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Welcome! APNIC Members Training Course

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1 Welcome! APNIC Members Training Course
Effective IP Address Management Asia Pacific Policies and Procedures 3 September 2002, Kitakyushu, Japan

2 Presenters Introduction Miwa Fujii – Training Officer
George Kuo – Internet Resource Analyst Arth Paulite – Internet Resource Analyst

3 Assumptions & Objectives
Are current APNIC member or a prospective member Have not submitted many requests Are not familiar or up to date with policies Are not familiar with procedures Objectives Provide overview of current policies To minimise “pain” of requesting resources To promote awareness

4 Schedule Session 1 (9-10.30) Session 2 (11-12.30) - General
Introduction to APNIC (5) What is the role of APNIC? RIR Goals & Principles (12) Short background APNIC Policies (25) All current APNIC policies Policies & Procedures (33) Additional guidelines Session 2 ( ) - Operational Requesting resources (42) Overview, forms, tips etc. IP Management (53) Planning your allocation APNIC Database (65) Short intro to the whois DB Reverse DNS (86) Basic concepts Summary (95)

5 Asia Pacific Network Information Centre
Introduction to APNIC Asia Pacific Network Information Centre

6 What is APNIC? Regional Internet Registry for the Asia Pacific
Intro What is APNIC? Regional Internet Registry for the Asia Pacific Regional authority for Internet Resource distribution IPv4 & IPv6 addresses, ASNs, reverse dns delegation Industry self-regulatory body Participation by those who use Internet resources Consensus-based, open and transparent Non-profit, neutral and independent Open membership-based structure

7 APNIC is not… Not a network operator Not a standards body
Intro APNIC is not… Not a network operator Does not provide networking services Works closely with APRICOT forum Not a standards body Does not develop technical standards Works within IETF in relevant areas (IPv6 etc) Not a domain name registry or registrar Will refer queries to relevant parties

8 Internet Registry Hierarchy
Intro Internet Registry Hierarchy

9 Intro APNIC Region

10 APNIC Services & Activities
Intro APNIC Services & Activities Resource services & registration IPv4, IPv6, ASNs,, whois Authoritative registration server: whois Policy development and implementation Membership reviews and approves policy Information dissemination APNIC meetings Training courses & seminars

11 Questions ? Want to know more about APNIC and the APNIC meetings?
Come to the newcomer’s orientation this afternoon at

12 Definitions, RIR Goals, Brief History & Policy Development
RIR Goals & Principles Definitions, RIR Goals, Brief History & Policy Development

13 Definitions - Allocation and Assignment
Policy Background Definitions - Allocation and Assignment Allocation A block of address space held by an IR for subsequent allocation or assignment Not yet used to address any networks Assignment A block of address space used to address an operational network May be provided to LIR customers, or used for an LIR’s infrastructure (‘self-assignment’)

14 Allocation and Assignment
Policy Background Allocation and Assignment APNIC Allocates IP addresses /8 APNIC Allocation APNIC Member Assigns IP addresses /20 Member Allocation Customer / End User /24 /25 /26 Customer Assignments

15 Portable & Non-portable
Policy Background Portable & Non-portable Portable Customer holds addresses independent from ISP Customer keeps addresses when changing ISP Bad for size of routing tables Bad for QOS: routes may be filtered, flap-dampened Non-portable Customer uses ISP’s address space Customer must renumber if changing ISP Only way to effectively scale the Internet

16 Classful and Classless
Policy Background Classful and Classless Classful (Obsolete) Wasteful address architecture network boundaries are fixed at 8, 16 or 24 bits (class A, B, and C) Classless (Best Current Practice) Efficient architecture network boundaries may occur at any bit (e.g. /12, /16, /19, /24 etc) CIDR Classless Inter Domain Routing architecture Allows aggregation of routes within ISPs infrastructure

17 Classful Address Architecture
Policy Background Classful Address Architecture 128 networks x 16M hosts Class A A (8 bits) Host address (24 bits) (50% of all address space) 16K networks x 64K hosts Class B B (16 bits) Host (16 bits) 10 (25%) 2M networks x 256 hosts Class C C (24 bits) Host (8 bits) 110 (12,5%) Classful addressing obsolete: inefficient depletion of B space too many routes from C space

