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Welcome! APNIC Members Training Course Effective IP Address Management Asia Pacific Policies and Procedures 3 September 2002, Kitakyushu, Japan.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome! APNIC Members Training Course Effective IP Address Management Asia Pacific Policies and Procedures 3 September 2002, Kitakyushu, Japan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome! APNIC Members Training Course Effective IP Address Management Asia Pacific Policies and Procedures 3 September 2002, Kitakyushu, Japan

2 2 Introduction Presenters –Miwa Fujii – Training Officer –George Kuo – Internet Resource Analyst –Arth Paulite – Internet Resource Analyst

3 3 Assumptions & Objectives Assumptions –Are current APNIC member or a prospective member –Have not submitted many requests –Are not familiar or up to date with policies –Are not familiar with procedures Objectives –Provide overview of current policies –To minimise “pain” of requesting resources –To promote awareness

4 4 Schedule Session 1 ( ) - General  Introduction to APNIC (5) Introduction to APNIC -What is the role of APNIC?  RIR Goals & Principles (12) RIR Goals & Principles -Short background  APNIC Policies (25) APNIC Policies -All current APNIC policies  Policies & Procedures (33) Policies & Procedures -Additional guidelines Session 2 ( ) - Operational  Requesting resources (42) Requesting resources -Overview, forms, tips etc.  IP Management (53) IP Management -Planning your allocation  APNIC Database (65) APNIC Database -Short intro to the whois DB  Reverse DNS (86) Reverse DNS -Basic concepts ●Summary (95)Summary

5 Introduction to APNIC Asia Pacific Network Information Centre

6 6 What is APNIC? Regional Internet Registry for the Asia Pacific –Regional authority for Internet Resource distribution –IPv4 & IPv6 addresses, ASNs, reverse dns delegation Industry self-regulatory body – Participation by those who use Internet resources – Consensus-based, open and transparent – Non-profit, neutral and independent Open membership-based structure Intro

7 7 APNIC is not… Not a network operator –Does not provide networking services Works closely with APRICOT forum Not a standards body –Does not develop technical standards Works within IETF in relevant areas (IPv6 etc) Not a domain name registry or registrar Will refer queries to relevant parties Intro

8 8 Internet Registry Hierarchy Intro

9 9 APNIC Region Intro

10 10 APNIC Services & Activities Resource services & registration IPv4, IPv6, ASNs,, whois Authoritative registration server: whois Policy development and implementation Membership reviews and approves policy Information dissemination APNIC meetings Training courses & seminars Intro

11 11 Want to know more about APNIC and the APNIC meetings? –Come to the newcomer’s orientation this afternoon at Questions ?

12 RIR Goals & Principles Definitions, RIR Goals, Brief History & Policy Development

13 13 Definitions - Allocation and Assignment Allocation –A block of address space held by an IR for subsequent allocation or assignment Not yet used to address any networks Assignment –A block of address space used to address an operational network May be provided to LIR customers, or used for an LIR’s infrastructure (‘self-assignment’) Policy Background

14 14 /8 APNIC Allocation Allocation and Assignment /24/26 APNIC Allocates IP addresses APNIC Member Assigns IP addresses Customer / End User /20 Member Allocation Customer Assignments /25 Policy Background

15 15 Portable & Non-portable Portable –Customer holds addresses independent from ISP –Customer keeps addresses when changing ISP –Bad for size of routing tables –Bad for QOS: routes may be filtered, flap-dampened Non-portable –Customer uses ISP’s address space –Customer must renumber if changing ISP –Only way to effectively scale the Internet Policy Background

16 16 Classful and Classless Classful (Obsolete) –Wasteful address architecture network boundaries are fixed at 8, 16 or 24 bits (class A, B, and C) Classless (Best Current Practice) –Efficient architecture network boundaries may occur at any bit (e.g. /12, /16, /19, /24 etc) CIDR –Classless Inter Domain Routing architecture –Allows aggregation of routes within ISPs infrastructure Policy Background

17 17 Classful Address Architecture 0 A (8 bits)Host address (24 bits) 128 networks x 16M hosts Class A (50% of all address space) 10 B (16 bits)Host (16 bits) 16K networks x 64K hosts Class B (25%) 110 C (24 bits)Host (8 bits) 2M networks x 256 hosts Class C (12,5%) Classful addressing obsolete: – inefficient – depletion of B space – too many routes from C space Policy Background

