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2014专八冲刺作文讲座 --主讲人:张菁华.

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1 2014专八冲刺作文讲座 --主讲人:张菁华

2 专八冲刺讲座目录 专八写作大纲........................3 专八作文整体评分标准................4
专八作文各项评分标准 专八作文中常出现的问题 专八作文命题范围 专八作文命题组成 专八作文应试策略 专八作文中常见的语法错误 2013专八作文真题分析 十、专八作文参考题目

3 一、 专八写作大纲 能根据所给题目及要求撰写各类题材的文章,文章 长度约400个单词;能做到内容充实、结构完整、语
言通顺、用词恰当、表达得体。写作速度为30分钟 个单词。

4 二、 专八作文总体评分标准 学生能根据所给题目及要求撰写一篇400词左右的作文。行文必须语言通顺,用词得体,结构合理,文体恰当,具有说服力。
二、 专八作文总体评分标准  学生能根据所给题目及要求撰写一篇400词左右的作文。行文必须语言通顺,用词得体,结构合理,文体恰当,具有说服力。  19-20分 内容切题, 完整, 条理清楚, 文章结构严谨, 语法正确, 语言通顺恰当, 句式用词富有变化,基本无语言错误。  15-18分 内容切题,完整,条理较清楚,文章结构较严谨,语言比较通顺恰当,少量语法拼写错误。  11-14分 内容基本切题,完整,条理基本清楚,文章结构基本严谨, 语言基本通顺恰当,少量严重错误,一些词使用不当。  7-10分  内容基本切题,完整,条理不够清楚,较明显的母语痕迹,较多语言错误,许多词使用不当。  3-6分  内容偏题,不完整,思路混乱,语句不完整,只有少数句子可以理解,词汇拼写错误严重。

5 三、专八作文各项评分标准 1. 评分标准: 内容(content) 结构(organization) 语言(language)
三、专八作文各项评分标准  1. 评分标准: 内容(content) 结构(organization) 语言(language) 2. 评分方法:整体评分法(global scoring)

6 四、 专八作文中常出现的问题 1. 作文的论点未展开。没有在第一部分阐明观点,写了一题目关联不明显的细节和现象。
四、 专八作文中常出现的问题 1. 作文的论点未展开。没有在第一部分阐明观点,写了一题目关联不明显的细节和现象。 2. 作文结构不严谨;段落没有主题句,且句际/段落关系不明显。 3. 作文首尾不一致。作文开头与结尾部分内容衔接不上,或自相矛盾。 4. 作文中各种语篇纽带使用较少,以至缺乏连贯性。 1)简单句多,从句和连词的频率少。 2)各种照应的使用少。 3)关键词和同义/近义词出现的频率低。

7 五、专八作文命题范围 社会热点问题:包括就业、环境、能源、媒体、交通、婚姻、伪劣商品、犯罪等。
学校生活:学习方法、课堂活动、体育、人际关系、讲座、军训等等。 科技:电脑、克隆、空间科学、交通工具、海洋资源、能源利用等。 个人兴趣:业余爱好、生活方式、时尚、旅行等。 青少年问题:代沟、吸烟、理想、职业、减负等。

8 六、专八作文命题组成 1. 提供文章相关的背景和提示,给出题目或要求学生根据相关的背景和提示自拟题目
2. 对文章结构提出要求,包括在引言部分点题,在正文部分用相关细节论述,在结尾部分做自然概括。

9 年专八作文真题 2013年: Is a Sound Social Environment Necessary for People to Be Good to Others? 2012年:自拟,谈谈手机对大学生交际的影响 2011年:Should famous Chinese sites of historical interest charge higher fees during peak travel seasons? 2010年:The important role of a city’s local conditions in the urban design. 2009年:Are dialects just as acceptable in public places? 2008年:What I have learned from years at university 2007年:自拟,谈谈贫富差距是否影响友谊. 2006年:On Ambition 2005年:自拟,谈谈你对面试的看法。 2004年:Should University Students Go in for Business? 2003年:自拟,与以前时代的人相比,讨论当今中国的年轻人是否更以自我 为中心,缺乏同情心。