18 Classless Address Architecture
Policy Background Classless Address Architecture 4M hosts /10 10 bits Host address (22 bits) 8192 hosts /19 19 bits Host (13 bits) 4096 hosts /20 20 bits Host (12 bits) 4096 hosts /24 Host (8 bits) 24 bits 64 hosts /26 26 bits Host (6 bits) Network boundaries may occur at any bit

19 CIDR Aggregation ISP Customer Customer Customer
Policy Background CIDR Aggregation BGP announcements /16 ISP /16 Provider Aggregation Provider Aggregation Customer Customer Customer /26 /25 /29

20 APNIC Policies - Objectives
Policy Background APNIC Policies - Objectives Conservation Ensuring efficient use and conservation of resources Aggregation Limiting growth of routable prefixes Registration Registering the Internet resources in a public db Uniqueness Global visibility Fairness and consistency Equal consideration irrespective of external factors

21 Why do we need Policies ? - Global IPv4 Delegations
Policy Background Why do we need Policies ? - Global IPv4 Delegations

22 Why do we need Policies? - Growth of Global Routing Table
Policy Background Why do we need Policies? - Growth of Global Routing Table Projected routing table growth without CIDR But they cannot be relied on forever Moore’s Law and CIDR made it work for a while Deployment Period of CIDR (as of 19 July 2002)

23 Routing Table Prefix Distribution
Policy Background Routing Table Prefix Distribution

24 APNIC Policy Development
Policy Background APNIC Policy Development Based on global and regional policies Global: RFC2050 Regional: ‘Policies for Address Space Management in the Asia Pacific Region’ Policy development APNIC and APNIC members Other RIRs and wider community Policy implementation I will now discuss some of the APNIC policies which are applied to our members. These may not be the policies of our own members and confederations, but as I said, it is in all of our interests for there to be harmony across all policies which are implemented at various levels. To meet the goals on the previous slides, APNIC allocation policies include the following: - Firstly, they are based on global policies, but with local amendments. rfc2050 gives basic allocation and assignment criteria to support the goals of conservation, efficiency and aggregation. All regional registries follow rfc2050, but have refined those policies further. APNIC is also currently preparing a more detailed set of policy guidelines for the AP region. -Secondly, the minimum allocation to any new member is a /19. This reflects operational practice within some parts of the Internet, and is felt to be a good compromise between aggregation and conservation. There is some discussion at a regional level to change this, but before APNIC would change its policies, it would of course consult with its members. -Thirdly, to promote aggregation APNIC allocates non-portable address space to its members. This is known as “Provider Aggregatable” - which refers to the fact that the assignments to customers are “aggregated” by the member ISP. “Provider Independent” address space (that which is assigned independent of any ISP) works against the goal of aggregation and should no longer be assigned to end users anywhere.

25 APNIC IPv4 Address Policies
Allocation & Assignment Policies

26 APNIC Policy Environment
Policies APNIC Policy Environment IP addresses not freehold property Internet resources are public resources ‘Ownership’ is contrary to management goals Need to avoid the mistakes of the past Assignments & allocations on lease basis Confidentiality & security APNIC to observe and protect trust relationship Non-disclosure agreement signed by staff

27 APNIC Allocation Policies
Allocations as Non portable address space Provider responsible for aggregation Customer assignments must be non-portable Allocations based on demonstrated need Detailed documentation required All address space held to be declared Address space to be obtained from one source routing considerations may apply Stockpiling not permitted

28 Initial IPv4 Allocation Criteria
Policies Initial IPv4 Allocation Criteria Have used a /22 from upstream provider Demonstrated efficient previous address usage OR Show immediate need for /22 Can include customer projections & infrastructure equipment Provide detailed plan for use of /21 within a year Renumber to new space within 1 year Meet all policy requirements Applicants may be required to show purchase receipts

29 Address Assignment Policies
Assignments based on requirements Demonstrated through detailed documentation Justification through description of usage, and number of hosts initially, in 6 months, and one year Assignment should maximise utilisation (minimise wastage) Classless assignments, showing use of VLSM Size of allocation Sufficient for up to 12 months requirement Just as APNIC must ensure correct allocation of address space to its members, APNIC members must also ensure correct assignment of address space to their own members and customers. APNIC policies on assignment require all members to examine network design and projection of host numbers initially, after 1 year, and after 2 years. Again, assignment must always maximise utilisation, and thus minimise wastage of address space. At all levels of allocation and assignment, efficient address space management is vital for the future of the internet.

