime of Growth Entails: –An Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of People, Things, and Processes in the External World. –An Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of the Internal World. Knowledge of the Internal World Begins With Self. Very Gradually, Much Later, and With Extensive Tutoring Begins to Encompass Knowledge of the Internal World of Others. –Next, This Knowledge Is Integrated to Create an Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of Cause and Effect Relations in the Personal, Social and Physical Worlds. –Finally, There Begins the Gradual Development of an Increasing Awareness and Knowledge of the Consequences of One’s Actions for Other’s and for One’s Self. Knowledge Is Typically Forward Looking and Seldom Retraces Its Stages and Processes of Development. –In Comparison With the Adult, the Child’s Knowledge of the External World, Internal World of Self and Others, Knowledge of Cause and Effect, and Knowledge of Consequences for Self and Others Is Extremely Limited. –As a Result, Parents and Adults Tend to Treat Children As Though They Have Knowledge and Intentions Similar to Adults. When the Child Does Not Follow Adult Advice, It Is Assumed That It Is Not Because of Lack of Knowledge of Consequences but Because of Bad Intentions. Consequently, Parents and Adults Tend to Punish Rather Than Guide. The Transition From Childhood to Adulthood Is Filled With Experimentation and Moving Into the Unknown and Causes Intense Anxiety, Frustration, and Intra and Inter Group Comparisons and Criticism and Hostility.

38 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 38 Infant INFANT’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES CHILD’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES PRE-TEEN’S EARLY TEEN’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES MID TEEN’S LATE TEEN’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES YOUNG ADULT’S ADULT’S DEGREE’S OF AWARENESS OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF ONE’S ACTIONS INCREASES DRAMATICALLY ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN

39 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 39 MID TEEN’S ADULT’S Infant INFANT’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES CHILD’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES EARLY TEEN’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES PRE-TEEN’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES LATE TEEN’S DEGREE OF AWARENESS OF CONSEQUENCES YOUNG ADULT’S Dawning awareness of the use of the past in understanding the present and charting the course for the future. A W A R E N E S S O F T H E P A S T DEGREE’S OF AWARENESS OF THE ROLE OF ONE’S PAST AND THE PAST OF THE WORLD IN DETERMINING THE FUTURE AND USE OF PAST TO UNDERSTAND THE PRESENT AND CHART A COURSE FOR THE FUTURE THAT AVOIDS NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES

40 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 40 The Development of Good Judgment, Assessment of Consequences, and Self Correction for Good Decision Making During Adolescence

41 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 41 CHILD PASTFUTURE EXPANDING EXTERNAL WORLD OUTWARDOUTWARD INWARDINWARD EXPANDING INTERNAL WORLD Awareness of immediate past consequences. Anticipating of possible near future consequences. Awareness of physical sensations of pleasure and pain and emotions. Awareness of spatially immediate persons, things, relationships, and situations. The Child's Dawning Awareness and Knowledge of External and Internal World's, the Past and Future, Cause and Effect, and Consequences of Its Actions for Self and Others Is Extremely Limited and, Therefore, Intentions Are Extremely Naive and Untutored

42 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 42 LEVELS OF PERSPECTIVE TAKING Are you overly focused on one or a few perspectives and neglect other perspectives? World, nation, culture, neighborhood, family Immediately present environment External sensing Inner fee lings and body se nsations Self awareness, thoughts, attitudes, values, intentions The nature of one’s self, patterns of feeling and behaving, relationships, self concept and identity, goals, problems PAST FUTURE

43 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 43 Anticipating of possible near future consequences. Awareness of immediate past consequences. Awareness of spatially immediate persons, things, relationships, and situations. CHILD Awareness of physical sensations of pleasure and pain and emotions. PAST FUTURE EXPANDING EXTERNAL WORLD EXPANDING INTERNAL WORLD OUTWARDOUTWARD INWARDINWARD Awareness of recent personal life history & experiences & using this to influence behavior of others. Anticipating consequences with spatially & temporally distant others & institutional reactions. Awareness of feelings, attributes, abilities, skills, identities, immediate causes, goals, preferences, & desires. Awareness of effects of rules and institutions, prerogatives, social roles, & identify of others on feelings & self Awareness of status of family and possessions. Awareness of past successes and failures and attributions by others. Anticipating age requirements. Craving roles & status & anticipating acceptance or rejection. Awareness of struggles & frustrations in dealing with social requirements strategies for coping &surviving socially. Awareness of institutions & requirements & informal roles & status in peer groups & formal institutional roles ADOLESCENT The Adolescent Is Much More Aware of Abilities, Feelings and Desires, Is Beginning to Be Aware of Values, Demands, and Requirements of Society, and Immediate Consequences in the Form of Emotional Reactions of Family and Friends. There Is Still Only a Primitive Knowledge of the More Drastic and Far Reaching Consequences That Can Be Meted Out by Society and Nature. Psychotherapy typically becomes effective only in late adolescence.

