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World War I and the United States. Schlieffen Plan.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I and the United States. Schlieffen Plan."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I and the United States

2

3 Schlieffen Plan

4 The Western Front

5 Trench Warfare

6

7 New Weapons

8 Mass Participation

9 The. U.S. enters the war, April 6, 1917 Proximate causes: Proximate causes: German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare. German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare. Zimmerman telegram Zimmerman telegram Woodrow Wilson sought grand goals Woodrow Wilson sought grand goals Reshaping of international order (embodied in 14 points) Reshaping of international order (embodied in 14 points)

10 Mobilization Issues Manpower Manpower Industrial production Industrial production Organization Organization

11 The Selective Service Act, May 1917 All males age to register for draft: All males age to register for draft: Later extended to males aged Later extended to males aged Local civilian boards selected draftees. Local civilian boards selected draftees. Equitable exemption & recruitment policy: Equitable exemption & recruitment policy: No bounties, substitutions or commutations. No bounties, substitutions or commutations.

12 1917: Assessing the Draft 9-10 million men registered in June million men registered in June. 3 million called to service. 3 million called to service. 1 million rejected: physically unfit. 1 million rejected: physically unfit. 1 million obtained other exemptions. 1 million obtained other exemptions. 500,000 enter military service by end of year. 500,000 enter military service by end of year. 700,000 men volunteered for Army and National Guard. 700,000 men volunteered for Army and National Guard.

13 How Many Men? 1917: Army decides AEF should have 1.3 million men in 30 divisions by end of : Army decides AEF should have 1.3 million men in 30 divisions by end of July 1918: AEF to expand to July 1918: AEF to expand to 80 divisions by May divisions by May by end of by end of AEF had 43 division at wars end. AEF had 43 division at wars end.

14 Sources for Officers? Regular Army enlisted ranks Regular Army enlisted ranks R.O.T.C. (and related Student Army Training Corps). R.O.T.C. (and related Student Army Training Corps). Officer training schools camps/schools (for enlistees/volunteers) Officer training schools camps/schools (for enlistees/volunteers)

15 Economic Difficulties Competing markets Competing markets Foreign: military and civilian Foreign: military and civilian U.S.: military and civilian U.S.: military and civilian Growth of U.S. military sector Growth of U.S. military sector Ideological/bureaucratic impediments Ideological/bureaucratic impediments Organizational discord Organizational discord

16 War Organizations & Initiatives War Organizations & Initiatives War Industries Board (1917) War Industries Board (1917) War Shipping Board & Emergency War Shipping Board & Emergency Fleet Corporation (1916) Food Administration (1917) Food Administration (1917) War Trade Board (1917) War Trade Board (1917) management of railroads management of railroads Liberty Bonds Liberty Bonds

17 Support the War Effort!

18 Evaluation The good: The good: cantonments cantonments basic supplies basic supplies The bad: The bad: arms production arms production

19 U.S. Navy and the Atlantic Primary danger: Primary danger:U-boats.

20 The push for convoys William S. Sims William S. Sims

21 Requirements for ASW Escort ships Escort ships Destroyers Destroyers splinter fleet splinter fleet Merchant ships Merchant ships Sailors Sailors

22 Technological Fix North Sea Mine Barrage, 1918 North Sea Mine Barrage, 1918


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