Unit One Ⅰ. Brief Introduction Ⅰ. Brief Introduction Ⅱ. Key Teaching Points Ⅱ. Key Teaching Points Ⅲ. Problematic Areas for This Unit Ⅲ. Problematic Areas for This Unit Ⅳ. Explanation for This Unit Ⅳ. Explanation for This Unit Ⅴ. Lesson Planning And Exercises Ⅴ. Lesson Planning And Exercises
I. Brief Introduction The course is based on the principle that as a final objective, students should be able to read academic materials in English about their own specialist area with the aid of dictionary at intermediate proficiency level.
1 、现在完成时的主要用法。 ⑴ 表示经验或经历，常与 ever 或 never 连用 eg.Have you ever been to Hangzhou? I have never traveled by air. ⑵表示最近发生过的动作或情况，常与 already 或 yet 连用 eg.We have already written to her. She has not spent much time on it yet. ⑶表示刚刚发生过的动作或事情，常与 just 连用 eg.They have just sent us a telegram. She has just come here. ⑷表示过去发生、目前可能仍在继续进行下去的动作或事情，常与 since 或 for 连用 eg. He has lived there since 1950. We have known each other for more than two years.
2 、现在完成时的构成 现在完成时由助动词 have(has)+ 过去分词构成。第三人称单数用 has ，其他均用 have ，现以动词 see 为例，将现在完成时的肯定、否定、一般疑问式及简略答语列 表如下： 肯定否定 I have seen it. You have seen it. I have not seen it. You have not seen it. We have seen it. You have seen it. They have seen it. We have not see it. You have not see it. They have not see it. He has seen it. She has seen it. It has seen it. He has not seen it. She has not seen it. It has not seen it.
注： ①表中助动词 have(has) 没有词义，只起结构作用。 ②在口语中， have 和 has 往往分别紧缩为 ’ve 及 ’s, 例如： I ’ve, she’s; have not 与 has not 往往紧缩成 haven’t 和 hasn’t. 疑问式简略回答 Have you seen it. Have they seen it. Yes, I (we, they) have. No, I (we, they) have not. Has he seen it? Has she seen it? Has it seen it? Yes, he (she, it) has. No, he (she, it) has not.
Ⅲ. Problematic Areas for This Unit 1 、 upset 可作动词、形容词和名词。作为不同词性使用时，它们的意义又是相互 联系的。 upset 2 、 busy 通常作形容词，也可转换用作动词。 busy 3 、 once 一般用作副词和连词。 once 4 、 get over 忘却（不愉快的经历、情绪等）；克服（困难、难题）。该词组为及 物动词词组，后接宾语。 get over 5 、 hear from 收到 ------ 来信。该词组及物，后面须接 “ 某人 ” 作宾语，相当于 receive a letter from somebody. hear from 6 、 put on weight 增加体重。与此同义，也可以说 gain weight; 反义词组为 lose weight. 这里的 weight 为不可数名词，其前可加修饰语，说明体重增加或减少的程 度。 put on weight 7 、 give up sth or doing sth. 放弃（做）某事。该词组及物，常接名词或动名词作 宾语。 give up sth or doing sth.
upset ⑴作动词时，通常表示： a. 使担忧，使不安。如： Do whatever your mother tells you, or you will upset her. b. 引起（胃）疼痛，难受。如： The Cantonese food upset her stomach. ⑵作形容词时，主要含有 “ 担忧，着急，不快乐 ” 等意思。如： He is upset about what she told him. She seldom gets upset when she is answered “no”. ⑶作名词时，表示 “ 乱七八糟，混乱不堪的状态 ” 或 “ 造成这种状态的 ” 。如： A complete upset of the classroom.
busy ⑴作形容词时表示： a. 忙，忙碌。如： The teacher is very busy now. b. 繁忙的，用作定语修饰名词。如： This is a busy city. c. （指电话线）占线。如： Sorry, the line is busy. 当表达 “ 忙于某事，忙于干什么 ” 时，可以用下列词组： busy with, busy at, busy (in)doing something. 如： She is busy with her homework. The man was busy at work when someone called him on the phone. When she entered the room, he was busy (in) hiding something under the bed. ⑵用作动词，表示 “ 忙于干某事 ” 。如： He busied himself with his housework.
