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1 Debate Camp 2007 Topic Area Background California Baptist University October 12, 2007


3 Sudan  Sudan achieved independence from Britain in 1956.  The first Sudanese Civil War, between the largely Islamic north and the largely Christian and animist south, lasted from 1956-1972.  The second Civil War lasted from 1983 until January 9, 2005.


5 Darfur Region of Sudan  3.5 million in the region are reliant on humanitarian aid for survival.  These efforts are being organized by the UN office of OCHA, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.  2.2 million people in Darfur are IDPs (Internally Displaced People).

6 Darfur Region of Sudan  An Arab militia, known as the Janjaweed, has been tasked with settling disputes between Darfur tribes.  Many sources report that the Janjaweed have been guilty of genocidal acts during the last 4 years.

7 Recent News  May 5, 2006 – The African Union brokered a peace deal between the Sudanese government and the largest rebel group in Darfur, but the violence has continued since.  UNICEF reports that 80 children/day die of malnutrition due to the violence preventing humanitarian assistance.

8 Recent News  In July of this year, Sudan experienced flooding over much of the country. U.N. sent $13.5 million but said that much more would be needed from major nations.  400,000 people were affected, and 3.5 million are now at risk of epidemics as a result of the flooding.  Between 200,000 and 400,000 dead in Darfur.

9 Eritrea

10 Eritrea  Eritrea was absorbed as a province of Ethiopia, which resulted in a war with Ethiopia from 1961 to 1991.  Eritrea gained independence in 1993.  They fought a border war with Ethiopia from 1998-2000, and it recently reignited.  They are currently trying to overcome decades of war by using their military forces to rebuild, and increase their agricultural capacity.

11 Djibouti

12 Djibouti  Djibouti gained its independence from the French in 1977. It used to be called, “French Somaliland”.  Djibouti is home to Camp Le Monier, a major U.S. military based used in Operation Enduring Freedom.  The U.N. reports that 30,000 people in Djibouti face severe food shortages after two years of poor rains.

13 Djibouti  Due to the lack of industry or natural resources, the unemployment rate hovers between 40 and 50%.  The government is heavily in debt to foreign aid donors.

14 Somalia

15 Somalia  Somalia gained independence in 1960.  The weak central government only controls the geographically central area of the country.  Most of the country is rules by tribal warlords and various tribal militias.  Somalian muslim militias are currently fighting a war with Ethiopia.

16 Ethiopia

17 Ethiopia  Ethiopia is now land-locked, ever since Eritrea got independence in 1993.  Ethiopia hosts the headquarters of the African Union.  Was formerly known as “Abyssinia”  There is only 1 doctor for every 100,000 Ethiopians, and there are more Ethiopia- trained doctors in Chicago than there are in Ethiopia.

18 Kenya

19 Kenya  Gained their independence from Britain in 1963.  One of the best economies in the Greater Horn, with a GDP per capita of $1200 and around 6% annual growth. (Average GDP per capita in sub-saharan Africa is about $600)

20 Tanzania

21 Tanzania  Gained independence from Britain, and formed from a merger between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964.  Relatively politically stable in the last several years.  GDP per capital about half of Kenya’s but with a much faster growth rate due mainly to Gold reserves and other natural resources.

22 Uganda

23 Uganda  Uganda is fairly well-off economically within the region, but is dependent on foreign aid.  Human rights abuses are rampant, from the national security forces who are commonly accused of torture, to the rebel Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) which resorts to kidnapping children to fight in their army.

24 Rwanda

25 Rwanda  Most famous for the 100 day genocide in which somewhere between 500,000 and 1 million were killed, most by machetes.  The genocide was primarily an attack on the traditionally higher-class Tutsi from the traditionally lower-class Hutus.  The two people groups were historically intermixed, but were developed separate identities when the colonial Belgians put the Tutsi in charge of the government.

26 Rwanda  90% of the people of Rwanda are subsistence farmers.  Due to massive foreign investment and relatively stable political leadership, the country is showing signs of rapid development.

27 Burundi

28 Burundi  With a GDP per capita of $90, Burundi is the poorest country on planet Earth.  Burundi has very few natural resources.  According to the World Food Programme, a majority of Burundian children under 5 suffer from chronic malnutrition.  Like Rwanda, Burundi has suffered from civil wars and genocide between Hutus and Tutsi.

29 Overarching Plan Ideas  Food Aid (or Food Aid Reform)  AIDS  Infrastructure Development  Malaria  Agriculture Tech  Political Assistance  Security Guarantees ????

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