30 Small Multihoming Assignment Policy
Policies Small Multihoming Assignment Policy Applicants currently multihomed OR Demonstrate a plan to multihome within 1 month Agree to renumber out of previously assigned space Demonstrate need to use 25% of requested space immediately and 50% within 1 year Meet all policy requirements or have the assignment revoked

31 IPv4 Assignment policy for IXPs
Policies IPv4 Assignment policy for IXPs /24 assignment for IX point’s Transit LAN Must agree not to announce the space to the global routing table IXP must be able to demonstrate “open peering policy” Have 3 or more peers APNIC has a reserved block of space from which to make IXP assignments

32 Questions ?

33 APNIC Policies & Procedures
Policies, Procedures and Best Current Practices

34 Virtual web hosting Name based hosting IP based hosting
P&P & BCP Virtual web hosting Name based hosting ‘Strongly recommended’ Use ‘infrastructure’ field to describe web servers IP based hosting Permitted on technical grounds for SSL, virtual ftp.. Special verification for IP based If more than /22 used for this purpose Requestor must send list of URLs of virtual domain and corresponding IP address

35 Cable, DSL services 1:1 contention ratio
P&P & BCP Cable, DSL services 1:1 contention ratio Can be either statically or dynamically assigned Means 1 IP address per customer Greater than 1:1 contention ratio Preferred because conserves address space Choice of addressing is optional for members dynamic addressing is encouraged Verification for DSL Services Equipment details Ex: BRAS, Number of ports Purchase requests

36 New Cable Service Bootstrapping criteria for new cable service
P&P & BCP New Cable Service Bootstrapping criteria for new cable service Applies to startup providers commencing new cable Allocation size based on assumption that requestor will assign a /24 to each CMTS in their network Complete ‘additional info’ with make, model & quantity Purchase receipts for equipments may be asked Assignments greater than /30 need to be Requested through second opinion process Registered separately in the database

37 Cable / DSL Cable, DSL services For residential networks
P&P & BCP Cable / DSL Cable, DSL services Special verification for 1:1 (permanently on-line) For anything over a /22 in total, verification through customer list for random head-ends or other alternative For residential networks Do not need to register on-site tech-c, however ISPs tech-c can be used

38 Renumbering One-for-one exchange to assist renumbering
P&P & BCP Renumbering One-for-one exchange to assist renumbering needs confirmation from upstream ISP to confirm renumbering will take place ‘No Questions Asked’ return prefix policy swap 3 or more discontiguous prefixes (ISP or customers) for single prefix, no charge Form for returning addresses

39 Subsequent Allocations
P&P & BCP Subsequent Allocations 80% overall utilisation Demonstrated conservative assignments Correct database registrations for customers Fix inconsistencies before next allocation Amount depends on “usage” rate How much, how fast, allocate for up to one year Contiguous allocation not guaranteed But every effort made

40 Summary All address space held should be documented
P&P & BCP Summary All address space held should be documented Check other RIR, NIR databases for historical allocations ‘No reservations’ policy Reservations may never be claimed Fragments address space Customers may need more or less address space than is actually reserved Aggregation LIR announces allocation as a single aggregate

41 Questions ?

42 Requesting Internet Resources

43 Requesting IP addresses - Overview
Req IP Requesting IP addresses - Overview Put together an Addressing Plan Register all customer assignments in db Request an Allocation Second opinion request 80% utilisation in Allocation ISP Request (APNIC-084) For customer assignments (APNIC-073) Request new Allocation APNIC-084

