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Principles of exercise, fitness and health

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1 Principles of exercise, fitness and health
Unit 02 A/600/9017

2 Learning objectives for unit 02
At the end of this unit you will: understand the effects of exercise on the body understand the components of fitness understand how to apply the principles and variables of fitness to an exercise programme understand the exercise contraindications and key safety guidelines for special populations understand how to safely monitor exercise intensity understand the health benefits of physical activity understand the importance of healthy eating

3 Session aim & objectives
to give an introduction to the key components for a healthy diet By the end of the session you will be able to: identify the 5 main food groups essential for a healthy diet understand why each food group is important for good health explain how body mass index is calculated describe the national food model This session will focus on Assessment Criteria 7.1 describe the national food model and 7.2 describe key healthy eating advice that underpins a healthy diet

4 Starter activity Individually or in pairs try to list your 10 commandments for Healthy Eating

5 Healthy eating The key to a healthy balanced diet is not to ban or omit any foods or food groups but to balance what you eat by consuming a variety of foods from each food group in the right proportions for good health Eat the right number of calories for how active you are, so that you balance the energy you consume with the energy you use When we eat and drink, we put energy (calories) into our bodies. Our bodies then use up that energy, and the more physical activity we do, the more energy (calories) we use

6 Healthy eating – self assessment
Are you a healthy eater? How do you score on your own eating habits? Take this on-line self assessment to see how well you score Answer the questions honestly.... Then try out the BUPA nutrition quiz Two hyperlinks embedded in presentation to link to the NHS self assessment and the BUPA quiz

7 What are nutrients? Food provides a range of different nutrients; some provide energy, whilst others are essential to growth and maintenance of the body Macro nutrients provide us with the energy and building blocks for growth and maintenance of a healthy body and should be eaten in relatively large quantities Carbohydrates, protein and fat Micro nutrients are needed in smaller quantities but are essential to keep us healthy Vitamins and minerals Fibre and water are also essential for health, but are not considered to be nutrients

8 The 5 main food groups Protein
Protein provides the body with roughly 10 to 15% of its dietary energy, and is needed for growth and repair Protein can be found in both animal and vegetable products Protein from animal sources contains the full range of essential amino acids needed Red meats are high in saturated fats and cholesterol and should be eaten in moderation Fish, poultry and eggs are good sources of protein Nuts, seeds, beans and other pulses provide the highest levels of vegetable proteins

9 The 5 main food groups Carbohydrates
This food group is your body's main source of energy and contains bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, noodles, cereals and other starchy carbohydrates Most carbohydrate rich food come from grains – either refined or wholegrain Refined grains have had the outer bran coating and inner germ removed Wholegrains contain all the bran which is a valuable source of fibre Wholegrains should be eaten in preference to refined carbohydrate rich foods such as white rice, white bread, pastries, biscuits and cakes

10 The 5 main food groups Fat
Fat is a concentrated source of energy; just 1g provides nine calories - more than double the calories in 1g of protein or carbohydrate There are 2 main categories of fats - saturated and unsaturated Saturated fats are generally solid at room temperature and comes from animal products Lard, butter, cheese Unsaturated fat is usually liquid at room temperature and generally comes from vegetable sources sesame, sunflower, soya, olive and rapeseed oil, soft margarine and in foods such as oily fish, including mackerel, sardines, pilchards and salmon Unsaturated vegetable oils are generally a healthier alternative to saturated fat

11 The 5 main food groups Milk and dairy products
The foods in this group are important sources of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are particularly rich in calcium, which is essential for healthy bones and teeth Calcium also regulates muscle contraction (including the heartbeat) and makes sure the blood is clotting normally Milk is categorised by the amount of fat contained Whole or full-fat milk contains about 3.5% fat Semi-skimmed contains about 1.7% fat Skimmed milk contains 0.1 to 0.3% fat Milk made from soya, rice, oat and almond milk are suitable calcium rich alternatives for people with lactose intolerance.