10 整理思路,写出论点句或主旨句 (a thesis statement)即文章 要讨论的主题+作者对主题的态度或看法
七、 专八作文应试策略 高效审题 整理思路,写出论点句或主旨句 (a thesis statement)即文章 要讨论的主题+作者对主题的态度或看法 1. Watching TV has become the best alternative course for children’s education. 2. In American today, it seems as if people don’t care about honest and lawful behavior any more. 3. Not jut empty stories, fairy tales shed light on the psychology of young children 4. But whatever the advantages of the package tour, I like traveling alone with the family or friends. 5. But I argue that euthanasia, even if voluntary, should not be legalized.

11 论点句不仅要表达作者的态度,还需要根据要求对题目的范围进行控制和确定。
1. Whatever pressures, academic or professional, experienced by students, cheating on the exam is not allowed. 2. Academic and professional pressures make it understandable that cheating on the exam is widespread on the campus today.(sympathetic) 3. Cheating on the exam is popular on the campus today because of academic and professional pressures.

12 Title: The Advantages of Taking a Part-time Job
III 列好作文提纲 Topic outline Title: The Advantages of Taking a Part-time Job 1. Introduction: There are many advantages of taking a part-time job for college students. (Thesis statement) 2. The advantages of taking a part-time job A. Being economically independent B. Having more social experience C. Being helpful to their academic studies 3. Conclusion: Being beneficial to the college students

13 Sentence Outline Title: The Advantages of Taking a Part-time Job
1. Introduction: There are many advantages of taking a part-time job for college students. (Thesis statement) 2. Taking a part-time job can do college students a lot good. A. College students can be economically independent by taking a part-time job. B. College students can gain more social experience by taking a part-time job. C. College students can improve their academic studies by taking a part-time job. 3. Conclusion: Taking a part-time job is beneficial to the college students

14 Rough outline Thesis statement: Going to college is expensive.
1. Tuition and other fees 2. Books and supplies 3. Transportation costs

15 IV 写好引言段 1. 故事法 Last Sunday, I went to our teacher’s department at 10 o’clock in the evening. I was so amazing when I found her six-year-old daughter still doing her homework. She was so sleepy that she couldn’t open her eyes. In spite of that, she didn’t dare to sleep for she would be punished by the teacher if she didn't finish her homework. Looking at her, don’t you think it is of great necessity for the school to reduce homework? (Should Schoolchildren’s Homework be Reduced?)

16 2. 惊语法 Each year thousands upon thousands of graduates flood the job market, waving their college diplomas and certificates, expecting better jobs in their majors, only to be frustrated and disappointed… Why do college graduates find it increasingly difficult to get a rewarding job?

17 3. 引语法 “As we decide and choose, so are our lives formed. In the end, forming our own destiny is what ambition is about”, as Joseph Epstein once said. In this world, almost everyone has an ambition, no matter whether it is significant or trivial. In my opinion, every person, young or old, poor or rich should have their own ambition because each has to choose his way of life and his destiny; and ambition decides one’ s destiny.

18 4. 问题法 Why have I chosen to attend college? Is the four-year academic life worthwhile? … After pondering these questions on many occasions, I have finally reached the conclusion that college education is something I truly want to do and it is worthwhile.

19 5. 数据法 According to a recent survey by China Daily, about 15% percent of college graduates have difficulties finding a job after their graduation, and the number seems to be increasing.

20 6. 对立法 Ever since the easing of school children’s study burden is advocated by educators, some teachers and parents frown at it, saying that it will exert bad effects on the children. But I think easing school children’s study burden will do good to school children both physically and mentally.

21 7. 事实描写法 Nowadays college students are seen waiting on tables, cleaning in stores, advertising in streets, teaching in families and ding whatever work they can find. It has become fashionable for college students to do some odd jobs in their spare time.

