Presentation on theme: "U NIT 3 Theoretical Perspective of Human Development."— Presentation transcript:
U NIT 3 Theoretical Perspective of Human Development
O VERVIEW Historical Foundation of Human Development Ancient Period Mid-twentieth century Theories (The medieval Period – 6 th -15 th Century) Contemporary Theories
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO P TOLEMY The ancient astrologer/astronomer Ptolemy associated different planets of the solar system with particular stages of life as follows:Ptolemy Moon: Infancy - 0-4 years old Mercury: Childhood - 4-14 years old Venus: Adolescence - 14-22 years old The Sun: Young Adulthood - 22-40 years old Mars: Mature Adulthood - 40-55 years old Jupiter: Retirement and Wisdom - 55 to 67 years old Saturn: Old Age - 67+
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO M EDIEVAL I SLAM According to philosopher/scientist named Al Biruni:Al Biruni The Sun rules the first 10 years of life (ages 0-10), Venus the next 8 years (ages 11-18), Mercury the next 13 years (ages 19-31), the Moon the next 9 years (ages 32-40), Saturn the next 11 years (ages 41-51), Jupiter the next 12 years (ages 52-63), Mars the next 7 years (64-70),
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO M EDIEVAL I SLAM From a psychological standpoint, The Sun (ages 0-10), represents the ego, and the first 10 years of life involve the development of the child's self as it enters society. Venus (ages 11-18) rules the adolescence years, when romance and passion are at their height. Mercury (ages 19-31), represents the mind, and early adulthood is a time when the mind is required to succeed at one's career, in one's relationships, and in becoming a good citizen. Saturn (ages 41-51), which is the planet of responsibility and discipline, rules the midlife years, when it is often necessary to work very hard to master the lessons of life. Jupiter (ages 52-63), which is the benevolent planet, is associated with mature adulthood, when financial and emotional stability make it possible to give something back to the greater community.
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO W.B. Y EATS In W.B. Yeat's poem Supernatural Songs, part IX of the poem presents his "theory" of the human life cycle in poetic form. According to Yeats, there are four stages of life or "ages of man" that relate respectively to body, heart, mind, and soul.
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO W.B. Y EATS IX. The Four Ages of Man He with body waged a fight, But body won; it walks upright. Then he struggled with the heart ; Innocence and peace depart. Then he struggled with the mind ; His proud heart he left behind. Now his wars on God begin; At stroke of midnight God shall win. From William Butler Yeats, Supernatural Songs (in Parnell's Funeral and Other Poems, 1935)William Butler YeatsSupernatural SongsParnell's Funeral and Other Poems
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO W.B. Y EATS The first age recalls infancy - as the baby struggles to walk and to take its place among other upright human beings. The second age seems to echo adolescence - as the innocence and peace of childhood gives way to a mighty battle of the emotions. The third age recalls adult maturity - as the storms of adolescence give way to the adventures of the mind. The fourth, and final age, alludes to late adulthood - when spiritual concerns take front stage, and also to death, when the struggle for the soul is ultimately resolved.
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO A NCIENT H INDUISM According to the ancient Hindu Laws of Manu, there are four stages or "ashramas" of life, each lasting 21 (or 25) years. The first stage - 0-21 (0-25) years - Brahmacharya/Student - the person lives as a unmarried celibate, studies with a guru; the focus is on education, character development, development of skills The second stage - 21-42 (25-50) years - Grahasta/Householder - the person marries, establishes a household, enters into a career, becomes an integral part of the world of activity The third stage - 42-63 (50-75) years - Vanaprastha/Hermitage - the person leaves the household and goes into the forest (or now in modern society, a quieter retreat), where he/she lives a life of study, mentorship, prayer, and meditation. The fourth stage - 63-84+ (75-100+) years - Sanyasa/Renunciate - the person leaves all worldly activity and engages the whole force of personality toward spiritual development and upliftment. One can become a guru at this point.
