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Using Data to Improve Student Achievement

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1 Using Data to Improve Student Achievement
(Welcome participants.) Provide brief background of how and why this was developed. Housekeeping items. Concensegram activity: How do you feel about RH? – Lots of knowledge, Some knowledge, A little knowledge, No knowledge Review agenda. Summer 2006 Preschool CSDC

2 Outcomes Know why we need to look at data Identify two types of tests
Understand three types of scores Understand Summative & Formative Assessments Be able to interpret Summative Assessment Reports Know how to use data in instructional planning for increased student learning Review each of the above outcomes with your group participants.

3 Outcomes Understand how students are placed into High School Intensive Reading courses Review materials published by Great Source Align assessments included within curriculum to drive instruction Develop lesson plans These outcomes are specific for the High School Intensive Reading Great Source Preschool In-service Group.

4 Guide to the Program 1) Plan 2) Teach 3) Practice Lesson Plan Books
Teacher’s Guide Overhead Transparencies Website – 3) Practice Student Applications Book Independent Practice Website There are three steps to teaching with RH program. Use the Lesson Plan Book to plan how to teach the lessons in the handbook. 2) Teach the lesson using other teaching resources, such as the Teacher’s Guide, overhead transparencies, or the website to supplement the lesson 3) Practice with the Student Applications Book, website, or through independent practice using their own text. (Suggestion – you can use an old set of content area books) Later today we will show you two different ideas for planning the topics for your weekly lesson plans. You will have the opportunity to use either of these ideas to create a year-long weekly lesson plan for your Reader’s Handbook class.

5 Great Source Material Overview
Lesson Plan Book Teacher’s Guide (all levels) Student Application Book Student Application Book, Teacher’s Edition Reader’s Handbook (all levels) Test Book Overhead Transparencies (all levels) Website Sourcebook Sourcebook, Teacher’s Edition Sourcebook Florida Diagnostic Tests (optional/available by site) Each bulleted item on this list can be found in your TE set with the exception of the three Sourcebook pieces and the Website obviously. 3 of these books are the same for all grade levels, while the rest are grade level specific. Reader’s Handbook is used to teach skills, strategies and tools. Therefore, skills, strategies, and tools are assessed throughout the program. It does not assess content and knowledge. Keep in mind that this book is used for all four grades of high school. Also, the strategy chapters do not need to be covered in the chronological order of the Reader’s Handbook. Flexibility is available.

6 Lesson Plan Book Gives day-by-day and week-by-week lesson plans
Shows how to use Reader’s Handbook to set-up a complete reading curriculum Curriculum plan suggests year-long plan Individual lesson plans outline weekly and daily lesson plans At the end of the presentation, we will walk you through the lesson plan book and help you develop your own yearly plans. For now, we are going to page 15 in the Lesson Plan book to review the year long plans. On pages there are blackline masters to utilize with the year-long curriculum plan. Page 26 of the Lesson Plan book provides the Sourcebook passages that correspond with the Reader’s Handbook strategies.

7 Teacher’s Guide Walks through each lesson in the Reader’s Handbook
Highlights what to teach Suggests ways to extend the lesson Each lesson includes: PAGES 16-20 Goals - these can be your daily objectives for Classroom Walk Through’s Background – provides for making connections with their previous knowledge Opening Activity – used to introduce the lesson Overview – Content, Strategies, and Tools Ancillaries – supplementary materials available Before Reading A) Setting a Purpose – Provides questions B) Preview – Use overhead transparencies C) Plan – Which reading tool to use During Reading D) Read with a Purpose – Select and implement appropriate reading tool, Text organizations E) Connect – Interact with the reading After Reading F) Pause and Reflect – Questions allow students to reflect on what was learned, remember their reading purpose, monitor understanding G) Reread – Rereading Strategy – increase reading comprehension and fulfill their reading purpose H) Remember – Helps students make the material their own and recall what was learned, Summing Up – Review key points of the lesson Assessment and Application – Assess checklist to evaluate student understanding of the lesson “How to Use a Teacher’s Guide Lesson” Pages 16 – 20

8 Student Application Book Student Application Book, TE
Extends the lessons with a new selection for students to work through Lessons let students apply the reading strategies and tools to a new selection, give them guided practice, and help you assess their understanding Reader’s Handbook teaches the application of skills and strategies vs. the traditional knowledge and content. Therefore, the student applications book is a good source for formative assessment One idea is to use one grade level of the Applications Workbook to practice with and then use another grade level for testing (ie. 9th grade practice and 10th grade testing and vice versa).

