2ObjectivesTo learn more about different issues effecting people both inside and outside of our nation.To celebrate the equality earned through the Civil Rights Movement.To view the world differently though being curious and learning in a variety of settings.
3Martin Luther King Jr.Clergymen, activist, and founder of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).Believed in non-violent protest and used boycotts and sit-ins as a means to combat racism and violence.Was the youngest person to receive Nobel Peace Prize.Assassinated on April 4th, 1968 at the age of 39.
4Class Offerings Hip-Hop’s Political & Social Context “The Invisible Minority”Disease & Social StigmaThe Rape of NankingSocial Darwinism in WWI & TodayMau Mau Rebellion“The Party Planners”Socio-Economic Disparity
5DG Pairings Group #1- Bragg/Uber, Aronski, K. Folan Group #2- Fabiano, R. Folan, HarringtonGroup #3- Michaels, Nix, Dubinsky/AtwoodGroup #4- Freebody, Rigney/Keyes, BertschyGroup #5- Saucier/Fuller, Walsh, DeAngelisGroup #6- Osar, Fraser/Guan, Turner/CookeGroup #7- Robison, Duethorn/Tunney, CutrerGroup #8- Welch, Jenkins/Gaines
7Tuskegee airmenAn African American unit inside the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the U.S. Army Air Corps.War Department tradition and policy mandated the segregation of African-Americans into separate military units staffed by white officers,Rejection of World War I African-American recruits sparked over two decades of advocacy by African-Americans who wished to enlist and train as military aviators“We need to dream big dreams, propose grandiose means if we are to recapture the excitement, the vibrancy and pride we once had” – Coleman Young (May 24 , November 29, 1997)
8BackgroundThe Tuskegee Airmen were the first African American military aviators in the United States armed forces.During World War II, African Americans in many U.S. states still were subject to the Jim Crow laws.In 1940, the U.S. Census Bureau reported only 124 African-American pilots in the nation.
9Qualifying to be an airmen The U.S. Army Air Corps had established the Psychological Research Unit 1 at Maxwell Army Air Field, in Montgomery, Alabama, and other units around the country for aviation cadet training.Psychologists involved with academic and training programs used some of the first standardized tests to quantify IQ, leadership, and dexterity qualities.“If you pray for only one thing, let it be for an idea.” – Percy Sutton
10The first lady’s flight The flight program at Tuskegee received a publicity boost when First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt inspected it in March 1941, and flew with African-American chief civilian instructor C. Alfred "Chief" Anderson.After landing, the First Lady cheerfully announced, "Well, you can fly all right.”The First Lady’s flight had a great impact on the Tuskegee project.
11Combat assignment “Courage is one step ahead of fear” The 99th was finally considered ready for combat duty by April It shipped out of Tuskegee on the second of April, bound for North Africa, where it would join the 33rd Fighter Group and its commander Colonel William W. Momyer.Given little guidance from battle-experienced pilots, the 99th's first combat mission was to attack the small strategic volcanic island of Pantelleria in the Mediterranean Sea, to clear the sea lanes for the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943.“Courage is one step ahead of fear”
12Accomplishments and honors In all, 996 pilots were trained in Tuskegee from 1941 to 1946, approximately 445 were deployed overseas, and 150 Airmen lost their lives in accidents or combat. The casualty toll included 66 pilots killed in action or accidents, and 32 fallen into captivity as prisoners of war.
13Topics in Critical Race Relations MLK Day Presentations
15Intel on Rosa Parks Real name: Rosa Louise McCauley Parks Born in Tuskegee Alabama.Born on February 4, 1913Died in Detroit , MichiganOn October 24, (age 92)Job: Civil Rights Activist and seamstress.
16The RevoltThe bus incident that sparked the fuse of the civil rights movement,(the Bus Boycott) all happened on December 1, 1955It all started with 42-year-old African American woman who worked as a seamstress who would not give up her seat to a white man.The segregation was very easily separated in other things like waiting rooms and water fountains, but when it came to transportation it was very hard to separate.Because they could not afford to get separate buses.
17The RevoltThey only hade one bus and it was split up as the front is the white people, and in the back was for the black.If the white section gets filled, then they would take over the black section.
18Bus BoycottRosa Parks initiated a new era in the American quest for freedom and equality.The action that she did that day was not planned.
