# Interdependence: Flow of Energy Big Idea 17 SC.4.L.17.3 & SC.4.L.17.2 Mary Tweedy, Curriculum Support Specialist Keisha Kidd, Curriculum Support Specialist.

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Interdependence: Flow of Energy Big Idea 17 SC.4.L.17.3 & SC.4.L.17.2 Mary Tweedy, Curriculum Support Specialist Keisha Kidd, Curriculum Support Specialist Millard Lightburn, District Supervisor Department of Mathematics and Science Office of Academics and Transformation

Big Idea 17: Interdependence The Flow of Energy Benchmarks SC.4.L.17.3 Trace the flow of Energy from the Sun as it is transferred along the food chain through the producers to the consumers. SC.4.L.17.2 Explain that animals including humans cannot make their own food and when animals eat plants or animals, the energy stored in the food source is passed to them. SC.3.L.17.2 Recognize that plants use energy from the Sun, air, and water to make their own food.

H.O.T. Essential Questions How do plants convert the sun’s energy to make their own food? What do you think would happen to a plant if the leaves were damaged or missing? How is energy from the sun transferred from the sun to all living things on Earth?

H.O.T. Essential Questions Compare and contrast the ways that animals and plants get the energy they need to survive. Explain how you could use a diagram of the food chain to show how living organisms transfer their energy to each other.

Let’s get warmed up!

How do plants convert the sun’s energy to make their own food? Plants are producers, they produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis. photosynthesis

How do plants get their food?  Plants make their own food in their leaves.  What are the four ingredients needed? 1. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 2. water (H 2 0) 3. chlorophyll from the leaves 4. light from the sun  The chlorophyll in the leaves captures the sunlight’s energy and along with the water and carbon dioxide produce a food called sugar and release oxygen. This process is called Photosynthesis.Photosynthesis  So why are plants called producers?

Complete the illustration with captions to explain how plants make their own food through photosynthesis. Remember to include the main ingredients: water (H₂O), carbon dioxide (CO₂),oxygen,(O),chlorophyll, light.

What do you think would happen to a plant if the leaves were damaged or missing? Extension Activity for Photosynthesis http://herbarium.desu.edu/pfk/page2 5/page26/page27/page27.html

Resources for Photosynthesis Food Chain Study Jam http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/ja ms/science/ecosystems/food-chains.htm Food Webs Study Jam http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/ja ms/science/ecosystems/food-webs.htm Photosynthesis Karaoke http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/ja ms/science/plants/photosynthesis.htm Photosynthesis Study Jam http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/ja ms/science/plants/photosynthesis.htm

Flow of Energy in Food Chain 1. Sun 2. Producers (plants) 3. Consumers (animals) a. herbivore - eat plants b. carnivore – eat animals c. omnivore – eat both How is energy from the sun transferred from the sun to all living things on Earth?

Food Webs and Chains Food Webs and Chains are visual representations of how energy passes from one living thing to another.

A food chain is the path by which energy passes from one living thing to another.food chain

Who are the Consumers? Consumers cannot make their own food. They eat other organisms to get energy. There are three types of consumers: herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.

Consumers Herbivores eat plants. The prefix “herbi-” means green grass plants. Rabbits, deer, and tree snails are examples of herbivores. Herbivores Carnivores eat meat. The prefix “carni-” comes from the Spanish word “carne,” which means meat. Alligators, wolves, cougars, spiders, and sharks are examples of carnivores. Carnivores Omnivores eat both plants and animals. Omnivores The prefix “omni-” means “all.” People, raccoons, bream fish and bears that eat meat, fish, and vegetables are examples of omnivores.

Elephant Cow Deer Grasshopper Herbivores Herbivores are organisms that eat only plants and plant products. Rabbit

Tiger Lion Fox Alligator Herbivores Carnivores are organisms that eat only meat and meat products. Shark

People Bear Herbivores Omnivores are organisms that eat only meat and meat products. Raccoon Bream Fish

Who are the Decomposers? They are organisms that feed on waste and remains of dead organisms. Decomposers get energy by breaking down the remains of producers and consumers into nutrients. Earthworms, bacteria, and fungi (such as mushrooms) are examples of decomposers.

Trace the flow of energy through an ecosystem: Sun  Producer  Consumer  Decomposer

Directions: Identify each of the following pictures as a producer, consumer, or a decomposer: Producer Consumer Decomposer

Fourth What is the arrangement of the energy flow in the system below? FirstSecondThird MouseCheeseHawk Snake

What is the arrangement of the energy flow in the system below? FirstSecondFourthThird Mouse GrasshopperOwl Grass

What is the arrangement of the energy flow in the system below? First Second FourthThird ChickenEgg Corn Plant Hiker Cooking Eggs

Food Chain Tableau Materials: Index cards Definitions Vocabulary notebooks Student pens and/or pencils Procedure: 1. Students will first be presented with nine new definitions: food chains, producers, consumers, decomposers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, predator, and prey. Students will be asked to copy these definitions into their vocabulary notebooks. 2. Students will then be divided into groups, representing four-five major ecosystems. Each group will be given a set of index cards that belong to a specific ecosystem. Label the front of each card with the name of the ecosystem and the names of the animals found within them. The backside of each card is blank and students are responsible to fill in two categories: “What I eat” and “I live in.”

Food Web/Chain Activity continued Once the students have completed their cards, the teacher explains that each set of cards creates a food chain that is found in the corresponding ecosystem. The task for the students is to create a food chain using a drama technique called a tableau (a frozen image that demonstrates the food chain) to represent the diverse members of a given ecosystem. Students should be reminded that part of the tableau activity involves the speech bubble element in which they step out of the tableau and speak as if they were their organism. Students are encouraged to incorporate their new vocabulary into their speech. For example, the student who becomes the polar bear might say, “I am the polar bear who is found throughout the Artic. In this food chain I am eating the fox; therefore, I am a predator. However, I also like to eat berries, so you can call me an omnivore.” Each group will be given a chance to rehearse and present their tableau to the class.

Compare and contrast the ways that animals and plants get the energy they need to survive. PlantsAnimals

Layered book for Interdependence Materials: 3 pieces of white copy paper per student stapler Directions: Construct a layered-look book. Label the first 3 flaps "Vocabulary". Last three flaps are labeled "Photosynthesis", "Flow of Energy", and "Put it all together“ Have students document their learning throughout the lessons by filling in the appropriate sections in their layered book. Sample taken from Dinah Zikes “Big Book of Science”

Resources for Food Chains and Webs Food Chain Study Jam http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/ja ms/science/ecosystems/food-chains.htm Food Webs Study Jam http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/ja ms/science/ecosystems/food-webs.htm Food Chain Tableau http://www.gettoknow.ca/teachers/lessons/ecosyste m_drama_activity.pdf http://science.dadeschools.net/elem/PDgradeFour.html The Last Egret

Investigation Three: Pass the Energy Please! Pass the Energy Please! Be ready to name the organisms in your food chain explain each organism’s role explain how energy is transferred from the Sun through your food chain Materials: small paper plate yarn tape scissors crayons, markers Florida animal and plant pictures

What’s My Role? apple snaildeeranolegrass raccoonalligatoregretsnake swamp lily hawk panthershrimp mosquito fishblue heronmarsh rabbitearthworm kiteshrimpfungusalgae raccoongrasshopperbreameagle Producers Consumers (game) Label the consumers: H is for herbivores herbivores C is for carnivorescarnivores O is for omnivoresomnivores Decomposers

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