18 18 64 hosts 26 bits Host (6 bits) Classless Address Architecture 19 bits Host (13 bits) 10 bits Host address (22 bits) 4M hosts /10 /19 /20 /26 20 bits Host (12 bits) 4096 hosts Network boundaries may occur at any bit / hosts 4096 hosts Host (8 bits) 24 bits Policy Background

19 19 CIDR Aggregation ISP /16 Customer / /29 Provider Aggregation BGP announcements /16 Customer /26 Provider Aggregation Policy Background

20 20 Conservation Ensuring efficient use and conservation of resources Aggregation Limiting growth of routable prefixes Registration Registering the Internet resources in a public db Uniqueness Global visibility Fairness and consistency Equal consideration irrespective of external factors APNIC Policies - Objectives Policy Background

21 21 Why do we need Policies ? - Global IPv4 Delegations Policy Background

22 22 Why do we need Policies? - Growth of Global Routing Table Deployment Period of CIDR Moore’s Law and CIDR made it work for a while But they cannot be relied on forever Projected routing table growth without CIDR –(as of 19 July 2002) Policy Background

23 23 Routing Table Prefix Distribution Policy Background

24 24 APNIC Policy Development Based on global and regional policies –Global: RFC2050 –Regional: ‘Policies for Address Space Management in the Asia Pacific Region’ Policy development APNIC and APNIC members Other RIRs and wider community Policy implementation –APNIC and APNIC members Policy Background

25 APNIC IPv4 Address Policies Allocation & Assignment Policies

26 26 APNIC Policy Environment IP addresses not freehold property –Internet resources are public resources –‘Ownership’ is contrary to management goals –Need to avoid the mistakes of the past –Assignments & allocations on lease basis Confidentiality & security –APNIC to observe and protect trust relationship –Non-disclosure agreement signed by staff Policies

27 27 APNIC Allocation Policies Allocations as Non portable address space –Provider responsible for aggregation –Customer assignments must be non-portable Allocations based on demonstrated need –Detailed documentation required –All address space held to be declared –Address space to be obtained from one source routing considerations may apply –Stockpiling not permitted Policies

28 28 Initial IPv4 Allocation Criteria Have used a /22 from upstream provider –Demonstrated efficient previous address usage OR Show immediate need for /22 Can include customer projections & infrastructure equipment Provide detailed plan for use of /21 within a year Renumber to new space within 1 year Meet all policy requirements Applicants may be required to show purchase receipts Policies

29 29 Address Assignment Policies Assignments based on requirements –Demonstrated through detailed documentation Justification through description of usage, and number of hosts initially, in 6 months, and one year –Assignment should maximise utilisation (minimise wastage) –Classless assignments, showing use of VLSM Size of allocation –Sufficient for up to 12 months requirement Policies

30 30 Small Multihoming Assignment Policy Applicants currently multihomed OR Demonstrate a plan to multihome within 1 month Agree to renumber out of previously assigned space –Demonstrate need to use 25% of requested space immediately and 50% within 1 year –Meet all policy requirements or have the assignment revoked Policies

31 31 IPv4 Assignment policy for IXPs /24 assignment for IX point’s Transit LAN –Must agree not to announce the space to the global routing table –IXP must be able to demonstrate “open peering policy” –Have 3 or more peers APNIC has a reserved block of space from which to make IXP assignments Policies

32 Questions ?

33 APNIC Policies & Procedures Policies, Procedures and Best Current Practices

34 34 Virtual web hosting Name based hosting –‘Strongly recommended’ Use ‘infrastructure’ field to describe web servers IP based hosting –Permitted on technical grounds for SSL, virtual ftp.. –Use ‘infrastructure’ field to describe web servers –Special verification for IP based –If more than /22 used for this purpose –Requestor must send list of URLs of virtual domain and corresponding IP address P&P & BCP

35 35 Cable, DSL services 1:1 contention ratio Can be either statically or dynamically assigned Means 1 IP address per customer Greater than 1:1 contention ratio Preferred because conserves address space Choice of addressing is optional for members dynamic addressing is encouraged Verification for DSL Services –Equipment details Ex: BRAS, Number of ports –Purchase requests P&P & BCP