44 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 44 Anticipating of possible near future consequences. Awareness of immediate past consequences. Awareness of spatially immediate persons, things, relationships, and situations. CHILD Awareness of physical sensations of pleasure and pain and emotions. ADOLESCENT Awareness of recent personal life history & experiences & using this to influence behavior of others. Anticipating consequences with spatially & temporally distant others & institutional reactions. Awareness of feelings, attributes, abilities, skills, identities, immediate causes, goals, preferences, & desires. Awareness of effects of rules and institutions, prerogatives, social roles, & identity of others on feelings & self Awareness of status of family and possessions. Awareness of past successes and failures and attributions by others. Anticipating age requirements. Craving roles & status & anticipating acceptance or rejection. Awareness of struggles & frustrations in dealing with social requirements strategies for coping &surviving socially. Awareness of institutions & requirements & informal roles & status in peer groups & formal institutional roles ADULT Understanding distant past & future relations. Awareness of personal life history, values, experiences, & turning points, with positive & negative evaluations attached to them and with soul searching & desire for self correction & redirection of one’s life. Awareness of relations between past achievements & relationships & future goals & relationships, strategies for reaching them, & need for new opportunities, knowledge & skills. OUTWARD INWARD PASTFUTURE EXPANDING EXTERNAL WORLD EXPANDING INTERNAL WORLD Awareness of history & patterns of immediate & extended family & outside world & their effects on the formation of one’s self & one’s relationships. Introspection & awareness of alterability of self, self concept, beliefs, and behavior. Awareness of dynamics of social, governmental, and business organizations & society’s demands, opportunities, & paths to success & failure. ADULT Understanding distant past & future relations. Time, Level, and Direction of Perspective in Relation to Understanding Consequences and Using Judgment

45 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 45 The Evolution of the Will From Childhood Through Adolescence to Adulthood

46 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 46 Development of the Sense of the Limitations of the Will and Its Relation to Cognitive Development

47 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 47 INTRODUCTION The Original Sense of the External as Oriented to the Protection of the Self Transfer of the Original Sense of Protection to Protection by an Omnipotent Supernatural Source The Development and Preservation of the Sense of the Omnipotence of the Will Levels of Knowledge, Qualitative Characteristics of Conceptions, and the Preservation and Elimination of a Sense of Mystery and the Supernatural

48 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 48 The Development of the Will in Relation to Cognitive Development The Interaction of Intentional Processes and Cognitive Operations and Their Relation to Personal Evolution of Levels of Knowledge Elementary School Achievement as a Function of the Development of the Will Home and School Environmental Conditions Conducive to the Development of the Will Intellectual Development in Beyond Elementary School as a Function of Intentional Stance

49 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 49 Characteristics of Cognitive Activity as a Reflection of the Developmental Level of Intentional Processes States of Incorporation and Intransigence in the Acquisition of Schemata and Cognitive Operations

50 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 50 The Negative Implicit Other and the Perpetuation of Deficits in Cognitive Operations

51 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 51 OVER THE PERSON’S LIFE SPAN, THE VULNERABILITY OF THEIR BASIC NEEDS FOR SURVIVAL DECREASE AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON OTHER’S DECREASES AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR INCREASE IN COMPETENCY OF WILL, JUDGMENT, AND SKILL COMPETENCY OF WILL AND SKILL NEEDSNEEDS DEPENDENT ON WILL AND SKILL OF OTHERS INFANT COMPETENCY OF WILL AND SKILL NEEDSNEEDS DEPENDENT ON WILL AND SKILL OF OTHERS TEEN ADULT COMPETENCY OF WILL AND SKILL NEEDSNEEDS DEPENDENT ON WILL AND SKILL OF OTHERS NEED FOR SUPERVISION NEED FOR SUPERVISION AND GUIDANCE NEED FOR GUIDANCE