44 Addressing Plan Identify components of network
Req IP Addressing Plan Identify components of network Customer services ISP internal infrastructure Identify phases of deployment Starting off, 6 months, 12 months Identify equipment and topology changes Need for redundancy Need for increased scale

45 Addressing Plan Example
network-plan: YES /512/ leased line customers network-plan: PART /60/ PRI dial up modems.. network-plan: PART /60/ PRI dial up modems.. network-plan: YES /16/35 LAN -mail,DNS, web internal network-plan: YES /25/40 LAN -NOC & Ops mgmt network-plan: YES /11/11 LAN -web hosting (Name-based) network-plan: YES /8/8 LAN -secondary servers network-plan: YES /6/12 loopback router interfaces network-plan: YES /2/2 router WAN ports (x 8 lines ) detailed, efficient and accurate Connect to Internet relative prefix subnet mask subnet size Deployment phases Description

46 Address Request Forms Allocation Request
Req IP Address Request Forms Allocation Request ISP Address Request Form Assignment Request (Second opinion) Second opinion Request Form

47 Hostmaster Administrivia
Req IP Hostmaster Administrivia mailbox Is filtered to accept requests from members only Requires member account name Subject: IP Address Request [CONNECT-AU] Ticketing system Every request is assigned a ticket Ticket # is a confirmation that your request has been well received New staff at LIR Require an ‘introduction’ to hostmasters To ensure confidentiality

48 Requesting IP addresses
Req IP Requesting IP addresses Create person objects and a company maintainer object before you apply. Read the “Tips” document at: Use correct account name for your request Always use same ticket # for same request Please keep # in subject line of eg. [APNIC #14122] [CHINANET-CN]

49 Requesting IP addresses
Req IP Requesting IP addresses Provide a detailed description of your network topology More information provided = less iteration Make sure the request has correct format & syntax Provide list of all current addresses held Additional comments field Topology map, deployment plan etc Any additional info that supports the request Plan to adopt best current practice

50 Requesting New Allocation - Checklist
Req IP Requesting New Allocation - Checklist Utilisation in allocation is 80% All customer assignments are registered in the whois database With accurate and up-to-data information Sufficient documentation to support address requirement Membership fee is paid

51 Member Services Helpdesk
Req IP Member Services Helpdesk One point of contact for all member enquiries Extended operating hours 9:00 am to 7:00 pm (Australian EST, UTC + 10 hrs) More personalised service Range of languages Cantonese, Filipino, Mandarin, Thai, Vietnamese etc. Faster response and resolution of queries IP resource applications, status of requests, obtaining help in completing application forms, membership enquiries, billing issues & database enquiries etc.

52 Questions ?

53 IP Address Management

54 Revision of routing protocols
IP Mgmt Revision of routing protocols Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS Used to find optimum route to a host in ISP network Convergence becomes important with scaling Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Can be interior (iBGP) and exterior (eBGP) Used to carry traffic across your network and to/from the Internet Can use BGP attributes for routing policy

55 Principles of Addressing
IP Mgmt Principles of Addressing Separate customer & infrastructure address pools Manageability Different personnel manage infrastructure and assignments to customers Scalability Easier renumbering - customers are difficult, infrastructure is relatively easy

56 Principles of Addressing
IP Mgmt Principles of Addressing Further separate infrastructure ‘Dynamic’ infrastructure for IGP Network infrastructure addresses used by a routing protocol - alternate paths to host exist Eg. p2p addresses of backbone connections Eg. router loopback addresses ‘Static’ infrastructure Static routing of infrastructure (no alternative path exists) Carry in iBGP

57 Principles of Addressing
IP Mgmt Principles of Addressing Further separate infrastructure ‘Static’ infrastructure examples RAS server address pools, CMTS Virtual web and content hosting LANs Anything where there is no dynamic route calculation Customer networks Carry in iBGP , do not put in IGP No need to aggregate address space carried in iBGP Can carry in excess of 100K prefixes