22 V 写好文章正文部分 1. 写好正文各个段落的主题句 2.充分的展开段落 展开方式: 举例法、分类法、比较对照法、因果法、定义法。
段落的组织方式: emphatic order (order of significance) 重要性递增法 3.注意段落之间及句子之间的衔接

23 Transitional Expressions
To show addition: again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last but not least To give examples: for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate, as an illustration, in other words, such as, namely moreover, next, too , more importantly,

24 To compare: also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly To contrast: although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet

25 To summarize or conclude:
all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up To show time: after, afterward, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally, formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, when, while

26 To show place or direction:
above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.) To indicate logical relationship (to show cause and effect): accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus

27 正文部分观点论述A或B 模板 Depending on personal experience, personality type and emotional concern, we find that some people hold the idea of A meanwhile others prefer to B, from my point of view, it is more advisable to chose A rather than B. My arguments for this point are listed as follows. The main reason for my propensity for A is that ______________________________________________. For instance, __________________________________________________________________. Another reason can be seen by every one is that ______________________________________. For example, _________________________________________________________________. The argument I support in the first paragraph is also in a position of advantage because____ ____________________________________________________________________.Although I agree that there may be a couple of advantages of B, I feel that the disadvantages are more obvious. Such as _______________________________________________________________. (如果开头段和结尾段加起来只有100字左右,正文部分的空白处的字数在八级考试中需 在200字左右,一般情况下开头和结尾总计达150左右,请大家对空白处灵活处理。能够 多增加字数的地方在于"For instance, For example, Such as" 这些空白处,因举例并不是一 句话能说完的。最后由文章主体段落自然过渡到结尾段落,得出结论如"That is why it is sagacious to support the statement that it is better to A...")

28 正文部分理由阐述式模板 With the development of the society, with the advent of __________________________  (相关事物或现象), we have to face a problem that __________________________________ (主题问题). What are the reasons for it? In the following paragraphs, I’ll venture to explore the  reasons. To start with, ______________________________________________________ ( 阐述原因1). Moreover,  _______________________________________________________  ( 阐述原因2). In addition,  ____________________________________________(阐述原因3). In view of the seriousness of the problem, effective measures should be taken. For one   thing, it is high time that people all over China realized the importance of  _________________ ____________________________________ (解决主题问题). For another, the goventment should issue strict laws  and regulations in order to put the situation under control.As far as I am  concerned, the best way out is __________________________________________  (解决方法). (最后自然过渡到结尾部分 "Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us  because _____________". 一篇好的专八作文中的结尾和开头是相互呼应的,但结尾绝不 是对开头的所谓重写,而是重申、升华或展望。专八作文大多为4段,其中主体为2段)

29 VI 写好结尾部分 结尾部分应该写得简洁明确、发人深省,突出强调文章的主旨。 避免在结尾部分提出新的未加说明或论证的主题.

30 1.复述式 …However, in my opinion, I would rather place confidence in the first place. But why? To sum up, I want to say, being confident is not a cliché but an ongoing task for every potential winner…. (2002 The Most Important Personal Quality of a University student)

31 2. 展望式 Living in the suburbs is becoming a predominant pattern, and with the improvement of traffic and the perfection of services, it will prove to hold great superiority over city life. (Why do I Choose to Live I the Suburbs)

32 3. 建议式 Generally speaking, the disadvantages of private tutoring overweigh the advantages. Therefore, greater emphasis should be laid on classroom teaching and practice, on theimprovement of teaching quality and on the tapping of the pupil’s potentialities. Only in this way can a new generation be healthily brought up. (提出建议) (The Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Tutoring)

33 4. 警示式 If we don’t ease our school children’s burden now, just imagine what would become of our children in a few years: their eyes short-sighted, their backs hunched, they are nothing but book worms (指出后果). Therefore, easing our children’s burden is not only a necessity, but a must. (Ease Burden of Our School Children)

34 5. Some problems in writing a conclusion
1) Shout empty slogans Do it now! No electricity, no power, no world, no future, no human beings! 2) Show one’s determination I’m determined to overcome any difficulties and study English better in the future! I must do my best to make our city greener! 3) Give a simple summary So, I think that making our city greener is very important. Therefore, no electricity should be wasted.