9 Reader’s Handbook HANDBOOK- NOT A TEXTBOOK! What is the purpose?
Guides students as they read informational text Students should use this book to: Look up information prior to or while reading Develop new strategies to improve reading Get to know different types of text This book should be used as a reference book – it is NOT a textbook to get through in one school year. Over the course of four years all topics will be covered from this book. What does Reader’s Handbook teach the students? The Reading Process The critical reading strategies and when to use them Reading tools and organizers How different kinds of texts are organized Each Student Applications Book lesson corresponds with a topic in each Chapter of the RH. Using Page 3 of the Reader’s Handbook and Student App B ************* Handout pg 26-Preview the Reader’s Handbook activity (4 minutes timed)

10 Test Book Contains two types of tests for each topic
Assesses students’ understanding of skills and strategies Tests can be used as diagnostic, formative, or summative assessments Diagnostic- Tests can be combined to assess students’ prior knowledge Formative- Tests can be given after each strategy is presented Summative- Tests can be combined to form a summative assessment at quarters Page 3 of both the Test Book and the RH show how tests correspond with a topic in each chapter of the RH.

11 Overhead Transparencies
Display key concepts presented in the handbook 48 color transparencies Suggestion: keep in clear page protectors in a 3-ring binder.

12 Website
Great Source Homepage Reader’s Handbook Website Florida Diagnostic Sourcebook – provides 9th grade SR and ER Great Source homepage – This is the general source where you can buy supplies. Reader’s Handbook website – Contact your Reading Coach for a log in to this site. This site has a lot of information, lesson plans, activities, etc. It also provides a good explanation of all the various components. Great Source – Provides SR and ER test questions to go along with the 9th grade Florida Diagnostic Sourcebook. Remember you can always add the phrase, “Use details and examples from the reading passage to support your answer.”

13 Sourcebook Sourcebook TE
Incorporates four approaches: Comprehensive Strategy Intensive Literature Based Interactive Can be used as a formative assessment tool Each of the 24 selections includes: Before, During, and After Reading strategies, vocabulary and assessments 2 minutes: Read through pages and discuss how you would implement a Sourcebook lesson in your class. NOTE: The 10 day lesson plan provided on page 13 can in actuality be tailored to 3-5 days.

14 Sourcebook Florida Diagnostic Tests
Pretest Interim Test One Interim Test Two Interim Test Three Posttest Pretest – Provides baseline evaluation of students’ vocabulary and comprehension skills prior to instruction. This serves as a diagnostic form of assessment. Interim Tests – Each interim test assesses students’ understanding of the skills and strategies addressed in the six lessons just completed and drives instruction. That is, Interim Test 1 assesses the skills and strategies from lessons one to six, Interim test two covers instruction from lesson seven through twelve, and Interim test three focuses on the instruction from lessons thirteen through eighteen. This is a formative form of assessment. Posttest – Provides a final opportunity to assess students’ progress in the grade level as a whole. This is a summative form of assessment.

15 The purpose of data is to
Why Look at Data? The purpose of data is to give educators INSIGHT! Data tells us who we are and where we’ve been. Using data can help to facilitate a clear understanding of the gaps between where the school is and where the school wants to be. Data provides insight so we can begin to ask the right questions.

16 Types of Tests Norm-Referenced Test (NRT)
Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Review slide. The following slides provide definitions and examples for these two different types of tests.

17 What is a Norm-Referenced Test (NRT)?
A standardized assessment in which all students perform under the same conditions It compares the performance of a student or group of students to a national sample of students at the same grade and age, called the norm group Review explanation of NRT Example: FCAT NRT

18 What is a Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT)?
An assessment comparing one student's performance to a specific learning objective or performance standard and not to the performance of other students. It tells us how well students are performing on specific goals or content standards rather than how their performance compares to a national or local norming group. Review Slide. Example would be FCAT SSS.