52 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 52 Changing Time Perspectives Through the Adolescent Period

53 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 53 The Effects of Time Orientation on Intentionality Processes: Envisioning, Perspectives, Setting Criteria for Fulfillment, Decision Making, Foreshadowing, Goal Setting, Planning 5. Distant Future 3. Present 4. Immediate Future Immediate Future on Distant Future Immediate Future on Present Present on Immediate future Distant Future on Immediate Future

54 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 54 CYCLING BACK FROM THE DISTANT AND RECENT PAST TO FUTURE IN THE RETROFLEXIVE PROCESS 1. Distant Past 4. Immediate Future 3. Present 2. Recent Past For the adolescent time awareness is confined to a narrow spectrum, the present, the immediate future, and the recent past. Further back and further forward is seldom a concern and is hazy at best.

55 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 55

56 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 56 Developing Levels of Perspectives in the Maturation of the Adolescent

57 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 57 II. Model of the Mind for Mind Management DIRECTION LEVEL ORGANIZATION COMPLEXITY INTENSITY PERSEVERANCE INTEGRITY BOUNDARY CONTENT MANAGEABLE PARAMETERS OF INNER AWARENESS AND FOCUS MANAGING THE CONSCIOUS MIND MANAGEABLE LEVELS OF ASSESSMENT MANAGEABLE PROCESSES OF ENVISIONING AND ADVENTURING DIRECTED TOWARD DOMAINS OF FOCUS IMAGINATION or ABSTRACTION CONCRETE VISUAL OR VERBAL CONCRETE PERCEPTIONS AND CONCEPTIONS OF THE EXTERNAL /SOCIAL STRUCTURES PERCEPTION OF THE EXTERNAL, IMMEDIATE PHYSICAL WORLD THE BODY'S SENSATIONS MIND'S FEELINGS AND CONCEPTS PERSPECTIVES ON YOUR OWN PERSONALITY HISTORY AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES ON HISTORY AND THE FUTURE EXTROSPECTION EXTROCEPTION EXTEROCEPTION INTEROCEPTION INTROCEPTION INTROSPECTION MANAGEABLE DOMAINS OF FOCUS PRODUCT INTEGRATINGINTEGRATING Switching Domains Cross Fertilization DIRECTION OF TEMPORAL PERSPECTIVE

58 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 58 Questions Concerning the Role of Identity in Adolescence

59 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 59 Grasping How Perceptions of the World Were Shaped Grasping the World’s Perception of the Self Grasping How the World’s Attitude to Self Was Shaped by Family Seeing Alternative Ways of Seeing the World and the Self IMPLICIT OTHERS’ ATTITUDE TO SELF SELF’S ATTITUDE TO SELF WORLD’S ATTITUDE TOWARD SELF ATTITUDE TO SELF PROJECTED ONTO THE WORLD IMPLICIT OTHERS’ ATTITUDE TO SELF PROJECTED ONTO THE WORLD

60 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 60 Moving Into Adolescence, Identity Becomes a Vital Issue. To Be Somebody, to Exist, at This Age, the Teen Has to Have an Identity. If an Identity Isn’t Readily Available, They Will Grab at Any That Accidentally Comes Along, Even If It Does Not Fit. An Identity Reduces Uncertainty, Helps the Teen and All Their Peers Know What to Expect and How to Act. I’m the brain. I’m the beauty. I’m the leader. I’m the teacher’s pet. I’m the jock. Well, who am I?

61 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 61 Learning to Differentiate Situational Identities From a Constant Personal Identity Becomes a Problem. A Change in Identity Can Bring Accusations of Being Phony. It a Dilemma of Consistency Versus Adaptation. This Stage Can Be Confusing and Frustrating and Create Intense Anxiety and Guilt. I’m the brain in my gang. I’m the beauty at the party. I’m the leader in my religious group. I’m the teacher’s pet in the classroom. I’m the jock on the field. Well, which one am I? They think I’m a chameleon. Situation C Situation B Situation A Situation D Situation E

62 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 62 Dealing with Identity, Situational Identities, Self Concept: The Zelig Syndrome Each situation calls for the self to be different from every other situation. Situations A, B, C, and D call for beliefs and behaviors and identities that are inconsistent with each other. If the people in A are opposed to the beliefs and behaviors in B and find out that Zelig’s identity has changed to fit in with B, they may call Zelig a phony or traitor and pressure or disown him. The same would be true for inconsistencies and contradictions between adopted identities for all situations (A, B, C, D) that are in conflict. Zelig will feel spineless, worthless, hypocritical, fearful of being found out, and feeling as though he has no core, can never be himself, would rather be dead. Situation A Situation B Situation C Situation D Zelig’s Identity A Zelig’s identity B Zelig’s identity C Zelig’s identity D Now he asks? Who am I anyway?