35 VII. 用地道语言写地道作文 1. 选择词化度高的表达方式
1)Watching too much TV makes children unable to study well. 改进:Heavy exposure to TV exerts an undesirable influence on children’s study. 2)This opportunity makes me share their experience and knowledge. 改进:This opportunity allows me to share their experience and knowledge. 3)All the facts make me conclude that money doesn’t mean everything. 改进:All the facts lead me to conclude that money doesn’t mean everything. 4)TV makes people have few chances to communicate each other. 改进:TV deprives people of the chance to communicate each other. 5)Her departure from my life also made me become to distrust the friendship. 改进:Her departure leads to my suspicion on friendship. 6)Setting off firecrackers might make people’s lives dangerous 改进:Setting off firecrackers might endanger people’s lives.

36 2. 用非人称主语句扮靓语言 如: a. If people only apply book knowledge, they will not get good results. b. The application of book knowledge alone won’t bring people good results. 变人称主语句为非人称主语句的策略通常有以下几种: 1)选用无生命事物做主语。如: The forty years, , brought almost ten million migrants to America. The thick carpet killed the sound of my footsteps. Beijing has witnessed many great historical events.

37 2)用"it" 做形式主语 3)使用被动语态 4)用名词化做主语
It is not our view that the substance or the tone of his remarks this morning will contribute to creating a lasting peace in the Middle East. 3)使用被动语态 Not only politeness but an attitude of reverence is demanded in church. Care should be taken to see that the letter is properly addressed. 4)用名词化做主语 The doctor’s extremely quick arrival and uncommonly careful examination of the patient brought about his very speedy recovery. A careful comparison between living in the countryside and living in the city will show the superiority of the former over the later.

38 In economic development, we must control our population, conserve our natural resources and protect our environment. 改进:Great importance must be attached to population control, the conservation of resources and environmental protection in economic growth. If we don't recognize the serious problem of growing population, we will make a big mistake. 改进:Failure to recognize the seriousness of growing population will lead to a big mistake. We always believe that the social systems of two sides of the Straits shall not prevent us from aiming at contacting and cooperating. 改进:We always believe that the social systems of two sides of the Straits shall not be an obstacle to our contact and cooperation.

39 3. 使用抽象名词使语句更加精炼,表达更加客观
The mayor said that he was very grateful because the construction workers were very dedicated and competent. 改进:The mayor expressed his appreciation of the dedication and competence of the construction workers.

40 4. 使用突显顺序(salient order) 组织语句
(1)In the factory, all people from the cadres to the workers are passionately dedicated to their work. This made a deep impression on me. 改进:I was deeply impressed by the passionate dedication of all people, from the leadership down to all the workers. (2)Money and power are what all children have been brought up to seek. But I did not want them, so he was puzzled. 改进:He was puzzled that I did not want what all children have been brought up to seek: money and power. (3)When they hear that in China, throughout most of its history, extended families of three or four generations live under the same roof, they are astonished. 改进:They are astonished to hear in China, throughout most of its history, extended families of three or four generations live under the same roof.

41 VIII 检查 1.检查标题。 (1)所有字母全部大写,如:COMPETITION OR CO-OPERATION
(2)标题第一个单词的首字母需大写,其后的单词实词大写,虚词不大写,如:In Support of Dormitory Policy 2.检查introduction有没有Thesis Statement; Body 中的每一个段是否有Topic Sentence; 文章是否统一、连贯。 3.检查单词拼写、固定搭配、句型等。

42 八、专八作文常见的语法错误 1. Comma splices 误用逗号连接句
Mario told everyone in the room to be quiet, his favorite show was on. 1) 分句各自独立成句,变成两个简单句 Mario told everyone in the room. His favorite show was on. 2) 用逗号加并列连词连接,变成一个并列句 (fan boys: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) I turned to the want ads, but I knew my dream job wouldn’t be listed. Linda was very sleepy, for she stayed awake last night. The canoe touched bottom, so Dave pushed it toward deeper water.

43 2. Dangling Modifiers While reading the newspaper, my dog sat with me on the front steps. After finishing his speech, the audience was invited to ask questions To do well in sports, a training schedule must be followed. Standing by the window, the park opposite our house is in full view. From attending class, the principles of chemistry were made clear. To develop a lively writing style, all kinds of sentence structures should be used. When only three years old, my father took me to a circus.