19Bus Boycott More than half the population was African American. So when all of them decided to stop going on buses it hurt the companies.After a while, it was crucial to the transportation companies to desegregate the transportation system.
21Summer of 1955, Emmett Till and his friends stopped at a convenient store in Money, Mississippi. Following a dare from his friends Emmett said “Bye Baby” to the store owners wife, Carolyn Bryant, a white woman.The following series of events would change racism and segregation forever.Carolyn Bryant
22Just a few days later the husband Roy Bryant and brother-in law of Carolyn Barnett, J.W. Milam, showed up at Till’s home and kidnapped him gun point.After being beaten, tortured, and shot in the head, Till was lynched and thrown in the Tallahatchie River tied to a heavy cotton gin.
23The two men were put on trial for murder, many believe because it was a all white jury were acquitted of the crimes.This proved southern racism on a much more disturbing level.In 1956, the two men sold their confession to Look magazine.In 2004, it was discovered that up to 10 more people may have helped these two men.
24Emmett’s mom, Mamie Bradley, held her son on display at a open casket funeral in Chicago, Illinois. She did this to show people how bad racism in the south really was and that something needed to be done about it.Hundreds came and paid there respects.
25WARNING: THE NEXT IMAGE MAY BE DISTRURBING TO VIEWERS.
28Background1957Thelma Mothershed, Elizabeth Eckford, Melba Pattillo, Jefferson Thomas, Ernest Green, Minnijean Brown, Carlotta Walls, Terrence Roberts, and Gloria RayGovernor Orville Faubus- strongly against desegregationAttempt to desegregate central high in Little Rock, Arkansas
29Tension Governor wanted to prevent black students from entering school Sent Arkansas National Guard to prevent students from entering schoolEisenhower sent 1,100 paratroopers to watch over childrenFirst time since reconstruction troops were used to protect blacks rights
30Tension Troops remained at the school for the rest of the year. Governor decided to close the school the following year.
31EffectsInspired other blacks if these teenagers could endure such hardships they could too.Led to many lunch counter sit-ins and freedom rides.
32Aftermath Ernest Green graduated in 1957. Jefferson Thompson and Carlotta Walls graduated from central in 1959.Minniejean Brown Suspended for throwing food on another student.The rest moved away.
33Civil Rights Movement: Methods of ProtestRosa ParksMartin Luther King, Jr.Malcolm X
34Civil Rights Movement: Civil DisobedienceCivil Disobedience was the mentality behind the majority of the monumental acts during the Civil Rights Movement – everything from the Million Man March to simple acts of non-compliance. These courageous acts helped America reach a state of true equality.During the Civil Rights Movement, many African-Americans searched for ways to end racial discrimination and establish equality. The most common form of protest was Civil Disobedience – a philosophy presented by Henry David Thoreau. This philosophy inspired the work of civil rights activists Marin Luther King and Rosa Parks.
35Civil Rights Movement: Acts of Civil DisobedienceOn December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks boarded a crowded bus, respectfully headed for the back and sat in a seat closer to the middle. When a white man boarded the bus, the driver ordered her to vacate her seat for him. She refused to move and was subsequently arrested. Her courageous act of resistance helped launch the Montgomery Bus Boycott – which, in time, desegregated buses.On February 1, 1960, four college students entered a restaurant in Greensboro, North Carolina and sat at a counter, where they were declined service all day, but sat quietly doing their schoolwork until the store closed. This act motivated a number of similar acts at local restaurants all over the South.
36Civil Rights Movement: “By Any Means Necessary”Malcolm Little, better known as Malcolm X, was an eloquent and passionate civil rights activist, whom which had an outlook that was in contrast to civil disobedience. He felt that African-Americans were victims of unjust crimes, and thus were entitled to secure their rights “by any means necessary” – including the use of violence. He believed in militant activism through self-defense. His main objective was to overturn all systems that neglect African-Americans of basic human rights.Malcolm’s approach inspired the works of Stokely Carmichael in the Black Power movement, along with the works of Huey Newton and the formation of the Black Panther Party. In a number of cities, race riots broke out and were accredited to the Malcolm X approach.“Nobody can give you freedom. Nobody can give you justice or equality or anything. If you’re a man, you take it.” – Malcolm X, 1965
37Civil Rights Movement: Civil Disobedience vs. DisorderWhich position would you take? Why?What are the benefits of this position? What are the repercussions?