58 Hierarchy of Routing Protocols
IP Mgmt Hierarchy of Routing Protocols Other ISPs BGP4 (eBGP) ISP Internal Network BGP4 (iBGP) & OSPF/ISIS eBGP Static/eBGP Local NAP Customers

59 Management - Simple Network
IP Mgmt Management - Simple Network First allocation from APNIC Infrastructure is known, customers are not 20% free is trigger for next request Grow usage of blocks from edges Assign customers sequentially Customers 20% p 2 Infrastructure loops

60 Management - Simple Network
IP Mgmt Management - Simple Network If second allocation is contiguous Reverse order of division of first block Maximise contiguous space for infrastructure Easier for debugging Customer networks can be discontiguous 1st allocation 2nd allocation Customers Infrastructure Infrastructure 20% Customers

61 Management - Many POPs WAN link to single transit ISP POP1 POP3 POP2
IP Mgmt Management - Many POPs WAN link to single transit ISP POP1 POP3 POP2 Server

62 Management - Many POPs POP sizes
IP Mgmt Management - Many POPs POP sizes Choose address pool for each POP according to need Loopback addresses Keep together in one block Assists in fault-resolution Customer addresses Assign sequentially Customer Infrastructure POP 1 POP2 loopbacks

63 Management - Many POPs /20 allocation not enough for all POPs?
IP Mgmt Management - Many POPs /20 allocation not enough for all POPs? Deploy addresses on infrastructure first Common mistake Reserving customer addresses on a per POP basis Do not constrain network plans due to lack of address space Re-apply once address space has been used

64 Questions ?

65 Introduction and Usage
The APNIC Database Introduction and Usage

66 What is the APNIC Database?
DB What is the APNIC Database? Public network management database Operated by IRs Tracks network resources IP addresses, ASNs, Reverse Domains, Routing policies Records administrative information Contact information (persons/roles) Authorisation

67 Object Types OBJECT PURPOSE person contact persons
DB Object Types OBJECT PURPOSE person contact persons role contact groups/roles inetnum IPv4 addresses inet6num IPv6 addresses aut-num Autonomous System number as-macro group of autonomous systems domain reverse domains route prefixes being announced mntner (maintainer) database authorisation

68 To obtain template structure, use :
DB Object Templates To obtain template structure, use : whois -t <object type> Recognised by the RIPE whois client/server % whois -h -t person person: [mandatory] [single] [primary/look-up key] address: [mandatory] [multiple] [ ] country: [optional] [single] [ ] phone: [mandatory] [multiple] [ ] fax-no: [optional] [multiple] [ ] [optional] [multiple] [look-up key] nic-hdl: [mandatory] [single] [primary/look-up key] remarks: [optional] [multiple] [ ] notify: [optional] [multiple] [inverse key] mnt-by: [optional] [multiple] [inverse key] changed: [mandatory] [multiple] [ ] source: [mandatory] [single] [ ]

69 Person object - example
DB Person object - example Person objects contain contact information Attributes Values person: address: address: address: country: phone: fax-no: nic-hdl: mnt-by: changed: source: Ky Xander ExampleNet Service Provider 2 Pandora St Boxville Wallis and Futuna Islands WF KX17-AP MAINT-WF-EXAMPLENET APNIC

70 Inetnum object - example
DB Inetnum object - example Inetnum objects contain IP address allocations / assignments Attributes Values inetnum: netname: descr: country: admin-c: tech-c: mnt-by: mnt-lower: changed: source: CCNEP-NP-AP Communication & Communicate Nepal Ltd VSAT Service Provider, Kathmandu NP AS75-AP AS75-AP APNIC-HM MAINT-NP-ARUN APNIC

71 Object Types person: … inetnum: – …
DB Object Types person: … nic-hdl: KX17-AP Contact info inetnum: – … admin-c: KX17-AP tech-c: ZU-AP … mnt-by: MAINT-WF-EX IPv4 addresses mntner: MAINT-WF-EX … … Data protection person: … nic-hdl: ZU3-AP Contact info