19 Summary NRT and CRT Review slide information. This chart provides an easy reference for the definition and examples for each type of test.

20 Types of Scores Developmental Scores Raw Scores Scale Scores
We are going to look at 4 types of scores today: Raw Scores, Scale Scores, Developmental and Gain Scores. Gain Scores

21 Raw Score (RS) The number of items a student answers correctly on a test. John took a 20 item mathematics test (where each item was worth one point) and correctly answered 17 items. His raw score for this assessment is 17. Raw scores communicate nothing more than the total number of items answered correctly on a test. Raw scores cannot be compared to one another due to the fact that there is not knowledge of the TOTAL points available. The raw score strictly tells how many points a student earned. (Review info on slide)

22 Scale Score (SS) Mathematically converted raw scores based on level of difficulty per question For FCAT-SSS, a computer program is used to analyze student responses and to compute the scale score Scale Scores reflect a more accurate picture of the student’s achievement level Scale Scores are Raw Scores that have been mathematically converted to account for the varying levels of difficulty among the questions. In the case of the SSS portion of FCAT, students’ answers are analyzed by a computer in order to determine the scale score. Because difficulty level is considered, the Scale Score is a more accurate reflection of a student’s true achievement level than the Raw Score. How does this type of score compare to a Raw Score? (Allow for discussion)

23 Developmental Scale Score (DSS) Reading
Grade Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 8 9 10 8th grade is provided so teachers can compare incoming students’ previous scores. 11th and 12th grade re-takes are based upon 10th grade DSS. There are no extended response questions on the re-take tests. 4th, 8th, and 10th grade Reading FCAT has Extended and Short responses – the other grade levels are multiple choice only. DSS can be used to determine grade equivalents. For example: A 9th grader scoring an 1885 would be a level 2, however if you go back in grade level to determine what grade an 1885 falls in the level 3 range that is his/her grade equivalent Handout-DSS Chart and Achievement level chart definition

24 Current Grade DSS Student A 9 2224 Student B 10 1835 Student C 11 1675
Grade Equivalent 10th 8th 6th ********* Using the DSS for student A, B, and C use the DSS chart to determine their grade equivalent.

25 High School Intensive Reading Placement
Incoming L1 & L2 students on 2006 FCAT If LANGUAGE! Placement Assessment indicates placement into LANGUAGE! Levels A/B, C/D or E/F– 2 periods If LANGUAGE! Placement Assessment indicates placement beyond LANGUAGE!, Great Source - 1 period Explain that there are some exceptions to this information. This is just meant as a guideline in order to provide information regarding general student population in most Great Source courses. Note: Incoming 11th & 12th graders who scored above 1926 will be able to take a 10th grade fluency assessment to be placed out of the Intensive Reading requirement..

26 Gain Scores Commonly referred to as “Learning Gains”
The amount of progress a student makes in one school year. Review points in slide These scores are of particular importance, because they let us know if a child is making the expected progress from year to year. Also, Learning Gain scores are used in the formula to calculate School Grades.

27 Learning Gains: Who Qualifies?
All students with a pre- and post-test, including all subgroups (ESE, LEP, etc.). All students with matched, consecutive year (i.e & 2006) FCAT SSS results, grades 4-10, who were enrolled in the same school surveys 2 & 3 (FTE). Review Slide

28 Learning Gains: Which Scores?
Gains apply in reading and math, not writing or science. Pre-test may be from same school, same district, or anywhere in the state. Review slide. Remember, Learning Gains can only occur if the student takes the same subject area tests for 2 consecutive years. Therefore, gains cannot be considered for Writing or Science, because students do not take those exams at consecutive grade levels. FCAT Writes! Grades 4, 8, and 10 Science 5th, 8th and 11th Math and Reading – Grades 3-10 *Students must pass the Grade 10 Reading and Math FCAT to earn a high school diploma.

