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Laura L. Feuerborn, Ph.D., NCSP Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports: Facilitating Staff Buy-In May 2011 NWPBIS Conference Bellevue, WA (Feuerborn, 2011)

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Presentation on theme: "Laura L. Feuerborn, Ph.D., NCSP Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports: Facilitating Staff Buy-In May 2011 NWPBIS Conference Bellevue, WA (Feuerborn, 2011)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Laura L. Feuerborn, Ph.D., NCSP Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports: Facilitating Staff Buy-In May 2011 NWPBIS Conference Bellevue, WA (Feuerborn, 2011)

2  The importance of staff perceptions & staff buy-in to schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS)  Staff perceptions as facilitators & inhibitors to staff buy- in  Developing a data-based understanding of staff perceptions  Strategies for building staff buy-in (Feuerborn, 2011)

3 Guiding Questions Why are the perceptions of staff and staff buy-in important in the implementation of SWPBS? What are the factors associated with staff buy-in? How do we assess/understand staff perceptions of SWPBS? How do we foster staff buy-in? (Feuerborn, 2011)

4 The Nature of Resistance Resisters often have ideas that we might have missed, especially in situations of complexity. Resisters are crucial to the politics of implementation in democratic organizations, such as schools. “Respect those you wish to silence” (Heifetz, 1994) (Beisse, K. 2010) (Feuerborn, 2011)

5 The importance of staff buy-in to the Implementation of SWPBS Why are the perceptions of staff and staff buy-in important in the implementation of SWPBS? (Feuerborn, 2011)

6 Impact of Staff Buy-In on SWPBS Implementation Misunderstandings and philosophical beliefs inconsistent with SWPBS, poor knowledge of behavioral principles, and low support for implementation were all reported factors influencing staff implementation of SWPBS in their schools. Lack of staff buy-in was identified as a barrier Lack of staff buy-in was associated with low implementation schools Achieving staff buy-in was related to successful implementation (Kincaid, Childs, & Blasé, 2007) (Feuerborn, 2011)

7 Impact of Staff Buy-In on SWPBS Major barriers influencing implementation of SWPBS at the universal level involved lack of staff support: staff perceptions of poor administrative leadership; skepticism that SWPBS was needed; feelings of hopelessness related to change; philosophical differences with the core elements of SWPBS; negative school climate in which staff felt disenfranchised Twice as many statements reflected issues of staff support than any other. (Lohrmann, Forman, & Martin, 2008) (Feuerborn, 2011)

8 Impact of Staff Buy-In on SWPBS Team members reported that staff perceptions were one of the most pervasive barriers to implementation at the individual level. perceptions of low administrative support and involvement philosophical beliefs inconsistent with SWPBS limited knowledge of SWPBS principles limited time to participate in problem solving (Bambura, Nonnemacher, & Kern, 2009). (Feuerborn, 2011)

9 Impact of Staff Buy-In on SWPBS High school teams reported: Support and buy-in from staff a key area of concern Only 30% of teams reported that nearly 80% of staff supported SWPBS. Obtaining staff support a top priority Teams linked lack of support for SWPBS to inconsistent and lower levels of implementation (Flannery, Sugai, & Anderson, 2009) (Feuerborn, 2011)

10 The link between perceptions, level of support, and implementation fidelity has been documented with classroom-based programs (e.g. Beets et al., 2008), school-wide programs (e.g. Ransford, Greenberg, Domitrovich, Small, & Jacobson, 2009), and large- scale educational reform efforts (e.g. Geijsel, Sleegers, van den Berg, & Kelchtermans, 2001). PerceptionsBuy-InFidelity (Feuerborn, 2011)

11 Change Requires Systemic Thinking “Vision without systems thinking ends up painting lovely pictures of the future with no deep understanding of the forces that must be mastered to move from here to there.” (Senge, 1990, p. 12) (Feuerborn, 2011)

12 Change is Individual… Change is a process, not an event. Systemic change begins at the individual level. When the majority of individuals have changed, the system has changed. Change is a personal experience- Individuals change at different rates and in different ways. Individuals must change in to two important ways- knowledge and beliefs. Supports must be provided at an individual level. (Fullan, 1985; Hall & Hord, 2006) (Feuerborn, 2011)