72 Why Use the Database? Register use of Internet Resources
DB Why Use the Database? Register use of Internet Resources IP assignments, reverse DNS, etc Ascertain custodianship of a resource Fulfill responsibilities as resource holder Obtain details of technical contacts for a network Investigate security incidents Track source of network abuse or “spam”

73 LIR Registration Responsibilities
DB LIR Registration Responsibilities Create person objects for contacts To provide contact info in other objects Create mntner object To provide protection of objects Create inetnum objects for all customer address assignments (Allocation object created by APNIC)

74 Using the DB – step by step
Inetnum: Allocation (Created by APNIC) 3 person: nic-hdl: KX17-AP Contact info 1 Inetnum: ... KX17-AP ... mnt-by: ... 4 Inetnum: ... KX17-AP ... mnt-by: ... 5 Inetnum: ... KX17-AP ... mnt-by: ... 6 Data Protection mntner: 2 Customer Assignments (Created by LIR)

75 Basic Database Queries
DB Basic Database Queries Unix whois –h <lookup key> Web interface Look-up keys usually the object name Check the object template for look-up keys whois –t <object type>

76 % whois
DB Database Query - UNIX % whois % whois zu3-ap % whois “zane ulrich” person: Zane Ulrich address: ExampleNet Service Provider address: Pandora St Boxville address: Wallis and Futuna Islands country: WF phone: fax-no: nic-hdl: ZU3-AP mnt-by: MAINT-WF-EXAMPLENET changed: source: APNIC

77 Database Query - Inetnum
DB Database Query - Inetnum % whois % whois /19 % whois SINGNET-SG inetnum: netname: SINGNET-SG descr: Singapore Telecommunications Ltd descr: , Exeter Road, #02-00, Podium Block descr: Comcentre, country: SG admin-c: CWL3-AP tech-c: CWL3-AP mnt-by: APNIC-HM changed: source: APNIC Notes Incomplete addresses padded with “.0” Address without prefix interpreted as “/32”

78 Advanced Database Queries
DB Advanced Database Queries Flags used for inetnum queries None find exact match - L find all less specific matches - m find first level more specific matches

79 Database Query - inetnum
DB Database Query - inetnum whois -L /20 inetnum: – /8 Less specific  (= bigger block) inetnum: – /20 whois /20 whois –m /20 inetnum: /24 /25 inetnum: inetnum: /26 More specific  (= smaller blocks)

80 Database Update Process
DB 2 Database Update Process Create a new object Change an object Delete an object Method 1: Web interface Method 2: Directly by

81 Database Update Process
DB 2 Database Update Process Web interface Fill out form on web Template is created and sent to you by Forward to Get template / existing object Send completed template to Common error: to reply to the

82 Updating an existing object
DB 2 Updating an existing object Update fields to be changed Add your maintainer password Update the changed attribute updated object to: Note Primary keys cannot be modified

83 Database Update Process
DB 2 Database Update Process Deleting an object Copy object as-is in database into Add your maintainer password Leave the changed attribute Referenced objects cannot be deleted (02/99) inetnum: netname: SONY-HK ... mnt-by: MAINT-CNS-AP changed: source: APNIC password: x34zky delete: no longer required

84 Database Mailboxes Automatic request processing
DB 2 Database Mailboxes Automatic request processing Automatic “robot” for all db updates template for create/update/delete Database service support s answered by APNIC staff APNIC response time approx 2 days Parse

85 Questions ?

86 Reverse DNS Delegation
Rev. DNS Reverse DNS Delegation Registry Procedures

87 What is ‘Reverse DNS’? ‘Forward DNS’ maps names to numbers
Rev. DNS What is ‘Reverse DNS’? ‘Forward DNS’ maps names to numbers -> ‘Reverse DNS’ maps numbers to names >

88 Hierarchy of IP addresses
Rev. DNS Hierarchy of IP addresses Uses ‘’ domain INverse ADDRess IP addresses written – Less specific to More specific Domain names written – More specific to Less specific Reversed in hierarchy

89 Root DNS Mapping numbers to names - ‘reverse DNS’ net edu
Rev. DNS Mapping numbers to names - ‘reverse DNS’ Root DNS net edu com arpa in in-addr apnic 202 whois whois 64 22 22 .64 .202 .in-addr .arpa