29 What equals Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)?
Learning Gains: What equals Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)? A. Improve FCAT Achievement Levels from 2005 to (e.g. 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5) OR B. Maintain “satisfactory” Achievement Levels from (e.g. 3-3, 4-4, 5-5) C. Demonstrate more than one year’s growth within Level 1 or Level 2 - determined by DSS Cut Points (not applicable for retained students) Review information on slide, allow for questions. Reasons A, B, and C apply for all students. Reasons A and B apply to retained students – Reason C cannot be used for a retained student.

30 Developmental Scale Score Gains Table (DSS Cut Points)
Students achieving within Level 1 (or within Level 2) for two consecutive years must gain at least one point more than those listed in the table in order to satisfy the “making annual learning gains” component of the school accountability system. Grade Level Change Reading Mathematics 3 to 4 230 162 4 to 5 166 119 5 to 6 133 95 6 to 7 110 78 7 to 8 92 64 8 to 9 77 54 9 to 10 48 This table shows the cut-off points that are used to determine if a student has made adequate progress. The listed numbers on this table are one year’s growth. For a student remaining in the same level (one or two) for two consecutive years, in order to have made a year’s academic growth, the student must have scored at least 1 more point than the number listed for the subject area at the student’s grade level.

31 Learning Gains: Retainees
A retained student can only be counted as making adequate progress if he/she: Moves up one level. (e.g. 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5) Maintains a level 3, 4, or 5. REASON “A” Retained students cannot qualify for Reason C, because they are taking the same grade level test 2 years in a row. The Developmental Scale Score increases are only valid on tests taken at different grade levels. REASON “B”

32 Learning Gains: Activity
Using the data on the following table, determine: which students made a learning gain what percentage of the teacher’s students made a learning gain

33 Data Display for FCAT Reading Results
Student 04/05 Grade Level 05/06 Grade Level Pre-test Achievement Level Pre-test DSS Post-test Achievement Level Post-test DSS Learning Gain Determination A 7 8 Level 1 Level 2 Yes or No Reason: A, B, or C B Level 4 C 1598 1743 D E Level 3 F 1486 1653 G Level 5 Please use this slide to determine which students made learning gains, based on the criteria discussed.

34 Teacher Learning Gains Based on Data Display
Total Number of Students with a Pre and Post-test who qualify for learning gain calculations: Reason A Increased 1 or more Achievement Levels Reason B Maintains “satisfactory” levels (3, 4, or 5) Reason C DSS Target Gain (More than a year’s growth) 7 2 1 Answers to Activity 5 out of 7 students made learning gains. 71% of this teacher’s students made learning gains and add points towards the school’s grade. No points are given to the school for Student F because he was retained and stayed within level 1 – even though he made significant gains in DSS points. No points are given to Student G because he decreased a level.

35 Class Record Sheet for Learning Gains
Here is a snapshot of a class record sheet for determining learning gains. You have a sample of this with your handouts.

36 Types of Data Results (Summative) Process (Formative)
Data used to make decisions about student achievement at the end of a period of instruction. Process (Formative) Data gathered at regular intervals during the instructional period; used to provide feedback about student progress and to provide direction for instructional interventions. Next, we are going to talk about different types of data. Results Data, often referred to in education as Summative Data, is gathered at the end of instruction in order to determine mastery and need for re-teaching. Process, or Formative Data, is gathered at intervals during instruction, so that timely interventions can be instituted.

37 Summative Data Continued
FCAT Great Source Florida Diagnostic Tests (Sourcebook) Post Test Reader’s Handbook Test Book Multiple Choice/Short Answer test pages for each topic. Multiple topic tests can be combined in order to create a semester exam. Teacher’s Guide Source Book Fourth black-line master page of each story. Show examples of Great Source pages as explain the slide. In the thin 9th grade purple Florida Diagnostic Test book, there is a Post Test on page 37 that can be used as a final opportunity to assess students’ progress in the grade level as a whole. In the Reader’s Handbook Test Book, there is a multiple-choice test on pages 10 – 11 pertaining to “The Reading Process.” In the 9th grade Sourcebook, there is a multiple-choice/short answer test on page 69 for the personal essay titled, “The Good Daughter,” which is the recommended reading for the topic, “The Reading Process.”

38 A Closer Look at Results Data
Examples: FCAT SAT 10 Review slide.

39 FCAT Parent Report We are going to look at a printout of an FCAT report. You have a copy of this in your handout packet. It is important that every teacher knows how to read and interpret these reports.

