Presentation on theme: "Bell Quiz: Use Pages 719-721 1) What was Malcolm X’s real last name AND why did he change it? 2) Who converted Malcolm X to the Black Muslims? 3) List."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Quiz: Use Pages 719-721 1) What was Malcolm X’s real last name AND why did he change it? 2) Who converted Malcolm X to the Black Muslims? 3) List 2 controversial teachings of Malcolm’s prior to his pilgrimage to Mecca. 4) What was Malcolm’s new slogan after returning from Mecca? 5) What phrase did Stokely Carmichael start using that scared white America?
Bell Quiz Answers 1) Malcolm Little: changed it to X to drop his slave name. 2) Elijah Muhhamad 3) Whites were to blame for the black man’s social problems, armed self-defense and “Any Means Necessary, African-Americans should have pride in their identity and culture, blacks should separate from white society and quit trying to act like the white man. 4) Ballots or bullets. 5) Black Power.
Objectives TSW: 1) Understand how disagreements among civil rights groups created a violent period in the fight for civil rights. 2) Explain the difference in the teachings and tactics of Dr. King, Malcolm X, and the Black Panthers.
Bell Quiz: Use Pages 714-719 1) List two types of discrimination that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned. 2) What was the goal of Core and SNCC workers in Mississippi during Freedom Summer? 3) Which amendment banned poll taxes? 4) Define de facto and de jure segregation. Provide an example of each. 5) What caused urban rioting during the 1960’s?
Bell Quiz Answers 1) Banned discrimination in employment and in public accommodations. 2) Register southern blacks to vote. 3) 24 th Amendment 4) De facto=segregation that exists by practice or custom. De jure=segregation by law (Jim Crow). 5) A-A’s were sick of inequality and discrimination in job opportunities, housing, and education. New Civil Rights leaders encourage blacks to take control of their neighborhoods.
CIVIL RIGHTS “It is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks…The time has come for the American Negro to fight back in self- defense whenever he is being unjustly and unlawfully attacked.” Malcolm X
Elijah Muhammad *Head of the Nation of Islam or Black Muslims. *Converted Malcolm X to his teachings. *Main Teaching: whites were the cause of the poverty in which blacks found themselves.
Malcolm X Malcolm (Little) X, dropped his “slave name”, converted to the Nation of Islam while serving time in jail for burglary and drugs. Became Elijah Muhammad’s most famous disciple in 1952.
Malcolm X Malcolm’s teachings: 1) Whites were to blame for the black man’s social problems. 2) Blacks should separate from white society. Quit trying to act like the white man! 3) Armed self-defense and “Any Means Necessary.” 4) African-Americans should have pride in their identity and culture.
“Ballots or Bullets” Malcolm broke from Elijah Muhammad in March 1964 because of differences in strategy and doctrine. In April 1964 Malcolm takes a pilgrimage to Mecca and learns that orthodox Muslims believe in equality of all races! Malcolm returns to America and radically changes his teachings: ok to hate racism and injustice, but it is wrong to hate the white race!!
“Ballots or Bullets” After returning from Mecca, Malcolm begins to preach a new slogan “Ballots or bullets.” Meaning: “If you and I don’t use the ballot, we’re going to be forced to use the bullet. So let us try the ballot.”
Malcolm’s Assassination On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated in Harlem as he took the podium to deliver a speech. He was shot 16 times at close range by 3 Black Muslims. It’s believed that Elijah Muhammad ordered the hit.
Stokely Carmichael Influential leader of SNCC was arrested on June 17, 1966 for setting up a tent on the grounds of an all black high school for an overnight demonstration. This was his 27 th arrest!
Black Power That night marchers held a rally to show their support for Carmichael. Carmichael showed up at the end of the rally with his face swollen from a police beating. Carmichael began preaching “Black Power.”
Black Power Stokely Carmichael joined the Black Panther Party in 1967. “This is the 27 th time I have been arrested-and I ain’t going to jail no more!…We been saying freedom for 6 years-and we ain’t got nothin’. What we’re gonna start saying now is BLACK POWER. Meaning: black people should begin to define their own goals and lead their own organizations. He didn’t want any more help from white people in achieving equality. Perceived message: Many people, especially whites, thought he was encouraging an armed and violent revolution.
BLACK PANTHER PARTY
Black Panthers In October 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale formed the Black Panther Party in Oakland, CA to fight police brutality in the ghetto. The Black Panthers began to preach many of the violent ideas of the Black Muslims.
Black Panthers To raise $ for their organization they sold copies of the writings of Mao Zedong, leader of the Chinese Communist revolution. Slogan: “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun.”
Black Panthers Members of the Black Panthers wore black berets, sunglasses, black leather jackets, black trousers, black shirts, and shiny black shoes.
1968 Olympics On the morning of October 17, 1968, U.S. athlete Tommie Smith won the 200 meter race in a world-record time of 19.83 seconds, with Australia’s Peter Norman second with a time of 20.07 seconds, and the U.S.'s John Carlos in third place with a time of 20.10 seconds. After the race was completed, the three went to collect their medals at the podium. The two U.S athletes received their medals shoeless, but wearing black socks, to represent black poverty. Smith wore a black scarf around his neck to represent black pride, Carlos had his tracksuit top unzipped to show solidarity with all blue collar workers in the U.S. and wore a necklace of beads which he described "were for those individuals that were lynched, or killed and that no-one said a prayer for, that were hung and tarred. It was for those thrown off the side of the boats in the middle passage.” Both U.S. athletes intended on bringing black gloves to the event, but Carlos forgot his, leaving them in the Olympic Village. It was the Australian, Peter Norman, who suggested Carlos wear Smith's left-handed glove, this being the reason behind him raising his left hand, as opposed to his right, differing from the traditional Black Power salute. When “The Star Spangled Banner" played, Smith and Carlos delivered the salute with heads bowed, a gesture which became front page news around the world. As they left the podium they were booed by the crowd. Smith later said "If I win, I am American, not a black American. But if I did something bad, then they would say I am a Negro. We are black and we are proud of being black. Black America will understand what we did tonight.” International Olympic Committee (IOC) president, Avery Brundage, deemed it to be a domestic political statement, unfit for the apolitical, international forum the Olympic Games were supposed to be. In an immediate response to their actions, he ordered Smith and Carlos suspended from the U.S. team and banned from the Olympic Village. When the US Olympic Committee refused, Brundage threatened to ban the entire US track team. This threat led to the two athletes being expelled from the Games. A spokesman for the IOC said it was "a deliberate and violent breach of the fundamental principles of the Olympic spirit.”
Black Panther Teachings 1) “Program for the People”- taking control of the communities in which African-Americans lived, full employment, and decent housing. 2) Established day care centers, free breakfast programs and other services in the ghettos. 3) See 10 point document. http://www.marxists.org/history/usa/workers/blac k-panthers/1966/10/15.htm
Black Panthers The Panthers drew much support from African- Americans and recruited many members from other non-violent movements. The police and FBI had many shoot outs with the Panthers throughout the years. Newton was arrested in 1968 on manslaughter charges, but was released in 1970 when it was found that police illegally tapped his phone lines and searched his property.
Black Panthers By 1970 the Party had split so many times due to internal problems that it became ineffective. Carmichael left the party because he wanted all whites banned from it. Seale and Newton resigned in the same year. The party continued for a short time under new leadership providing service projects in the ghettos.
Ballots or Bullets speech 5 Groups: no more than 10 people per group. Speech and questions. Instructions: A) 10 minutes to read silently your portion of the speech. B) As a group discuss the answers to the questions, especially to questions 1 and 2. C) Each person must turn in their own papers at the end of class. Due today!