T HE S TAGES OF L IFE A CCORDING TO THE A NCIENT R OMANS According to the ancient Romans, there are five stages of human development: 0-15 years - Pueritia - early childhood and latent period of early school years 15-25 - Adulescentia - puberty and adolescence 25-40 - Luventus - first adulthood 40-55 - Virilitas - second adulthood 55+ - Senectus - old age
R UDOLF S TEINER The early twentieth century philosopher and mystic Rudolf Steiner conceived of a theory of human development based upon seven year cycles, and linked those cycles to astrology.Rudolf Steiner The first seven years of life (0-7 years old) were associated with the Moon. During this time, the psychic forces are working to transform the body of the child from one that was inherited from the parents, to one that represents the full personality of the child. The second seven years (7-14 years old) is associated with Mercury. At this time, the child's imagination and feeling life takes center stage.
R UDOLF S TEINER The third seven years (14-21 years old) is associated with Venus, during which time the higher mind of the adolescent takes root, and the psychic development can be disturbed by the strong impulses of puberty. The next three seven-year segments are associated with the Sun (21-42 years old), and the elements of sentient soul, intellectual soul, and consciousness soul. The next seven-year segment is associated with Mars (42-49 years old), when the soul works hard to impress the full forces of its personality upon the world. At this time, the soul has the opportunity to a higher state of consciousness called Spirit Self.
R UDOLF S TEINER The following seven-year segment is associated with Jupiter (49-56 years old), when wisdom is dawning and the ego needs to unfold the Life Spirit. The final seven-year period is associated with Saturn (56-63 years old) when Saturn completes its second "return" (e.g. comes back to its position it had at one's birth), and the soul can manifest an event higher element of Self called Spirit Man.
T HE M EDIEVAL P ERIOD (6 TH – 15 TH C ENTURY ) Preformationism (Previous Formation) little importance was placed on childhood as a separate phase of life. Children were seen s Homunculus ( Little man ) No differences were made between the nature of children and that of adults. The were treated as adults (e.g. their clothing, worked at adults jobs, could be married, were imprisoned or hanged), Certain laws did recognize that children needed protection from people who might mistreat them, and medical works provided special instructions for their care. However, despite practical awareness of the vulnerability of children, there were no philosophies of the uniqueness of childhood or separate developmental periods
T HE M EDIEVAL P ERIOD (6 TH – 15 TH C ENTURY ) In this medieval painting, young children are depicted as miniature adults. Their dress and expressions resemble those of their elders. Through the fifteenth century, little emphasis was placed on childhood as a unique phase of the life cycle.
R EFORMATION P ERIOD (16 TH C ENTURY ) Influenced by Puritan movement which was an outgrowth of the protestant reformation. 16 th century revised image of childhood, children were born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized; As puritan emigrated from England to the United states, they believed that child rearing was one of their most important obligations. Harsh, restrictive child-rearing practices were recommended as the most efficient means of taming the depraved child. In New England Puritans were responsible for the first public schooling; Special books were designed for children that was intended to teach reading and knowledge of the Bible, but of merchantilist ideas as well.
A GE OF E NLIGHTENMENT (17 TH C ENTURY ) The seventeenth-century Enlightenment brought philosophies that emphasized ideals of human dignity and respect, including more humane conceptions of childhood than those of past centuries; John Locke (1632–1704), a leading British philosopher, viewed the child as a tabula rasa, or “blank slate.” According to this idea, children are, to begin with, nothing at all, and all kinds of experiences can shape their characters. Parents as rational tutors who can mold the child in any way they wish through careful instruction, effective example, and rewards for good behavior. His philosophy led to a change from harshness toward children to kindness and compassion.
A GE OF E NLIGHTENMENT (17 TH C ENTURY ) J OHN L OCKE ’ S T HEORY CONTINUES ……….. Lock regarded development as continuous; adultlike behaviors are gradually built up through the warm, consistent teachings of parents. His view of the child as a tabula rasa led him to supporter of nurture—the power of the environment to shape the child. Locke’s philosophy characterizes children as passive—as doing little to shape their own destiny, which is written on blank slates by others. However, this vision has been discarded by all contemporary theories and view the developing person as an active, purposeful being who contributes substantially to his or her own development.