36 36 New Cable Service Bootstrapping criteria for new cable service Applies to startup providers commencing new cable –Allocation size based on assumption that requestor will assign a /24 to each CMTS in their network Complete ‘additional info’ with make, model & quantity Purchase receipts for equipments may be asked –Assignments greater than /30 need to be Requested through second opinion process Registered separately in the database P&P & BCP

37 37 Cable / DSL Cable, DSL services –Special verification for 1:1 (permanently on-line) For anything over a /22 in total, verification through customer list for random head-ends or other alternative For residential networks –Do not need to register on-site tech-c, however ISPs tech-c can be used P&P & BCP

38 38 Renumbering One-for-one exchange to assist renumbering needs confirmation from upstream ISP to confirm renumbering will take place ‘No Questions Asked’ return prefix policy swap 3 or more discontiguous prefixes (ISP or customers) for single prefix, no charge –Form for returning addresses P&P & BCP

39 39 Subsequent Allocations 80% overall utilisation –Demonstrated conservative assignments –Correct database registrations for customers Fix inconsistencies before next allocation Amount depends on “usage” rate How much, how fast, allocate for up to one year –Contiguous allocation not guaranteed But every effort made P&P & BCP

40 40 Summary All address space held should be documented Check other RIR, NIR databases for historical allocations ‘No reservations’ policy Reservations may never be claimed Fragments address space Customers may need more or less address space than is actually reserved Aggregation LIR announces allocation as a single aggregate P&P & BCP

41 Questions ?

42 Requesting Internet Resources

43 43 Requesting IP addresses - Overview Put together an Addressing Plan Request new Allocation ISP Request (APNIC-084) For customer assignments (APNIC-073) Register all customer assignments in db 80% utilisation in Allocation Request an Allocation APNIC-084 Second opinion request Req IP

44 44 Addressing Plan Identify components of network –Customer services –ISP internal infrastructure Identify phases of deployment –Starting off, 6 months, 12 months Identify equipment and topology changes –Need for redundancy –Need for increased scale Req IP

45 45 network-plan: YES /512/ leased line customers network-plan: PART /60/2408 PRI dial up modems.. network-plan: PART 256 0/60/2408 PRI dial up modems.. network-plan: YES 6410/16/35LAN -mail,DNS, web internal network-plan: YES 6415/25/40 LAN -NOC & Ops mgmt network-plan: YES 165/11/11 LAN -web hosting (Name-based) network-plan: YES 16 0/8/8LAN -secondary servers network-plan: YES 16 4/6/12loopback router interfaces network-plan: YES 42/2/2router WAN ports (x 8 lines ) –detailed, efficient and accurate Addressing Plan Example Deployment phases Descriptionsubnet size subnet mask relative prefix Connect to Internet

46 46 Address Request Forms Allocation Request –ISP Address Request Form Assignment Request (Second opinion) –Second opinion Request Form request.pl Req IP

47 47 mailbox Is filtered to accept requests from members only Requires member account name –Subject: IP Address Request [CONNECT-AU] Ticketing system Every request is assigned a ticket –Ticket # is a confirmation that your request has been well received New staff at LIR Require an ‘introduction’ to hostmasters To ensure confidentiality Hostmaster Administrivia Req IP

48 48 Requesting IP addresses Create person objects and a company maintainer object before you apply. Read the “Tips” document at: Use correct account name for your request Always use same ticket # for same request –Please keep # in subject line of eg. –[APNIC #14122] [CHINANET-CN] Req IP

49 49 Requesting IP addresses Provide a detailed description of your network topology –More information provided = less iteration Make sure the request has correct format & syntax Provide list of all current addresses held Additional comments field –Topology map, deployment plan etc Any additional info that supports the request Plan to adopt best current practice Req IP

50 50 Requesting New Allocation - Checklist Utilisation in allocation is 80% All customer assignments are registered in the whois database With accurate and up-to-data information Sufficient documentation to support address requirement Membership fee is paid Req IP

51 51 Member Services Helpdesk One point of contact for all member enquiries –Extended operating hours 9:00 am to 7:00 pm (Australian EST, UTC + 10 hrs) More personalised service Range of languages Cantonese, Filipino, Mandarin, Thai, Vietnamese etc. Faster response and resolution of queries IP resource applications, status of requests, obtaining help in completing application forms, membership enquiries, billing issues & database enquiries etc. Req IP