13 Fidelity, Readiness, & Perceptions What are the factors important to SWPBS implementation?

14 School-wide Evaluation Tool Designed to assess and evaluate the critical features of school-wide effective behavior support across each academic school year. Sources of data include a review of permanent products, observations, and staff (minimum of 10) and student (minimum of 15) interviews or surveys. (Horner, Todd, Lewis-Palmer, Irvin, Sugai, & Boland, 2004) (Feuerborn, 2011)

15 Everywhere High School: Results from the SET. SET DomainsPercent in Place Expectations Defined25% Behavioral Expectations Taught40% On-Going System for Rewarding Behavioral Expectations17% System for Responding to Behavioral Violations88% Monitoring and Decision Making63% Management50% District-Level Support50% Total48% (Feuerborn, 2011)

16 The Readiness Assessment Process Systemic ReadinessStaff Readiness Continuous assessment of the current status and needs of the system with respect to implementation: Focused on all readiness domains Guided by a core leadership team Conducted at least annually Following awareness training, assessment of staff readiness deserves special consideration. Continuous assessment of staff: Knowledge and skills Attitudes and beliefs Conducted at least annually Also guided by a core planning team (Feuerborn, 2011)

17 Understanding Staff Perceptions What perceptions influence buy-in, and how can we develop an understanding of those perceptions? (Feuerborn, 2011)

18 Assessing Staff Readiness What? Knowledge & Skills Prior Training (Pre-service/ In-service) Training needs Beliefs & Attitudes Perceptions of PBIS in the six domains Levels of interest and support for implementation Following an awareness training… (Feuerborn, 2011)

19 Understanding Staff Concerns Awareness Personal Management Impact Collaboration Surveys Focus groups One legged conferences Open ended concerns statements: When you think about implementing PBIS, what concerns do you have? Stages of ConcernAssessing Concerns (Bailey & Palsha, 1992; Hall & Hord, 1987; Hall & Loucks, 1978; Cheung, Hattie, & Ng, 2001) (Feuerborn, 2011)

20 The Stages of Concern Questionnaire Designed to assess staff perceptions of a generic change initiative. Developed by Concerns Based Systems International– “Currently, other priorities prevent me from focusing my attention on the innovation.” “I would like to know how the innovation is better than what we have now.” “I would like to know how my role will change when I am using the innovation.” “I am concerned about my inability to manage all that the innovation requires.” “I would like to use feedback from students to change the program.” (Feuerborn, 2011)

21 Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline Survey (SPBD)  Designed to assess perceptions of behavior, discipline, and PBIS, including perceptions of…  The effectiveness of PBIS  The need for change in current discipline practices  Administrative direction and leadership  Supports for implementation  Personal confidence for managing behavior  Philosophical views of behavior and discipline (Feuerborn& Tyre, 2010). (Feuerborn, 2011)

22 Technical Properties of the SPBD: Content Validity Based on a comprehensive review of the systemic change, consultation, and PBIS literature bases, The six aforementioned domains of staff perceptions were identified and defined, Items were developed to assess staff perceptions in each domain, and Additional items were added to assess staff experience, interest in participating, and support for implementation. (Feuerborn, 2011)

23 Technical Properties of the SPBD: Internal Consistency Reliability Preliminary analyses of 228 survey responses revealed that the survey items consistently assess staff perceptions of behavior, discipline, and PBIS. Internal Consistency Reliability: Cronbach alpha coefficient of.84 (Feuerborn, 2011)

24 SWPBS will be effective in our school. Rationale If staff believe that SWPBS is likely to lead to socially meaningful outcomes in their school with their students, they will be more likely to support implementation. However, when staff feel hopeless that change is possible, a common barrier to the implementation of SWPBS exists. Example Items SWPBS is likely to be an effective approach in our school. SWPBS may work in other schools, but I have doubts it will work in ours. This school has successfully implemented similar change efforts in the past. Behavior plans don’t seem to work well. (E.g. Bambara et al., 2009; Kincaid et al., 2007; Lane et al., 2009; Lohrmann et al., 2008; Rogers, 2003; Von Brock & Elliott, 1987; Witt & Elliott, 1985). (Feuerborn, 2011)

