Presentation on theme: "Reflecting on STI in Africa as drivers for sustainable development Lidia Brito Director Science Policy and Capacity Building Division UNESCO"— Presentation transcript:
Reflecting on STI in Africa as drivers for sustainable development Lidia Brito Director Science Policy and Capacity Building Division UNESCO Consultation Workshop Windhoek, Namibia August 2013
Africa, reality and challenges
Africa’s unprecedented economic growth - facts and figures African countries continue to grow steadily despite world economic slowdown In 2012, ¼ of African countries grew at 7% or higher and is expected to grow faster than the world average (Source: World bank, 2013) Medium term growth prospects remain strong supported by high world commodity prices, discoveries of oil and strategic minerals, more investment in regional infrastructure, trade and business growth Africa has the largest youth population under 25 years (UNESCO, 2010) Africa’s labour force would increase from the current 500 million to 1.1 billion by 2040 (Source: IMF, 2013)
6 1.Local decisions-global impact- Globalized 2.Facing climate changes: unexpected and probability of more extreme events - Uncertainty 3.Population increase - Pressure 4.Global crisis: food, water, energy and financial - Poverty 5.Where knowledge and technology is more and more important- Inequalities The World Today
New realities need paradigm shift This rapid economic growth and increasing youth population pose challenges on already fragile environment, stressed basic needs and lifestyle African countries will need more energy, water, nutritious food, create more jobs and opportunities and reduce poverty Investment in science technology and innovation is key especially to enhance food security, energy access, water, job creation and poverty reduction Capacity building and Skills development in STI is wise investment because it is vital to reduce unemployment, inequity, and poverty and increase economic growth Invest in eco-friendly infrastructure with maintenance schedule
What kind of knowledge production we need for Sustainable Development?
Improving the international science-policy interface A planet at risk The challenges facing a planet under pressure demand a new approach to research that is more integrative, international and solutions-oriented. We need to link high-quality focused scientific research to new policy-relevant interdisciplinary efforts for global sustainability. Integrated goals for global sustainability based on scientific evidence are needed to provide essential targets for societies New mechanisms to facilitate an interactive dialogue on global sustainability among the various stakeholders and the policy-making community at different scales.
What kind of knowledge production we need to foster Sustainable Science and to provide solutions for Sustainable Development? Source: UNESCO (2010), Science Policy Studies and Documents in LAC, vol. 1.
Geographical distribution and links for the production of knowledge using the sustainable science paradigm Africa is the less connected region within the Production of Sustainable Science New Knowledge
1) Core Science Questions: What are the core scientific questions and issues that must be addressed in the decades ahead that will form the foundations for a science, technology and innovation that promotes sustainability? 2) Research Strategies: What research strategies will be required to enable the scientific inquiry and facilitate the research needed to address these core development questions to guarantee sustainable development? 3) Innovation Strategies: What kind of innovation strategies will be require to transform the human productive system, national and worldwide, to address the environmental and societal problems we are facing? Key questions to ask
4) STI Policies and STI Governance: (a) What systems of incentive structures –including markets, rules, norms, technological impact, and STI information– can most effectively improve social capacity to guide interactions between nature and society toward more sustainable trajectories? (b) How can today's relatively independent and fragmented activities of research planning, monitoring, assessment, and decision making be better integrated into systems for adaptive management and societal learning? 5) Institutions and Infrastructure: What innovations and changes will be required to more fully enable the institutions and infrastructure essential to the conduct of science and technology activities to promote sustainability?
More than ever we need to build bridges, dialogue and partnership to strengthen STI governance
STI frameworks and possible interventions at policy level for Namibia
It is all about sound STI policies STI Agenda Setting STI Policy Formulation STI Decision Making STI Policy Implementation Policy Evaluation Development Challenges
STI policies and their link to SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: transversal and structural? Articulation and Coordination Capacity Building Production / Transfer Financial Support Legal Framework EDUCATIONEDUCATION RESEARCHRESEARCH INNOVATIONINNOVATION DISSEMINATIONDISSEMINATION Sectoral Policies To contribute to poverty eradication through the application of S&T advancements Implementation mechanisms VALUES AND PRINCIPLES
Pathologies of instruments: policy implementation failures MISSING
Golden Rule for the implementation of SETI policies Policy and National Multiannual Plan Legal devices (for different sectors) Organizational structures different national ministries) Operational policy instruments (organized in a coherent way to generate synergies in order to obtain a particular long-term effect)
1.Set objectives and goals of the SETI policy. 2.Set priorities at the strategic level of the SETI policy. 3.Set indicative planning strategies of the SETI policy. 4.Set normative planning strategies of the SETI policy. 5.Define what policies will govern the supply side of SETI (human and economic resources, capacity building, infrastructure). 6.Define what policies will govern the demand side of SETI (strengthening and fostering innovation through the productive and services sectors, IPRs, tax exemptions, etc.). 7.Define what policies will be established to promote networking between the supply and demand sides of SETI. 8.Define the regional and International dimensions of SETI policies. 9.Introduce prospective studies and future scenarios. 10.Define the milestones during a specific multiannual policy plan. 1.Set objectives and goals of the SETI policy. 2.Set priorities at the strategic level of the SETI policy. 3.Set indicative planning strategies of the SETI policy. 4.Set normative planning strategies of the SETI policy. 5.Define what policies will govern the supply side of SETI (human and economic resources, capacity building, infrastructure). 6.Define what policies will govern the demand side of SETI (strengthening and fostering innovation through the productive and services sectors, IPRs, tax exemptions, etc.). 7.Define what policies will be established to promote networking between the supply and demand sides of SETI. 8.Define the regional and International dimensions of SETI policies. 9.Introduce prospective studies and future scenarios. 10.Define the milestones during a specific multiannual policy plan. Decalogue for designing a SETI policy for sustainable development
In order to generate relevant information on STI policies and to tackle the endogenous Capacity building needs in developing countries, UNESCO is launching two new programmes: GO SPIN: Global Observatory on Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Instruments STIGAP: Science, Technology and Innovation Global Assessment Programme STI Policies as an important component of STI for SD
Building human and institutional capacities: Quality Science Education for All? Strong investment in HE in particular in Graduate studies? Strengthening research and scientific institutions: research for Africa and with Africans- capacity building, infrastructure and funding Affordable technology: knowledge acquisition and local production capacity Fostering regional and sub-regional cooperation /South - South and South-North cooperation Improving the governance of S&T at the national, regional and global levels by supporting participatory science policy design, co-design and co-produce knowledge, develop science policy interface, build trust Elaborating science policy indicators, statistics, databases that define local sustainable development approaches and promote prospective studies Integrating science in national culture: Science communication STI Policies and the major challenges in STI for SD
Quality & relevance of STI Creativity Innovation Transdisciplinarity Anticipation Entrepreneurship Networking Partnership Strategic and visionary Leadership
Whatever STI we invest in today must look beyond 2020 where agility is more important than strength Knowledge alone is not a definer of value but its ability to turn knowledge into intelligence and creativity. INNOVATION is key. Invest in STI in response to huge demand for food, water, health, bio- and nanotechnology propelled by indigenous knowledge has potential to create new jobs and reduce poverty Harness STI to create and recreate human capital which has the agility and innovative power to see beyond 2020 through networking, collaboration, cooperation and partnerships. Some final remarks...