44 3. Misplaced Modifiers George couldn’t drive to work in his small sports car with a broken leg. The monkeys attract visitors with sheer stone faces. The newsboy walked his bicycle to the house of his first customer who was burdened with newspapers.

45 4. Fragment I won’t leave the house. Until I hear from you.
Because I am exhausted. I hurried back home. Charles makes you smile. When you are sad. He bought a used car. In spite of my warning. We sat back to watch the movie. Not expecting anything special. To our surprise, we clapped, cheered, and cried for the next two hours. Before a race, I eat many foods. Such as bread and spaghetti. My son keeps several pets in his room. Including cats and mice.

46 5. Subject-Verb agreement
The teacher, accompanied by her students, attend the conference. Either the President or the Ministers is wrong. Those who want to visit the history museum are expected to sign his name on this piece of paper.

47 6. Chinglish The pace of our modern life is getting more faster and faster. However the speed of a car is much faster than that of a bicycle. In the past the price of milk was so expensive that most families could not afford it. We students should study/learn as much knowledge as possible so that we can be fully prepared for the future. Knowing potential effect of eating fat meat, people now choose to eat thin meat. The level of people’s life have been rapidly improved.

48 九、2013专八全真作文题分析 PART VI WRITING (45 MIN)
Is our society hostile to good people? According to a recent survey by China Youth Daily,76.1 percent of the respondents say that our current society provides a “bad environment" for good people doing good things.On the other hand,the more optimistic would argue that each individual should try his or her best to do good things and be nice to others, instead of waiting for the "social environment”to improve.So,what do you think? Is a sound social environment necessary for people to have high moral standards and be good to others? Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic: Is a Sound Social Environment Necessary for People to Be Good to Others? In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details.In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization,language and appropriateness.Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks. Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.

49 Is a Sound Social Environment Necessary for People to Be Good to Others?
Helping others has always been a virtue in traditional Chinese culture, but nowadays many people dare not offer help to those in need, for fear of getting into trouble. The issue has aroused public debate over the climate of morality and credibility, and many people sigh over the moral degeneration. In my opinion, while social environment is necessary for people to be good to others, each individual should try his or her best to do good deeds and be sympathetic with others, instead of waiting for the environment to improve. There is no denying that some tragic events turn out to be traps by people with evil intentions, so people are becoming more risk-conscious and are more wary of traps and deceits. some people even wonder, ‘Is our society hostile to good people?’ The question may sound ridiculous but many people apparently think so. They believe that our current society provides a bad environment for good people doing good things, and good people pay a high price for being compassionate. In fact, such kind of things only accounts for a pretty small percentage, but massive media coverage makes the situation seem serious. Actually, most people around me are kind, warm-hearted and helpful, and I am quite delighted in their company. So I believe media should pay more attention to publicizing good people and exemplary deeds to enhance our confidence, rather than exposing disgusting behaviors.

50 At the same time, as John Donne puts it, “No man is an island, entire of itself.
Every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main.” Since everyone of us is a component of the society, it is each individual’s conducts that form social morality. Just imagine it is you who need help, what would you feel if everyone watches indifferently or suspiciously? So, put yourself in other’s position and be sympathetic. If we do nothing but wait for the environment to improve, nothing will happen. Only by removing the fence around our kind consciousness can we reverse the regress of social ethics, and make our world full of warmth and happiness. Therefore, if help is needed, never hesitate to lend a helping hand. It will make you happy and feel better about life. In sum, I contend the idea that while social environment is necessary for people to be good to others, it is each individual’s responsibility to offer help to those in need, and together we build up a more harmonious society.

51 十、 专八作文参考题目 The Popularity of Mobile Phones
Does Everyone Have to Go to College? Should University Students Get Married? On Public-mindedness Do Olympic Champions Make More Contributions to the Motherland Than Scientists and Teachers? Women Still Have Trouble Competing for Jobs on an Equal Footing with Men In Support of the Policy Forbidding University Students’ Renting Houses outside Campus Who Should Pay for Higher Education, Parents or College Students Themselves? My View about Foreign Festivals My View on the Development of a Private Car


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