40 Group Activity How do parents get these reports?
Did this student pass the 10th grade test? In what grade did this student first achieve grade level mastery? Which content area had the most questions? Using the bar graph, how does this student’s achievement compare to grade level? With your partner try to answer these questions – 2 minutes overhead timer

41 A Closer Look at Formative Data
Quizzes Chapter Tests DIBELS District Math Assessments Now we are going to take a closer look at Formative Data, such as quizzes, chapter tests, and the DIBELS assessment.

42 Formative Data Examples Great Source
Definition: Data gathered at regular intervals during the instructional period; used to provide feedback about student progress and to provide direction for instructional interventions. Florida Diagnostic Tests (Sourcebook) Interim Tests Reader’s Handbook Student Application Book Lesson Plan Book Sourcebook Teacher’s Guide Student Text Show examples as read through the slide. Florida Diagnostic Test book (purple) – An interim test can be used as a diagnostic form of assessment. EX - page 25. This test assesses students’ understanding of the skills and strategies assessed in the six lessons just completed (drives re-teaching plans). Reader’s Handbook Student Applications Book – The pages in this book have students practicces skills, strategies, and tools that apply to the topic. Using a different grade level for testing you can assess their progress in the use of these skills, strategies, and tools. EX - 9th grade– pages apply to “The Reading Process.” Lesson Plan Book – On the bottom of each lesson plan page there are questions provided for assessment. EX - pages – see questions under the “Assessment” section at the bottom of each page. These questions can be used for Exit Tickets. Sourcebook – Again, the Sourcebook can be used to assess student’s use of skills, strategies, and tools. As student’s work through the book you can see their progress in the application of their strategies. Teacher’s Guide – EX - 9th grade purple book – pages suggest formative activities and provide three black line masters that can be used to guide instruction for the personal essay, “The Good Daughter,” which corresponds with the topic of “The Reading Process.” Student Text – 9th grade purple book – five opportunities for formative assessment are embedded within the story, “The Good Daughter,” which is on pages Then, there follows three pages of student activities which can be used as formative assessment – perhaps as part of portfolio.

43 What tools do we have? Histogram Pareto Chart Run Chart
FCAT Inquiry (Summative) Teacher Tools for Data Collection (Can be Summative or Formative) Histogram Pareto Chart Run Chart Scatter Diagram Item Analysis (Read slide)

44 Histogram Bar chart representing a frequency distribution
of student scores Heights of the bars represent number of students scoring at same level/score Used to Monitor progress Review information on slide.

45 Histogram: Mastery of FCAT Subtest Content Categories
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 F1 F2 F3 F4 FA FB Subtests Number of Students A histogram allows us to see the distribution of data by frequency. Then we can look at the curve generated by the data, in order to determine student progress. In this example, we are looking at data collected in a 9th grade Reader’s Handbook class, showing the distribution of mastery of the FCAT subtests. The x axis shows the four content categories as well as two Informational text (FA) Literature (FB) questions The y axis shows the number of students in the class – 12 students mastered the F2 content category, while 14 students mastered the F4 content category. *Mastery – FA 17/22, FB 17/23, F1 3/4, F2 15/20, F3 8/10, F4 8/11 (75% average) The shape of the curve is a slightly skewed bell.

46 Using Data Inquiry to Determine Mastery
FCAT Data Inquiry When creating the histogram on the previous page – this teacher decided she wanted to look at the percentage of her students that showed mastery in each of the Reading FCAT content categories. She pulled up her students subtest scores on Data Inquiry and determined how many questions were in each category. She decided she was going use 75% as mastery. You have a handout of the scores from this teachers Data Inquiry page.

47 Histogram: Grade Distribution on Final Exam (Summative Test)
9th Grade Reader’s Handbook Classes 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100 Grade Frequency This histogram displays the distribution of final exam grades in an 9th grade RH course. The shape of the curve is getting close to a J, indicating that a majority of the students have mastered the material. Further analysis is needed to determine which students still need interventions in order to move to the right side of the chart. Briefly describe L to J chart.