once ⑴用作副词表示： a. 一次． He’s been here once. Once a week. b. 以前，从前。如： They were once friends, but now they are enemies. Once 常用在词组里，如： at once 立刻，马上；同时。 They all spoke at once, but I heard nothing at all. Once in a while 偶尔，不时地。 Once in a while he’ll come to visit us. Once more, once again 又，再次，再来一遍。 Once more ， please. Once upon a time 从前，很久以前（常用来开始一个故事）。 Once upon a time there was an old man. ⑵作连词用，表示 “ 一旦，只要 ” 等意思，用来引起时间状语（从句）。 Once published, the novel will be very popular.
get over George did not get over his homesickness for some time. 乔治有一段时间老是想家。 They got over this problem by leaving their baby with their parents. 他们把孩子留给父母，从而解决了这一问题。
hear from I hear from her three times a month. 我一个月收到她三封来信。 They’ll be delighted to hear from you again. 他们将很高 兴收到你的再次来信。
put on weight I was twelve, starting to put on weight and grow taller. 我十二岁时体重开始增加，个子也开始长高。 He seemed happy, except than he had gained a lot of weight. 他看上去很高兴，只是体重增加了许多。 I think she might have lost a bit of weight. 我想她或许已经减了点儿肥。
give up sth. or doing sth. She never completely gave up hope. 她从没有完全放弃希望。 It’s unrealistic to give up smoking to save money now. 现在戒烟省钱是不现实的。
Ⅳ.Explanation for This Unit A: “How are things?” is an extremely informal greeting. B: “so it must be somewhere in here.” So can be used to link two clauses or sentences or to connect two separate sentences as in this case in our text. Fact 1, (and) soFact2 i) Fact 1 is a reason for Fact2. Eg. We all felt tired, (and) so we went to bed. ii) Fact2 is a result of Fact 1. Eg. Fred has lost his money so he had to borrow some from me. The sentence in our dialogue is an example of i). C: “searched and searched…” Just as we have had harder and harder to emphasize comparison, so a repetition of a verb also adds emphasis. D: “you’re hopeless, young lady.” Mr Jones does not mean that there is no hope in Mary’s life. He means she is not very good at things like looking after her belongings. The form of address young lady when used by an older person to a younger person is often an attempt to belittle the addressee.
Explanation for This Unit E: “May I help you, Madam?” The term of address, Madam, is the equivalent of Sir, and is a polite way for someone to an unknown customer or client. F: “We’re not having much luck.” The policeman uses we here because it is common in Britain to try to share other people’s problems. You will also find that doctors and nurses often talk this way to their patients. Eg. How are we, today? G: “got over it…” This phrasal verb means recovered or got better. H: “Monica has given up smoking…” This phrasal verb means has stopped doing something, often with reluctance. I: “…and the kids have started school.” Children in Britain are often called the kids, "they jump up and down like young goats (kids)! J: “… and saw the new film…”The definite article is used here because either we are referring to well-known new film that everybody is talking about or we are referring to the only film available because the town only has one cinema.
Exercise 1 A: Check general comprehension after the students have read through. Eg. Why poor Mary? (Because the writer feels sorry for her.) What sort of question might Mary have asked at the bus station? (When is the next bus?) B: Explain that you want answers which clearly give a reason Eg. John is nice because he is sorry for Mary (and helps her). C: Circulate while students answer questions and give help. D: At the end to this question, point out that all the Present Perfect forms in the text are regular ones.
Exercise 2 A: Students should be familiar with the rubric on the Present Perfect before they do this exercise. B: Ask if there are any irregular verb forms required. C: Ask if there are any irregular verb forms required.
Exercise 3 Warm up the students by asking some preliminary questions (eliciting answers)or making statements (eliciting responses). Eg. Have you finished Exercise 2 now? (A: Yes, I’ve just finished it.) Don’t forget to read the rubric on the Present Prefect. (R: Don’t worry. I’ve read the rubric already.)
Exercise 4 A: Give the students 3 minutes to read the text. B: After completion of the written exercise, ask some further questions orally. Eg, Why is Mr Jones even more angry? What is the problem with young people? What does Mr Jones think about Mary?
Exercise 5 A: Get 5 students to ask the teacher about things s/he has never done before. B: Students should then do the three written questions unaided.
Exercise 6 A: Now set up a limited pair work exercise of question and answer with 5 questions and answers per pair. Eg. Q: Have you ever driven a car (in your life?) a: No, I have never driven a car (in my life.) Other topics: ride a horse? visit Hainan? play tennis? Etc. B: At the end, ask each pair to demonstrate a Q and A pattern.