5Treaty of Versailles: A (1) peace agreement that (2) ended WWI Treaty of Versailles: A (1) peace agreement that (2) ended WWI. It (3) changed the map of(4) Europe and was (5) a large cause of WWII.CAUSES OF WARNationalism: A great (1) sense of (2) pride for your(3) countryStockpiling: (1) Collecting lots of (2) weapons and(3) saving them for use in (4) warAlliances: A (1) promise from one (2) nation to(3) another to (4) help each other in (5) case of a(6) war. A “ (7)I got your Back” mentality.Ethnic Pride: (1) Some people of certain ethnic(2) backgrounds felt they were (3) better than(4) others. Each ethnic (5) group wants its own(6) nation..
6Foreign Colonies: (1) European countries and (2) the U. S Foreign Colonies: (1) European countries and (2) the U.S. believed that they (3) needed foreign colonies (4) for money. Germany (5) didn’t have many (6)colonies and they(7) wanted more. England and(8)France are (9) afraid of(10) Germany
8U.S. Position:Neutral: America tries to stay neutral under President Wilson. He wins his election based on this.Propaganda: Allies and Germany start a propaganda war. Both sides want to win American to their side. Both sides try to make Americans think that the other side was wrong.Allies: Most Americans favored the allies, which were England and France.Lusitania: An ocean liner carrying passengers , including 128 Americans, is sank, in 1915 by a German Sub. This turns America and Americans against Germany.
101917- (1) Germany sinks several (2) American Ships. U.S. at War: Americans are (1) slow to react to the (2) war in (3) Europe.Wartime Powers: (1) Congress gives(2) President Wilson special (3) “war time”powers. (4) Wilson now has the (5) right to(6) take over industries, (7) restrict free(8) speech and (9) civil rights, a (10) violation ofthe (11) constitution, and (12) enact the(13) draft.Draft: a (1) program started by the(2) government to (3) supply the (4) military with(5) soldiers..
11Anti-German Sentiment: (1) Propaganda and the (2) war against (3) Germany effects how people (4) feel about (5) German-Americans. German (6) language stops being (7) taught in (8) schools, German (9) author’s books are(10) burned.Self-determination: the (1) right of each(2) ethnic group to decide who will (3) govern orrule it.Peace Terms: (1) Allies impose (2) SEVERE peace (3) terms on (4) Germany. The (5) Allies want to (6) punish Germany for the (7) war. This act (8) lays the (9) foundation for (10) WWII.
13CHAPTER 16: They’ve Sunk The Lusitania U-Boats: German (1) Submarines. Germany (2) stated that (3) they would (3) sink any (4) ship that (5) entered the (6) war zone. This was (7) disobeying the (8) rules of (9)international laws.Captain Walter Schweiger: He was (1) captain of the (2) U-Boat that (3) sunk the (10) Lusitania.U.S. reaction to sinking: (1) Americans are (2) shocked and (3) outraged (4) people die. Many of them are (5) women and children. Americans are (6) furious with (7) Germany and all (8) Germans.
15International Law: Is a (1) set of rules that (2) nations are (3) supposed to (4) obey in their (5) relations with (6) each other.British Blockade: England's (1) Navy controls all the (2) water. It does (3) not allow any (4) ships to carry (5) supplies to any (6) German ports.Newspaper Warning: International (1) Law states that (2) warships have to (3) give a warning before (4) attacking a merchant (5) ship. German’s place an (6) ad warning Lusitania (7) passengers in newspapers. No (8) one pays any (9) attention to it.
16Captain W.H. Turner: He is (1) Captain of the (2) Lusitiania. He (3) ignores orders to(4) zig-zag, because he (5) doesn’t want to(6) upset passengers.President Wilson (1) becomes very (2) upsetwith the (3) sinking and says that (4) Americanscan travel (5) wherever they (6) want to(7) because they are (8) neutral. Germany saysthat the (9) Lusitania is carrying (10) weaponsand it (11) was an (12) act of (13) self-defense..
17Germany’s Assurance: (1) Germany announces in (2) May 1916, that they would (3) obey the(4) international laws. They (5) state that they(6) won’t sink unarmed (7) ships. Wilson thengets (8) re-elected as (9) President with thecampaign slogan “HE (10) KEPT US OUT OFWAR!”Wilhelm II: Jan. 1917: German (1) government resumes (2) unlimited attacks on all (3) ships. The (4) German Emperor and (5) 1st cousin to CZAR (6) Nicholas, is over (7) confident. He does (8) not feel that there is (9) anyway that (11) Germany can be (12) defeated.April 6, 1917: (1) U.S. declares (2) war on (3) Germany.
19Chapter 17: The Horrors of The Western Front Battle of the Somme: (1) England with the help (2) of Canadian volunteers (3) came to the (4) aid of (5) French Troops. They (6) wanted to (7) drive back the (8) German Army. Battles rage from (9) June to November in Over (10) 1 million people (11) killed. Allied troops (12) win a total of (13) 7 square (14) miles.Trench Warfare:Trenches: Long (1) narrow ditches dug by soldiers to (2) hide and (3) cover themselves. Soldiers (4) would wait for (5) a break in the (6) fighting/firing and then (7) charge out of the (8) trenches where (9) many of them would (9) die.