P HILOSOPHIES OF E NLIGHTENMENT : J EAN J ACQUES R OUSSEAU French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau introduced a new theory of childhood; Rousseau thought Children were not blank slates to be filled by adult instruction. He thought children were noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and with an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth; Rousseau thought children’s built-in moral sense and unique ways of thinking and feeling would only be harmed by adult training; His was a child-centered philosophy in which the adult should be receptive to the child’s needs at each of four stages of development: infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence.
P HILOSOPHIES OF E NLIGHTENMENT : J EAN J ACQUES R OUSSEAU Children are neither moral nor immoral Children are neither moral nor immoral Pride and civilization distance humanity from its original, natural state of goodness.Pride and civilization distance humanity from its original, natural state of goodness. Agreed with Thomas Hobbes’ Social Contract: mutual agreement to protect the rights of everyone; not only the wealthy.Agreed with Thomas Hobbes’ Social Contract: mutual agreement to protect the rights of everyone; not only the wealthy. No person is above the law. No person is above the law. Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains."
S CIENTIFIC B EGINNINGS (19 TH C ENTURY ) D ARWIN ’ S T HEORY OF E VOLUTION ) The study of development evolved quickly during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Early observations of human change were soon followed by improved methods and theories. Charles Darwin (1809–1882), a British naturalist, is often considered the forefather of scientific child study. Darwin (1859/1936) observed the infinite variation among plant and animal species and saw that within a species, no two individuals are exactly alike. From these observations, he constructed his famous theory of evolution. The theory emphasized two related principles: natural selection and survival of the fittest.
S CIENTIFIC B EGINNINGS (19 TH C ENTURY ) D ARWIN ’ S T HEORY OF E VOLUTION ) Certain species survived in particular environments because they have characteristics that fit with, or are adapted to, their surroundings. Other species die off because they are not well suited to their environments. Individuals within a species who best meet the survival requirements of the environment live long enough to reproduce and pass their more favorable characteristics to future generations. Discovered similarities in the early prenatal growth of many species, suggested that the development of the human child followed the same general plan as the evolution of the human species.
S CIENTIFIC B EGINNINGS (19 TH C ENTURY ) D ARWIN ’ S T HEORY OF E VOLUTION ) Early attempts by other scientists to efforts to document similarities between child growth and human evolution provoked researchers to make careful observations of all aspects of children’s behavior. Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasizes the adaptive value of physical characteristics and behavior. Affection and care in families is adaptive throughout the lifespan, promoting survival and psychological well- being. In this picture, a daughter helps her elderly mother with medication.
20 TH C ENTURY Theories about children’s development expanded around the world. Childhood was seen as worthy of special attention; Finally laws were passed to protect children, laws to: Define parental responsibility Establish limits to child labor Mandate education for children
20 TH C ENTURY : S CIENTIFIC B EGINNING G. Stanley Hall (1846–1924), one of the most influential American psychologists of the early twentieth century, is generally regarded as the founder of the child study movement;
20 TH C ENTURY : S CIENTIFIC B EGINNING Inspired by Darwin’s work, Hall and his student Arnold Gesell (1880–1961) formulated theories of childhood and adolescence based on evolutionary ideas. These early leaders regarded development as a genetically determined process that unfolds automatically, much like a flower They launched the normative approach of child study, in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related behaviors are computed to represent typical development.
20 TH C ENTURY : S CIENTIFIC B EGINNING Arnold Gesell systematically described children's physical, social, and emotional development, particularly in the first five years of life; collected detailed normative information on the motor achievements, social behaviors, and personality characteristics of infants and children; made child development meaningful to parents.
20 TH C ENTURY : S CIENTIFIC B EGINNING The Mental Testing Movement French psychologist Alfred Binet (1857–1911 played an important role in the development of experimental psychology in France and made fundamental contributions to the measurement of intelligence. His discovery of different kinds of memory led to develop tests intended to identify areas of weakness in school children.
20 TH C ENTURY : S CIENTIFIC B EGINNING According to Binet the purpose of an intelligence test was to classify, not to measure. Alfred Binet began assessing children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes. The first successful intelligence test, which they constructed for this purpose, grew out of practical educational concerns. Intelligence tests also rose quickly to heading the controversy over nature versus nurture that has continued to this day.
C ONTINUED ……… Mid-twentieth century theories Contemporary theories