52 Questions ?

53 IP Address Management

54 54 Revision of routing protocols Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS Used to find optimum route to a host in ISP network Convergence becomes important with scaling Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Can be interior (iBGP) and exterior (eBGP) Used to carry traffic across your network and to/from the Internet Can use BGP attributes for routing policy IP Mgmt

55 55 Principles of Addressing Separate customer & infrastructure address pools –Manageability Different personnel manage infrastructure and assignments to customers –Scalability Easier renumbering - customers are difficult, infrastructure is relatively easy IP Mgmt

56 56 Principles of Addressing Further separate infrastructure –‘Dynamic’ infrastructure for IGP Network infrastructure addresses used by a routing protocol - alternate paths to host exist Eg. p2p addresses of backbone connections Eg. router loopback addresses –‘Static’ infrastructure Static routing of infrastructure (no alternative path exists) Carry in iBGP IP Mgmt

57 57 Principles of Addressing Further separate infrastructure –‘Static’ infrastructure examples RAS server address pools, CMTS Virtual web and content hosting LANs Anything where there is no dynamic route calculation Customer networks Carry in iBGP, do not put in IGP –No need to aggregate address space carried in iBGP Can carry in excess of 100K prefixes IP Mgmt

58 58 Hierarchy of Routing Protocols BGP4 (iBGP) & OSPF/ISIS Other ISPs Customers Local NAP eBGP Static/eBGP BGP4 (eBGP) ISP Internal Network IP Mgmt

59 59 Management - Simple Network First allocation from APNIC –Infrastructure is known, customers are not –20% free is trigger for next request –Grow usage of blocks from edges –Assign customers sequentially 20% Customers p2pp2p Infrastructure loops IP Mgmt

60 60 Management - Simple Network If second allocation is contiguous –Reverse order of division of first block –Maximise contiguous space for infrastructure Easier for debugging –Customer networks can be discontiguous CustomersInfrastructure 20%InfrastructureCustomers 1st allocation2nd allocation IP Mgmt

61 61 Management - Many POPs WAN link to single transit ISP Server POP1 POP2 POP3 IP Mgmt

62 62 POP sizes –Choose address pool for each POP according to need –Loopback addresses Keep together in one block Assists in fault-resolution –Customer addresses Assign sequentially Management - Many POPs Infrastructure POP 1POP2 loopbacks Customer IP Mgmt

63 63 Management - Many POPs /20 allocation not enough for all POPs? –Deploy addresses on infrastructure first Common mistake –Reserving customer addresses on a per POP basis Do not constrain network plans due to lack of address space –Re-apply once address space has been used IP Mgmt

64 Questions ?

65 The APNIC Database Introduction and Usage

66 66 What is the APNIC Database? Public network management database –Operated by IRs Tracks network resources IP addresses, ASNs, Reverse Domains, Routing policies Records administrative information Contact information (persons/roles) Authorisation DB

67 67 Object Types OBJECT PURPOSE personcontact persons rolecontact groups/roles inetnumIPv4 addresses inet6numIPv6 addresses aut-numAutonomous System number as-macrogroup of autonomous systems domainreverse domains routeprefixes being announced mntner(maintainer) database authorisation DB

68 68 Object Templates whois -t Recognised by the RIPE whois client/server person: [mandatory] [single] [primary/look-up key] address: [mandatory] [multiple] [ ] country: [optional] [single] [ ] phone: [mandatory] [multiple] [ ] fax-no: [optional] [multiple] [ ] [optional] [multiple] [look-up key] nic-hdl: [mandatory] [single] [primary/look-up key] remarks: [optional] [multiple] [ ] notify: [optional] [multiple] [inverse key] mnt-by: [optional] [multiple] [inverse key] changed: [mandatory] [multiple] [ ] source: [mandatory] [single] [ ] % whois -h -t person To obtain template structure, use : DB

69 69 Person object - example –Person objects contain contact information person: address:address: country: phone: fax-no: nic-hdl: mnt-by: changed: source: Attributes Values Ky Xander ExampleNet Service Provider 2 Pandora St Boxville Wallis and Futuna Islands WF KX17-AP MAINT-WF-EXAMPLENET APNIC DB