12 The 5 main food groups Fruit and vegetables
Fruit and vegetables are low in energy and packed with vitamins, minerals and fibre, so they're a great source of nutrients and vital for a healthy diet Fruit and vegetables should form the basis of a healthy diet, with a minimum intake of 5 portions each day Population studies have shown that people who eat a lot of fruit and vegetables may have a lower risk of chronic disease, such as heart disease and some cancers. Health benefits can be gained from fresh, canned (in natural juice), frozen, cooked, juiced or dried versions Potatoes don't count as they're a starchy food

13 Fibre Fibre is an important component of a healthy balanced diet. We get fibre from plant-based foods, but it's not something the body can absorb This means fibre is not a nutrient and contains no calories or vitamins Fibre helps your digestive system to process food and absorb nutrients and prevent constipation Fibre can help to lower blood cholesterol. Fibre makes you feel fuller and so helps to control your appetite. There are 2 types of fibre: insoluble and soluble Insoluble fibre contains cellulose and is found in wholegrains, beans and pulses Soluble fibre contains gum and pectin and is found in fruits an vegetables especially apples, strawberries, pears and citrus fruits

14 Water Water makes up about 2/3 of the weight of a healthy body.
We need water for the body to function correctly, so that our blood can carry nutrients around the body and get rid of waste We lose water all the time, through evaporation when we breathe, sweat and in our urine If the temperature rises or we do more activity, this increases the amount of water we lose We should aim to drink up to 2 litres (6 – 8) glasses of water a day Still water is the best choice, but other options are fruit teas or herbal blends, decaffeinated coffee and water flavoured with fresh fruit juice

15 Micro nutrients: vitamins & minerals
Water soluble vitamins Cannot be stored in our bodies an d are readily excreted Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, Folic acid and Vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins Absorbed through the gut with the help of fat. Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K Minerals Minerals are necessary for 3 main reasons: 1. building strong bones and teeth 2. controlling body fluids inside and outside cells 3. turning the food you eat into energy Calcium Fluoride Iodine Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Selenium Zinc

16 Group activity: Research task
You will be allocated into groups Each group will be given one of the 5 food groups and 2 micro nutrients You have to research your allocated nutrients and present back your findings Your presentation must cover: why that food group/micro-nutrient is important for good health examples of good sources guidance on how much should be eaten and any food to avoid any areas of concern particular guidance for a client training for the London Marathon

17 National healthy eating model
The eatwell plate was developed by the Government’s Department of Health to encourage all people to eat more healthily The eatwell plate is based on the 5 food groups: Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods Fruit and vegetables Milk and dairy foods Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar

18 The eatwell plate

19 The eatwell plate - proportions

20 The eatwell plate Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods
Eat plenty, choose wholegrain varieties when you can Fruit and vegetables Eat plenty, at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables a day. Milk and dairy foods Eat some, choose lower fat alternatives whenever possible or eat higher fat versions infrequently or in smaller amounts Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein Eat some, choose lower fat alternatives whenever possible or eat higher fat versions infrequently or in smaller amounts. Aim for at least two portions of fish a week, including a portion of oily fish. Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar Eat just a small amount.

21 Body Mass Index (BMI) The Body Mass Index (or BMI) is a way of seeing if your weight is appropriate for your height The actual calculation is your weight (in kilograms) divided by your height (in metres) squared There are 5 categories Recommended BMI Chart Underweight BMI less than 18.5 Ideal BMI Overweight BMI 25-30 Obese - should lose weight BMI 30-40 Very obese - lose weight now BMI greater than 40

22 Waist to hip ratio BMI is a good way to tell if you're a healthy weight, it doesn't tell the whole story If your BMI is over the healthy range, this means that you're probably carrying extra fat. Your health could be at greater risk depending on where that fat is stored Having a large amount of tummy fat (when compared to having fat around the bottom or thighs) makes you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and heart problems How to calculate waist-to-hip ratio Using a tape measure take the following steps: 1) Measure your hips. 2) Measure your waist. 3) Divide the waist number by the hip number. A ratio of 1.0 or more in men or 0.85 or more in women indicates that too much weight is carried around the middle. This means an increased risk of diseases that are linked to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease

23 Review of learning Look back at your initial 10 commandments
Do you still agree with your original thoughts Re-write your new 10 commandments based on information gathered in today’s session There is a hyperlink embedded to the Cancer Research Ten Top Tips booklet which could be shown. A pdf copy of the leaflet is included in the resources section in case the website link is no longer available

24 Next session Before the next session keep a food diary of all the food you eat and make notes of the main nutrients in the food Keep a selection of the packaging from food products that you eat so we can look at nutritional labelling Next session we will be looking at dietary sources of the key macro and micro nutrients


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