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Persuasion and Rhetorical Devices

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1 Persuasion and Rhetorical Devices
Nonfiction Unit And Persuasive Speeches and Essays

2 PERSUASION Persuasion is used when the writer or speaker is trying to convince a reader or listener to think or act in a particular way.

3 PERSUASIVE APPEALS Appeals to Reason/Logic
Logical arguments based on verifiable evidence, such as facts, statistics, or expert testimony

4 PERSUASIVE APPEALS Appeals to Emotion
Statements intended to affect listeners’/readers’ feelings about the subject. These statements often include charged language-words with strong positive or negative associations.

5 Testing Persuasive Appeals
Is the author’s argument supported by evidence, or is it based on faulty assumptions? Does the author link ideas clearly or make leaps in logic? Is the argument consistent or contradictory?

6 RHETORICAL DEVICES Speakers use rhetorical devices to:
emphasize their ideas help their listeners to remember the important points arouse an emotional response in an audience

7 ALLITERATION Alliteration is the repetition of initial consonant sounds. Writers use alliteration to give emphasis to words, to imitate sounds, and to create musical effects. "With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.“ (King, Jr. “I Have a Dream”)

8 RHETORICAL QUESTION A Rhetorical Question is a question with an obvious answer. A question that you don’t expect people to answer, but it is a question that makes people THINK!

9 Calvin and Hobbes on Rhetorical Questions…heehee!

10 Ok- Here is a REAL example of Rhetorical Question
“Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?” –JFK Inaugural Address Former President Kennedy includes this rhetorical question to call the audience to action. By asking if they will join in the historic effort, Kennedy forces the audience to think about what they are willing to do for their country and at the same time, he inspires them to be more American.

11 REPETITION Repetition is expressing different ideas using the same words or images in order to reinforce concepts and unify the speech. Did you know that in “I Have a Dream”, Martin Luther King, Jr., repeats many words many times… freedom (20 times) we (30 times), our (17 times), you (8 times) nation (10 times), America (5 times), American (4 times) justice (8 times) and injustice (3 times) dream (11 times)

12 King’s Tagxedo…

13 RESTATEMENT Restatement is expressing the same idea in different words to clarify and stress key points.  In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” 

14 What’s What? “We will never give up; we will never surrender, we will never be defeated.” “Never give up,” “never surrender,” and “never be defeated.” is an example of… restatement “We will never…” is an example of… repetition

15 PARALLELISM Parallelism is the repetition of a grammatical structure or an arrangement of words in order to create rhythm and make words more memorable.

16 Faulty Parallelism Example
She revels in chocolate, walking under the moonlight, and songs from the 1930s jazz period. This sentence is not written with parallel structure…you will see why in the next slide!!!

17 Parallelism Example Good parallelism: She revels in sweet chocolate éclairs, long moonlit walks, and classic jazz music. "She revels in” "sweet chocolate éclairs," [Adjective--Adjective--Object] "long moonlit walks," [Adjective--Adjective--Object] "and classic jazz music." [Adjective--Adjective--Object]

18 Another Type of Parallelism
Good parallelism: She loves eating chocolate éclairs, taking moonlit walks, and singing classic jazz. She revels in" "eating chocolate éclairs" [Gerund--Adjective--Object of Gerund] "taking moonlit walks" [Gerund--Adjective--Object of Gerund] "and singing classic jazz." [Gerund--Adjective--Object of Gerund]

19 Parallelism in Speeches
“Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans -- born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage (PARALLELISM) and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. ” -John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address Tonight I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened (PARALLELISM) -George W. Bush Address to the Nation on 9/11/01

20 ALLUSION An allusion is a reference to a well-know person, place, event, literary work, or work of art. “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.” -Martin Luther King, Jr. As we discussed when we read the speech, this is an allusion to Abraham Lincoln. More specifically, the words “five score years ago”, are a reference to Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address in which Lincoln started, “Four score and seven years ago…”

21 RHETORICAL TRIANGLE Logos(Reasons/Text) Ethos (Credibility/Writer)
Pathos (Values, Beliefs/Audience)

22 Rhetorical Triangle Explained
Ethos: What are the writer’s qualifications? How has the writer connected him/herself to the topic being discussed? Does the writer demonstrate respect for multiple viewpoints by using sources in the text? Are sources credible? Are sources documented appropriately? Does the writer use a tone that is suitable for the audience/purpose? Is the diction (word choice) used appropriate for the audience/purpose? Is the document presented in a polished and professional manner? Note how the author establishes a persona Note how the author establishes credibility Note any revelation of the author's credentials or personal history

23 Rhetorical Triangle Explained
Logos: Is the thesis clear and specific? Is the thesis supported by strong reasons and credible evidence? Is the argument logical and arranged in a well-reasoned order? Note the claims the author makes, and the insistency of the claims. Note the data the author provides in support of the claims. Note the conclusions the author draws.

24 Rhetorical Triangle Explained
Pathos: Are vivid examples, details and images used to engage the reader’s emotions and imagination? Does the writer appeal to the values and beliefs of the reader by using examples readers can relate to or care about? Note the primary audience for the text Note the emotional appeals the author makes Note the author's expectations of the audience

25 “We Shall Overcome” Lyndon B. Johnson
Annotate (label) the speech for examples of Allusion Parallelism Restatement Repetition Alliteration Rhetorical Question

26 “We Shall Overcome” Answer each question on the Rhetorical Triangle Worksheet Give an explanation on the bottom of the worksheet discussing whether Johnson’s speech appeals more to ethos, pathos, or logos. Make sure you explain why. If he appeals to all three equally, explain that as well. Use textual evidence to support you claims.

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