70 70 Inetnum object - example –Inetnum objects contain IP address allocations / assignments inetnum: netname: descr: country: admin-c: tech-c: mnt-by: mnt-lower: changed: source: CCNEP-NP-AP Communication & Communicate Nepal Ltd VSAT Service Provider, Kathmandu NP AS75 -AP AS75-AP APNIC-HM MAINT-NP-ARUN APNIC Attributes Values DB

71 71 Object Types inetnum: – … admin-c: KX17-AP tech-c: ZU-AP … mnt-by: MAINT-WF-EX … IPv4 addresses person: … nic-hdl: ZU3-AP … Contact info person: … nic-hdl: KX17-AP … Contact info mntner: MAINT-WF-EX… Data protection DB

72 72 Why Use the Database? Register use of Internet Resources IP assignments, reverse DNS, etc –Ascertain custodianship of a resource –Fulfill responsibilities as resource holder Obtain details of technical contacts for a network Investigate security incidents Track source of network abuse or “spam” DB

73 73 LIR Registration Responsibilities 1.Create person objects for contacts To provide contact info in other objects 2.Create mntner object To provide protection of objects 3.Create inetnum objects for all customer address assignments (Allocation object created by APNIC) DB

74 74 Inetnum : Allocation (Created by APNIC) 3 Using the DB – step by step Customer Assignments (Created by LIR) person: nic-hdl: KX17-AP Contact info 1 Data Protection mntner: 2 Inetnum:... KX17-AP... mnt-by:... 4 Inetnum:... KX17-AP... mnt-by:... 5 Inetnum:... KX17-AP... mnt-by:... 6

75 75 Basic Database Queries 1.Unix whois –h 2.Web interface Look-up keys usually the object name –Check the object template for look-up keys whois –t DB

76 76 Database Query - UNIX % whois % whois zu3-ap % whois “zane ulrich” DB person: Zane Ulrich address: ExampleNet Service Provider address: 2 Pandora St Boxville address: Wallis and Futuna Islands country: WF phone: fax-no: nic-hdl: ZU3-AP mnt-by: MAINT-WF-EXAMPLENET changed: source: APNIC

77 77 Database Query - Inetnum Notes Incomplete addresses padded with “.0” Address without prefix interpreted as “/32” % whois % whois SINGNET-SG % whois /19 inetnum: netname: SINGNET-SG descr: Singapore Telecommunications Ltd descr: 31, Exeter Road, #02-00, Podium Block descr: Comcentre, 0923 country: SG admin-c: CWL3-AP tech-c: CWL3-AP mnt-by: APNIC-HM changed: source: APNIC DB

78 78 Advanced Database Queries –Flags used for inetnum queries Nonefind exact match - L find all less specific matches - m find first level more specific matches DB

79 79 inetnum: – /20 inetnum: – /8 Database Query - inetnum /25 inetnum: whois -L /20 whois /20 whois –m /20 inetnum: /26 inetnum: /24 More specific  (= smaller blocks) Less specific  (= bigger block) DB

80 80 Database Update Process Create a new object Change an object Delete an object Method 1: Web interface – Method 2: Directly by DB 2

81 81 Database Update Process Web interface 1.Fill out form on web 2.Template is created and sent to you by 3.Forward to 1.Get template / existing object 2.Send completed template to DB 2 Common error: to reply to the

82 82 Updating an existing object 1.Update fields to be changed 2.Add your maintainer password 3.Update the changed attribute 4. updated object to: Note –Primary keys cannot be modified DB 2

83 83 Database Update Process Deleting an object –Copy object as-is in database into –Add your maintainer password –Leave the changed attribute –Referenced objects cannot be deleted (02/99) inetnum: netname: SONY-HK... mnt-by: MAINT-CNS-AP changed: source: APNIC password: x34zky delete: no longer required DB 2

84 84 Parse Database Mailboxes Automatic request processing –Automatic “robot” for all db updates – template for create/update/delete Database service support – s answered by APNIC staff –APNIC response time approx 2 days DB 2

85 Questions ?

86 Reverse DNS Delegation Registry Procedures Rev. DNS

87 87 What is ‘Reverse DNS’? –‘Forward DNS’ maps names to numbers -> –‘Reverse DNS’ maps numbers to names > Rev. DNS

88 88 Hierarchy of IP addresses Uses ‘’ domain INverse ADDRess IP addresses –written – Less specific to More specific Domain names –written – More specific to Less specific Reversed in hierarchy Rev. DNS