20Western Front: a (1) area that runs (2) 450 miles across (3) Belgium, France andSwitzerland that utilized(4) trench warfare. Between(5) millions die there.French (6) country side is(7) destroyed from all the(8) fighting.
22Trench Warfare:: (1) German and (2) Allied forces use (3) trenches for (4) warfare.Diaries of the Dead: Stories from the(1) diaries that were (2) found on (3) deadsoldiers. Many of them (4) wrote about how(5) their lives were forever (6) changed by the (7) death and (8) destruction that (9) they saw.New Technology: (1) Modern warfare (2) technology included: (3) poisonous gases,(4) fighter planes, machine (5) guns,grenades, (6) tanks and (7) u-boats.
23German soldiers in a well-constructed trench in France pick lice out of their clothes. By the end of 1914, the Western Front had solidified into two systems of trenches running across France.
25Chapter 18: The Eastern Front Nikolai Lenin: A revolutionary who dreamed of overthrowing the Czar in Russia. He wanted to lead a revolution to take over the government by the workers.Czar Nicholas II: King or Czar of Russia. He draws Russia into war so that he could regain control over his subjects. The Russian people are poor, oppressed and hungry. They do not favor the Czar.Parliamentary Government: a form of Government made by the Russian people after a series of strikes. Czar Nicholas won’t recognize this new “government” and he refuses to give up power. This leads to a revolution.Industrial Revolution: 1000’s move to the cities for better life. But they don’t get a better life there. Food and supplies that were meant to be shipped to the cities are shipped to soldiers at the front. People in the cities are left starving.
27Chapter 18: The Eastern Front Russia in War: Russian troops move into German territory. 2½ million die there. Russians continue fighting even when they run out of ammunition.Monarchy: Government or state headed by a sole ruler like a King or Queen.Czarina Alexandra: Queen of Russia. She takes control of Russia because her husband, Czar Nicholas is weak. She tells lies and spreads rumors. She is horrible to her people. The Russian people are disgusted with the way she acts, and they withdraw their support of the monarchy. Alexandra throws her support to a Russian priest, named Rasputin. Rasputin is rumored to be crazy. She gives him almost unlimited power . She believes that her son will die if she does not support Rasputin.
29Chapter 18: The Eastern Front Hemophilia: A disease of the blood which causes a person to bleed to death. The blood does not clot. Prince Alexis, son of Nicholas and Alexandra is a hemophiliac. This is kept a secret from the Russian people.
31Chapter 18: The Eastern Front Rasputin: A priest who caused great turmoil in the Russian Government. He appointed corrupt leaders and undermined military strategy. The people of Russia hated Rasputin. The Nobles kill him and this starts the Russian Revolution.
33Chapter 18: The Eastern Front Russian Revolution: Begins March 8, The Russian people are starving, they demand food. Workers take over the factories, soldiers desert the army and the peasants seize the land.March 15, 1917: Czar Nicholas gives up the Throne. This begins the communist take over of Russia. The Czar, his wife Alexandra and all their children are executed.
35Chapter 18: The Eastern Front Duma: A provisional government formed by the Russian Parliament. Internal fighting made it ineffective.Bolsheviks: A new group arose that later formed the communist party. It was led by Lenin. It appealed to the people because they offered to end the war, give land to the pheasants and placed all authority in their hands.Life under Lenin: Lenin ends all private ownership of land. He gives all this to the government. The congress is controlled by him. So he is now in control of all the land, factories and government. People in Russia are unhappy about all the changes but there is little they can do.Cheka:is a political force established by Lenin. If anyone disagrees with him they were put in prison or killed. In July 1918, the Cheka executes Czar Nicholas and his family.
37Chapter 18: The Eastern Front Soviets: Councils made up of workers, soldiers and peasants.“Power based directly upon force and unrestricted by any laws” was Lenin’s theory of rule.Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Signed 3/1918, Lenin signs. 2 million Russian soldiers die on the Eastern Front. Treaty forces Russia to give up Poland, Finland, and the Baltic States of Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania.
39Chapter 19: The Yanks Over There 1917: U.S. enters the war. U.S. troops, are fresh and in good shape physically. This helped to lift British and French morale.Chateau-Thierry: Spring 1918: German troops move in. Bloody battle happens. Out of 8000 U.S. troops 5183, or 65 % are killed or wounded.Army Women: Women joined the war effort by driving ambulances, serving as nurses and for the 1st time, as clerks and stenographersPresident Wilson: “Equal Work For Equal Pay”- Wilson called for women who were paid less then men for the same job to be paid the same. They were all fired when the war was over. African Americans and Mexican Americans filled the labor shortage as well.
41Chapter 19: The Yanks Over There Lost Battalion: A group of U.S. Troops that held a position on a battlefield at all costs. American gunners made a mistake and fired on their own men. American still would not surrender. After 5 days they were rescued out of 700 men only 252 survived.