25 SWPBS is needed in our school. Rationale When staff perceive there is a need for change in the discipline practices within their school system, they will be more likely to support implementation of SWPBS. However, staff are less likely to support the implementation of SWPBS when they feel more or less satisfied with the current discipline system. Example Items I don’t see a need to do anything differently in terms of how we handle discipline. Discipline is taking too much time away from academic instruction. Students at this school need to be held more responsible for their behavior. (E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Lohrmann et al., 2008; Rogers, 2003; Sugai & Horner, 2006) (Feuerborn, 2011)

26 Our administration will provide the necessary direction and leadership. Rationale Staff are more likely to support implementation of SWPBS when they perceive that the school administrator is committed to SWPBS, actively involved in planning and implementation, and has the leadership skills to move implementation forward in a direction that will benefit the school community. Example Items I have trust in my administration’s ability to lead us through change. Behavioral support is one of our top three school improvement priorities. This is likely to be yet another fad or initiative that comes and goes. Staff should be included more in decisions that affect the whole school. (E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Ervin & Schaughency, 2008; Fullan, 2001; Hall & Hord, 2011; Ransford et al., 2009; Rogers, 2003; Stollar et al., 2006) (Feuerborn, 2011)

27 Support will be provided for implementation. Rationale Staff are more likely to support the adoption of SWPBS when they perceive the supports they need for implementation will be provided. Justifiably, they are likely to resist the adoption of SWPBS if they perceive they will be asked to take on additional responsibilities without additional resources. Example Items Our administration will provide the resources needed to support implementation. I don’t have the time to teach social and behavioral expectations. I resent being asked to do one more thing in my classroom. (E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Bambara et al., 2009; Kincaid et al, 2007; Lohrmann et al., 2008; McKevitt & Braaksma, 2008; Sugai & Horner, 2006). (Feuerborn, 2011)

28 I can successfully implement SWPBS in my job role. Rationale When school staff feel confident in their ability to implement proactive behavior management strategies, they are more likely to do so. However, when staff lack confidence in their ability to implement positive strategies, they are prone to rely on emotional and reactive approaches. Example Items I understand what is involved with schoolwide positive behavior supports. I need more training to support the behavioral needs of my students. I need more support in dealing with behavioral issues in my classroom. (E.g. Bambara et al., 2009; Hastings, 2002; Oliver & Reschly, 2010; Tillery, Varjas, Meyers, & Collins, 2010) (Feuerborn, 2011)

29 I understand and believe in the philosophy of SWPBS. Rationale Misperceptions and misunderstandings of SWPBS often result from insufficient or poor professional development. Yet, staff members may fully understand the philosophy of SWPBS and fundamentally disagree with it, representing an implementation barrier. Example Items My colleagues and I share a common philosophy for student discipline. I don’t feel that teaching social and emotional skills is part of my job role. As a teacher, I should not have to deal with discipline problems. We should reserve rewards for exceeding expectations, not simply meeting them. (E.g. Adelman & Taylor, 2007; Bambara et al., 2009; Lohrmann et al., 2008; Zins & Ponti, 1990) (Feuerborn, 2011)

30 7 STRATEGIES to Building Staff Buy-In How can we facilitate staff buy-in? (Feuerborn, 2011)

31 Building Change (Feuerborn, 2011)

32 Build a Case for Change Reveal a need for change Discuss school needs assessment data, both academic and social-behavioral, to illustrate the limitations of current disciplinary practices in meeting the needs of students, staff, and the larger school community Reveal a need for SWPBS It should be clear that SWPBS is worth the investment and will produce substantive social-behavioral and academic outcomes for students, staff, and the school community. Remember: Half the staff believe behavior plans do not work well! (Feuerborn, 2011)