63 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 63 The Role of Identity in Ossifying the Self, Containing Adventure, Avoiding Risk, Motivating Conformity, and Obsession With Image and What People Think Identit y This is my IDENTITY. Wow! You’re beautiful! I want to keep you forever. You’ll be who I am even after I die. You are my security, my status, my ticket to every group I belong to.. I want to keep you the way you are, but I want to keep making you bigger, better, more beautiful, and more awesome. I have to protect you from any blemish or threat. You are me. You are who I’ll be even after I die and go to heaven.

64 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 64 Crystallizing Into a Prized Identity Becomes a Problem When It Freezes the Person’s Options. Don’t go there. It’s inconsistent with your identity Don’t go there. It’s inconsistent with your identity Don’t go there. It’s inconsistent with your identity Don’t go there. It’s inconsistent with your identity X Option X X X Identit y

65 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 65 Transforming the Self From a Static, Restrictive Identity That Must Be Preserved and Defended Into a Concept of One’s Self As a Process Adapting to Situations and Governed by a Core Set of Ethics Gives the Person the Mobility to Explore and Change and Grow Without Fear of Accusations or Personal Guilt Over Inconsistency. This Is a Difficult Transition for Teens to Make and Requires a Structured Program And/or an Able Maturity Coach Process Opportunity for growth

66 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 66 SITUATIONAL IDENTITY SOCIALIZING THE PUBLIC - PRIVATE SPLIT IN THE PERSONALITY VERSUS AUTHENTICITY Public - Private Dichotomy Perpetuates Addictions and Emotional Disorders AUTHENTICITY SITUATIONAL IDENTITY AT WORK SITUATIONAL IDENTITY AT HOME PRIVATE PERSON PUBLIC PERSONA Inner Child Consistency and Integrity InconsistenciesInconsistencies VSVS The greater the discrepancy between private and public, the more conflicts tend to remain unresolved, the more ambivalence or pulled in opposite directions resulting in tension, the more worry about being found out, the more guilt, the more inner sense of alienation because no one knows the real person and feeling the real person would not be liked if known, the more loneliness, the more self disrespect. She’s /he’s got secrets. She’s/he’s vulnerable. She/he can be manipulated & emotionally blackmailed.

67 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 67 SITUATIONAL IDENTITY SOCIALIZING THE PUBLIC - PRIVATE SPLIT IN THE PERSONALITY VERSUS AUTHENTICITY AS AUTHENTICITY INCREASES, IT TAKES OVER ALL IDENTITIES AND REDUCES THE INCONSISTENCIES, INCLUDES THE INNER CHILD, BEGINS TO BREAK DOWN THE DICHOTOMY BETWEEN PRIVATE PERSON AND PUBLIC PERSONA SITUATIONAL IDENTITY AT WORK SITUATIONAL IDENTITY AT HOME PUBLIC PERSONA Consistency and Integrity Consistency and Integrity VSVS AUTHENTICITY Inner Child PRIVATE PERSON Inconsistencies

68 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 68 The Public - Private Split In The Personality Versus Authenticity As Authenticity Increases, Identity Becomes Consistent Across Situations, Spontaneity And Openness Is The Rule, Public Persona Is Reduced To Rare Occasions When Suppression And Propriety Are A Mark Of Consideration, And The Person Is Almost Always In Their Comfort Zone. PRIVATE PERSON Consistency and Integrity Inner Child PUBLIC PERSONA SITUATIONAL IDENTITY SOCIALIZING SITUATIONAL IDENTITY AT WORK SITUATIONAL IDENTITY AT HOME AUTHENTICITY Body relaxed, mind clear, calm, peaceful, focused on task at hand, not divided mind, engaged, follows personal criteria for fulfillment, feeling of satisfaction, oriented to process rather than outcome, spontaneous, aware, realistic. No fears of emotional blackmail, no worry about being found out, no guilt. Mind serene, empty, most productive.

69 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 69 Growth Enhancing Methods of Self Correction

70 copyright ed young, Ph.D. 70


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