43Chapter 19: The Yanks Over There Doughboy: Nickname for “Yanks” or U.S. Soldiers. They were called that because of the white dust that covered them as they marched.
44Chapter 19: The Yanks Over There Lives Lost: 26, 277 Americans dieAEF: American Expeditionary Forces- Special Forces made up of Army, Navy and MarinesAfrican-American Role in WW I: They were segregated. They took a few African Americans and trained them. They were then made officers of segregated all African American troops.
46Chapter 20: Winning the War at home Propaganda: The spreading of ideas to influence someone else's opinion. All information that is spread is one sided.School Garden Army: boys and girls who worked in school yards and vacant lots by planting and harvesting food used for the war effort.Fighting the War with Food: Crops in Europe had been destroyed by fighting. American troops and the allies depended on the U.S. for food. Women and children supplied the labor and the food.“Wheatless Monday’s &Meatless Tuesdays’ Herbert Hoover, Head of the Food Administration asked Americans to make sacrifices for the soldiers. Americans had “Wheatless Mondays, and Meatless Tuesdays” to save wheat and meat or the troops.Women in Factories: 5 million Americans left jobs to go to war. This created a labor shortage, that women, African-Americans, and Mexican-Americans filled. They kept the factories running to support the war.
47Chapter 20: Winning the War at Home Selling the War: The Federal Government worked hard to persuade people to support the war. They used posters in schools, stores and theatres to “sell” the war.Liberty Bonds: The Treasury Department held a series of drives to sell bonds to support the war.The public lent the government moneyfor the war by having these bonds.Liberty Bonds brought in 20 billiondollars. Taxes on tobacco andbooze also go up to support thewar.
48Chapter 20: Winning the War at Home Pacifists: people who are opposed to all violence and war. At the time of WW I many pacifist are arrested by the U.S. Justice Department for this belief.Socialist: people who believe that the most important parts of the economic system, factories, mines, railroads, etc. should be owned and operated by the government for the peopleMurderous Huns: The public thought of German-Americans as Murderous Huns, German books are burned and German businesses are forced to closePatriotic Gangs: These gangs spied on anyone they thought was against the war. They made life miserable for them as well as German-Americans.Sedition Act of 1918: Congress passed this to silence any opposition to the war. It made it a crime to speak out against the war or say anything “Disloyal” about the government or armed services.
50Chapter 21: The Peace that Failed 11 am, 11th day, 11th Month, 1918: guns fell silent all over the battlefields of France, WW I is over at last. 10 million people had lost their lives. People went wild with joy.Big Four: Leaders of the countries who would write the Treaty of Versailles. Pres. Woodrow Wilson, U.S., Georges Clemenceau`, France, Vittorio Orlando, Italy, David Lloyd George, England. Wilson wanted “peace without victory” he did not want to punish Germany. The others did.Fourteen Point: Wilson’s plan for peace. The other allied leaders didn’t agree with it. They blamed Germany for the deaths and damages of war and wanted Germany to pay for it.Reparations: are payments for the damages suffered during a war. France , Italy, and Japan wanted territory from Germany and a lot of money as reparations. The allies wanted to make Germany weak.
52Chapter 21 : The Peace that Failed The League of Nations: an organization of nations to prevent future wars. It would discipline nations for breaking peace. Allies did not want to accept this. Wilson is forced to give up many of the 14 points to get the nations to sign. U.S. does not join.Treaty-Germany: At first Germany refuses to sign it. They felt betrayed because they were promised all 14 points. They said that if they had known that it was going to be that harsh, they would not have stopped fighting. Finally they signed it because they had no choice, their people were starving and they had given up their weapons.Treaty of Versailles; It is named after the place where it was signed. The Germans are angry. Financial payments they had to pay as reparations were a tremendous burden. It took the German economy years to recover form these. The German people are mad about the occupation of their land and the war guilt clause. This turns the German people against their government because they felt betrayed.
54Chapter 21 : The Peace that Failed Losing the League: Wilson asks the senate to ratify the treaty and make the U.S. part of the League of Nations. Senators vote against it because of isolationism.Isolationist: Is someone who believes in the complete separation of one country from another. They want to stay isolated.Article 10: In the League of Nations: created allies among its members. It stated the if 1 nation in the League was attacked the other members had to help defend it. This is the part that worried most senators. They were afraid we would get drawn back in war.Filibuster: A tactic used at government meetings to take up time to kill a bill, law, or treaty from being passed.Wilson-Stroke: Pres. Wilson gives a big speech in favor of the Treaty and the League of Nations. He comes back to D.C. and has a stroke. The treaty is voted down. Wilson’s dreams are shattered, he has a stroke in office and he dies 4 years later.
55Chapter 21 : The Peace that Failed Henry Cabot Lodge: was a Senator from Massachusetts. He led the fight against the Treaty Of Versailles, and League of Nations. Article 10 really bothered him. He was an isolationist. He pulls a filibuster that lasts for 2 weeks. Wilson pleads with the American people to support the League of Nations, the Senate votes it down. The U.S. does not join the League of Nations.