48 Run Chart Use to: Monitor progress over time
Display data in simplest form The next tool is the Run Chart. (Read uses as they come up.) Run charts are the simplest, easiest way to graph classroom progress. Each time an assessment occurs, simply place a point (dot) on the chart to indicate the results of that assessment. As dots are added, draw lines to connect the points, and monitor the progress. The key to the effective use of a run chart is to examine why the resulting line goes up or down, and then plan for improvement. Remember that interventions (instructional strategies) must take place between assessments in order for improvement to occur.

49 Run Chart: Words Correct Per Minute on Weekly Fluency Test
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Week Number of words In this example, the class is graphing words correct per minute on a grade level reading sample. As you can see, the scores dipped a couple of times, but overall, the student has made great improvement over the course of the 9 weeks.

50 Percent w/ avg. of at leas75%
Class Goal: By the end of 9 weeks, 100% of our class will have an average of at least 75% on our weekly benchmark reading passages. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Week Percent w/ avg. of at leas75% Class Run Chart: Percent of Students Averaging at Least 75% Many of you may be familiar with another way of measuring improvement on a run chart. In this example, the class goal for the quarter is stated, and weekly progress toward that goal is measured using the run chart. Rather than measuring the number of correct problems, this example measures the percentage of students exhibiting mastery, as defined by the class goal. This class is reading a passage each week and answering multiple choice and Short and Extended response questions based on the Sunshine State Standard benchmarks that are assessed on the 9th and 10th grade FCAT SSS Reading test.

51 Scatter Diagram: Fluency Rates vs. Gain Points
50 60 70 80 90 100 78 88 98 108 118 Gain Points WCPM In this example, the class wanted to determine if there was a relationship between fluency rates and DSS gain points on the FCAT Reading test. They plotted their fluency rates against their DSS gain points. The line which bisects the plotted dots is called a Trend Line. In this case, it is easy to see that the plotted points form an upward line. This is called a Positive Trend, and indicates that as fluency rates increase, learning gain points will also increase.

52 Scatter Diagram: Number of Siblings vs Grade Point Average
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of Siblings Grade Point Average In this example, Number of Siblings was plotted against Grade Point Average. As you can see, the trend line is basically flat, indicating that there is no correlation between the 2 variables.

53 Scatter Diagram: Days of Attendance vs
# of Mistakes on Sourcebook Diagnostic Posttest 3 6 9 12 15 18 36 54 72 90 108 126 144 162 Days of Attendance Mistakes This Scatter Diagram illustrates a negative correlation. The downward slope of the trend line shows us that as the number of days in attendance increases, the number of mistakes made on the Sourcebook Diagnostic Posttest decreases. 180

54 Item Analysis Use to: Determine mastered content
Determine most common mistakes Item analysis is the best way to determine which concepts have been mastered by your students. Now we are going to practice an item analysis.

55 Classroom Test Analysis
BENCHMARK ASSESSED ITEM # NUMBER CORRECT INCORRECT PARTIAL CREDIT DISTRACTOR A/1 B/2 C/3 D/4 NO ANSWER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CLASSROOM TEST ANALYSIS Discuss: Which items were most frequently incorrect? Identify the students who answered the items incorrectly. What “re-teaching” needs to occur? Which items had partial credit awarded most frequently? Identify the students who received partial credit. What “re-teaching” needs to occur? If multiple choice, which distractor (by item) was most frequently chosen? Identify the students who chose that incorrect response. Considering the distractor chosen, what are the instructional implications? What “re-teaching” needs to occur? What are the instructional implications for the items/benchmarks identified as most frequently incorrect?

56 Additional Item Analysis Checklist

57 Item Analysis Activity
(Follow directions on Item Analysis Activity handout)

58 Pareto Chart Use to: Rank issues in order of occurrence
Decide which problems need to be addressed first Find the issues that have the greatest impact Monitor impact of changes The next tool we will discuss is the Pareto Chart.