89 89 whois Root DNS Mapping numbers to names - ‘reverse DNS’ net edu com in whois apnic in-addr arpa Rev. DNS

90 90 Reverse DNS - why bother? Service denial –That only allow access when fully reverse delegated eg. anonymous ftp Diagnostics –Assisting in trace routes etc Registration –Responsibility as a member Rev. DNS

91 91 Member Responsibilities Ensure that addresses are reverse- mapped –Be familiar with APNIC procedures Maintain nameservers for allocations Minimise “pollution” of DNS –syntax or configuration errors Rev. DNS

92 92 Delegation Procedures Complete form at: – –Online form verifies name servers –Form gives errors, warnings in zone configuration Uses database ‘domain’ object can be updated through webform or via . Protection by maintainer object Zone file update 2-hourly Rev. DNS

93 93 References Reverse DNS Guide Reverse DNS Form What are Reverse Delegations? Classless Reverse DNS

94 Questions ?

95 Summary What we have covered today

96 96 Summary - Responsibilities As an APNIC member and custodian of address space –Be aware of your responsibilities –Register customer assignments in APNIC database Keep this data up-to-date & accurate –Educate your customers –Document your network in detail Keep local records –Register reverse DNS delegations

97 97 Summary “Do the right thing” –Think about routing table size & scalability of Internet –Encourage renumbering –Announce aggregate prefixes –Think global not local

98 Thank you !! Your feedback is appreciated

99 Supplementary Reading

100 100 Introduction Regional Registry web sites –APNIC –ARIN –RIPE NCC APNIC past meetings

101 101 Introduction Details of members – Membership –Membership procedure –Membership application form –Membership fees Mailing lists –

102 102 The RIR System “Development of the Regional Internet Registry System” –Internet Protocol Journal Short history of the Internet – _4-4/ipj_4-4_regional.html _4-4/ipj_4-4_regional.html

103 103 APNIC Policies Classless techniques CIDR Network Addressing when using CIDR Variable Length Subnet Table Private Address Space –Address Allocation for Private Internets –Counter argument: Unique addresses are good

104 104 Policies & Policy Environment Policy Documentation –Policies for address space management in the Asia Pacific region policy.html –RFC2050: Internet Registry IP allocation Guidelines

105 105 Address Request Procedures Addressing Guidelines –Designing Addressing Architectures for Routing & Switching Howard C. Berkowitz Address Request Forms –ISP Address Request Form –Second-opinion Request Form –No Questions Asked policy

106 106 APNIC Database APNIC Database Documentation – info – request – – RIPE Database Documentation Database ‘whois’ Client – client.tar.gz –

107 107 Request Forms – – Classless Delegations – Common DNS data file configuration errors – Domain name structure and delegation – Domain administrators operations guide –

108 108 Taking care of your domain – Tools for DNS debugging – Common Errors –NS not reachable, NS not set up –Domain not fully qualified (dot missing) –Entries in zone which do not belong there –More/less Nses listed than applied for –Nses cache different information –Source of a zone (as listed inSOA) not in NS RR

109 109 Common Errors cont’d –CNAME Problem Old versions of BIND cannot do recursive lookups –NS name contains unusual characters Underscore not permitted –In addition for /16 delegations: APNIC should be listed as secondary

110 110 Other Supplementary Reading Operational Content Books –ISP Survival Guide - Geoff Huston BGP Table – – – east/prefixlen html – html Routing Instability –

111 111 Other Supplementary Reading Routing & Mulithoming –Internet Routing Architectures - Bassam Halabi –BGP Communities Attribute –Multihoming Using a Dedicated AS for Sites homed to a Single Provider

112 112 Other Supplementary Reading Filtering –Egress Filtering –Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing Dampening –case studies at Traceroute Server –

113 113 Other Supplementary Reading Renumbering –Network Renumbering Overview: Why Would I Want It and What Is It Anyway? –Procedures for Enterprise Renumbering NAT –The IP Network Address Translator

114 114 APNIC Mailing Lists apnic-talk –Open discussion relevant to APNIC community and members e.g. policies, procedures etc apnic-announce –Announcements of interest to the AP community ipv6-registry –IPv6 allocation and assignment policies subscribe via archives at lists

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