33 Provide the Evidence: Use Data & Testimonials An extensive body of research supports: Reductions in office referrals, Fewer reports of harassment, Reductions in suspensions, Fewer school safety violations, Improved attendance and punctuality, Positive behavior in school common areas. (Kartub, Taylor Green, March, & Horner, 2000; Luiselli, Putnam, Handler, & Feinberg, 2005; McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006; Scott, 2001; Oswald, Safran & Johanson, 2005; Scott & Barrett, 2004; Metzler, Biglan, Rusby, & Sprague, 2001; Todd, Haugen, Anderson, & Spriggs, 2002 Turnbull et al., 2002, White, Marr, Ellis, Audette, & Algozzine, 2001). (Feuerborn, 2011)

34 Build Administrative Supports The building-level administrator should be involved in the planning process by participating as an active member of the building leadership team and establishing a system of regular communication between the team, staff, and district-level administration regarding proposed changes Sufficient supports must be allocated for a sustained SWPBS implementation Recall: “We may not have the resources to make this as successful as other schools.” (Feuerborn, 2011)

35 Build Knowledge Creating readiness among staff requires building knowledge of the conceptual underpinnings and the procedural components of SWPBS. When staff have a deep understanding of the principles of SWPBS, it is likely they will have a higher confidence in their ability to implement those principles. Effective professional development adheres to best practices in adult learning, e.g. modeling, opportunities for practice, peer mentoring or coaching, and frequent performance feedback (Kratochwill, Volpiansky, Clements, & Ball, 2007). See also Handbook of Positive Behavior Support (Freeman, Lohrmann, Irvin, Kincaid, Vossler, & Ferro, J. 2009). (Feuerborn, 2011)

36 Build on Existing Capacity Inventory current practices to identify those that are consistent with SWPBS. Aligning current, effective practices to SWPBS not only builds upon existing capacities and respects the activities of staff, but it also reduces the amount of change necessary for implementation (Feuerborn, 2011)

37 Nature vs Nurture Is it the ability to effectively manage behavior innate or can it be learned? Professional development significantly improves teacher behavior management and student behavior (Marzano, 2003) Oh, I’m just not a natural with behavior management. (Feuerborn, 2011)

38 Build a Shared Vision School systems are comprised of many individuals with their own unique set of personal experiences and goals for students. Identifying a shared vision or a common set of goals is a critical, unifying step to implementing systemic change such as SWPBS (George, White, & Schlaffer, 2007). The creation of a shared vision should involve the whole staff. Recall the statement, “I feel like I am doing what I need to do, but I wonder about the level of implementation schoolwide.” (Feuerborn, 2011)

39 Build Opportunities for Dialogue Misperceptions, misunderstandings, and outright disagreement with the philosophy of SWPBS may be particularly complex barriers to implementation (Flanery, et al., 2009; Lohrmann, et al., 2008). We suggest identifying and addressing these misperceptions, misunderstandings, and theoretical differences and proactively by addressing them through open conversations about behavior and SWPBS. (Feuerborn, 2011)

40 Possible Topics for Discourse “… effective and ineffective teachers do not differ much with respect to how they handle discipline problems. Instead, they differ with respect to the number of discipline problems they encounter, the effective teachers having fewer problems...Effective teachers are likely to focus on antecedent control and establish a structure such that problems are less likely to occur” (Elliot, Witt, Kratochwill, & Stoiber, 2002. p. 244). If there is anything that we wish to change in the child, we should first examine it and see whether it is not something that could better be changed in ourselves. --Carl Jung (Feuerborn, 2011)

41 The Effectiveness of encouraging social- behavioral expectations Teacher reaction & tangible recognition effect sizes range from -.82 to -.997 (Marzano, 2003) (Feuerborn, 2011)

42 Build Ownership I NFORM --staff are kept abreast of new information and possible changes. I NVOLVE --staff know their voices will be heard, and they will be part of the decision-making process. A CKNOWLEDGE --the efforts of staff are acknowledge and both small and large successes are celebrated (Feuerborn, 2011)

43 Resources: Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Florida: llinois: http://pbisillinois.org Arizona: Maryland: Nebraska: Northwest: Stages of Concern: (Feuerborn, 2011)

44 Contact Laura Feuerborn University of Washington, Tacoma (Feuerborn, 2011)

45 References available upon request (Feuerborn, 2011)

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