90 Reverse DNS - why bother?
Rev. DNS Reverse DNS - why bother? Service denial That only allow access when fully reverse delegated eg. anonymous ftp Diagnostics Assisting in trace routes etc Registration Responsibility as a member

91 Member Responsibilities
Rev. DNS Member Responsibilities Ensure that addresses are reverse-mapped Be familiar with APNIC procedures Maintain nameservers for allocations Minimise “pollution” of DNS syntax or configuration errors

92 Delegation Procedures
Rev. DNS Delegation Procedures Complete form at: Online form verifies name servers Form gives errors, warnings in zone configuration Uses database ‘domain’ object can be updated through webform or via . Protection by maintainer object Zone file update 2-hourly

93 What are Reverse Delegations? Classless Reverse DNS
References Reverse DNS Guide Reverse DNS Form What are Reverse Delegations? Classless Reverse DNS

94 Questions ?

95 What we have covered today
Summary What we have covered today

96 Summary - Responsibilities
As an APNIC member and custodian of address space Be aware of your responsibilities Register customer assignments in APNIC database Keep this data up-to-date & accurate Educate your customers Document your network in detail Keep local records Register reverse DNS delegations

97 Summary “Do the right thing”
Think about routing table size & scalability of Internet Encourage renumbering Announce aggregate prefixes Think global not local

98 Your feedback is appreciated
Thank you !! Your feedback is appreciated

99 Supplementary Reading

100 Introduction Regional Registry web sites APNIC past meetings APNIC
ARIN RIPE NCC APNIC past meetings

101 Introduction Details of members Membership Mailing lists
Membership Membership procedure Membership application form Membership fees Mailing lists

102 The RIR System “Development of the Regional Internet Registry System”
Internet Protocol Journal Short history of the Internet

103 APNIC Policies Classless techniques CIDR Private Address Space
Network Addressing when using CIDR Variable Length Subnet Table Private Address Space Address Allocation for Private Internets Counter argument: Unique addresses are good

104 Policies & Policy Environment
Policy Documentation Policies for address space management in the Asia Pacific region RFC2050: Internet Registry IP allocation Guidelines

105 Address Request Procedures
Addressing Guidelines Designing Addressing Architectures for Routing & Switching Howard C. Berkowitz Address Request Forms ISP Address Request Form Second-opinion Request Form No Questions Asked

106 APNIC Database APNIC Database Documentation
RIPE Database Documentation Database ‘whois’ Client

107 Request Forms Classless Delegations
Classless Delegations Common DNS data file configuration errors Domain name structure and delegation Domain administrators operations guide

108 Taking care of your domain Tools for DNS debugging Tools for DNS debugging Common Errors NS not reachable, NS not set up Domain not fully qualified (dot missing) Entries in zone which do not belong there More/less Nses listed than applied for Nses cache different information Source of a zone (as listed inSOA) not in NS RR

109 Common Errors cont’d CNAME Problem
Old versions of BIND cannot do recursive lookups NS name contains unusual characters Underscore not permitted In addition for /16 delegations: APNIC should be listed as secondary

110 Other Supplementary Reading
Operational Content Books ISP Survival Guide - Geoff Huston BGP Table Routing Instability

111 Other Supplementary Reading
Routing & Mulithoming Internet Routing Architectures - Bassam Halabi BGP Communities Attribute Multihoming Using a Dedicated AS for Sites homed to a Single Provider

112 Other Supplementary Reading
Filtering Egress Filtering Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing Dampening case studies at Traceroute Server

113 Other Supplementary Reading
Renumbering Network Renumbering Overview: Why Would I Want It and What Is It Anyway? Procedures for Enterprise Renumbering NAT The IP Network Address Translator

114 APNIC Mailing Lists apnic-talk apnic-announce ipv6-registry
Open discussion relevant to APNIC community and members e.g. policies, procedures etc apnic-announce Announcements of interest to the AP community ipv6-registry IPv6 allocation and assignment policies subscribe via archives at

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