59 Pareto Chart: Introduction, Reading Process,
Reading Know-How, Improving Vocabulary 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Reading Process Introduction Reading Know-How Improving Vocabulary Category Percent Cumulative percentage This Pareto Chart shows the areas of mistakes made by students when working through a pretest on four Chapters of Reader’s Handbook. By examining this data, the teacher can determine which area needs additional instruction first. As you can see, the percentage of mistakes made on the Reading Process chapter (60%), is more than double the next most common mistake. Providing interventions to correct this mistake first will provide the biggest “bang for the buck”. Pareto charts are associated with the “80-20 rule”. This suggests that if you take care of the issues that are causing 80% of the problems, the other 20% will usually decrease as well. In this example, the Introduction and Reading Process chapter combine to make up 80% of the mistakes.

60 Data analysis provides:
Insight and Questions Remember, collecting and analyzing data provides insight into student achievement and into potential problem areas. This produces questions – why are students missing words with double vowels on their spelling tests? Why are students skipping the second step in two-part word problems? What can I do to help my students remember types of energy? It does NOT provide answers. ? ? ? ? ?

61 Questions to Ponder… What question are we trying to answer?
Baldrige: A Practical Way of Getting Better Facilitator’s Guide What question are we trying to answer? What can we tell from the data? What can we NOT tell from the data? What else might we want to know? What good news is here for us to celebrate? What opportunities for improvement are suggested by the data? When we look at our data, we need to ask ourselves these questions: (Read slide) Adapted from Getting Excited About Data, Edie Holcomb Jim Shipley & Associates, Inc. Copyright June 2002

62 Answers! Action Provides Thinking Maps Learning Modalities
Marzano Strategies Peer Tutor Answers! CRISS Strategies Once we have analyzed our data, it is time to take action. This is where the strategies you have learned over the past few years fit into the plan. Think about your data – what insight did you gain? What questions were raised? Now consider the strategies in your “personal toolbox” – which ones are best suited to help solve the problems you’ve uncovered? Cloze activities Cooperative Learning

63 Steps to Improvement Again! Do It ACT STUDY DO PLAN Make improvements.
Analyze the results. DO Implement the plan. PLAN When you get back to your classrooms tomorrow, you are going to be thinking about lots of things – and this training may not be your top priority. However, once you catch your breath and begin thinking about the information you need about your students, and the plans you want to make, this training can help. Many of you have heard of the Plan, Do, Study, Act model for improvement. (NOW IS THE FIRST CLICK.  ) The first step is the Plan stage. This is where you consider what you know, and what you want to find out. What strategy do you want to implement in order to improve student performance? Make a PLAN. (SECOND CLICK NOW) The next step is DO – this is where you actually implement the plan. (CLICK AGAIN) Once the plan is in action, you need to study the results you are getting. This is where it is important to look at process results – are you getting what you expected? Do you need to make changes? (CLICK) After you have studied the results, ACT upon them. It does no good to put a plan in place if you do not look at results and then use those to make improvements. THEN DO IT AGAIN!! Remember, improvement is an ongoing process – keep the cycle going! What information have I gained from my data? What interventions can I put In place?

64 Personal Action Plan Again! Do It What data can I access?
What tools can I use to help me monitor progress toward our class goals? What/who else do I need to help me? What is my start date? How will I evaluate the results? To wrap up, we are going to take a few minutes for you to develop your own personal PDSA. Consider these questions as you make your plan

65 Lesson Planning 2 approaches can be used when planning your Great Source Reader’s Handbook lessons. You can organize your year by using: The Teacher’s Guide and Lesson Plan book Sunshine State Standards Benchmarks Using the last slide and all your hand-outs, we will take time to create lesson plans that will incorporate the use of data to guide instruction specifically using the Great Source materials. Each one of these approaches uses the Teacher’s Guide, the Lesson Plan Book, the Student Applications Book and The Sourcebook. The Teacher’s Guide and Lesson Plan book – When using this book begin with page in the Lesson Plan Book to choose your Curriculum focus. The example used is planned using the Test Success Focus. Pages are blackline masters that can be used when planning for all four quarters and each individual quarter. SSS Benchmarks – There are eight benchmarks that are tested on the SSS Reading FCAT. When using this approach to planning your year each benchmark can be identified and the topics that are covered in Lesson Plan Book can be correlated. The Lesson Plan book then provides the pages for all the other ancillary materials.

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