2HA Agenda HA Airship Task HA Airship Research Findings Proof of Concept (PoC) Design DecisionsTest ConceptsTesting ResultsDemoProject StatusActions Needed
3HA Tasking Authorities AR (Sep 07)Missionb. USASMDC/ARSTRAT is the Army specified proponent for space, high altitude, and ground-based midcourse defense (GMD); and develops and transitions technology and provides acquisition support to assigned fields.TRADOC Pamphlet , Army Space CCP (October 2006): “Systems operating in the near-space region have the potential to provide rapid, on demand, dedicated capabilities augmenting strategic space assets”“Supported commander and Army proponent for space, high altitude, and ground-based midcourse defense.”Army Campaign Plan Change 5 (05 April 2007)
4HA Task Process Approach Conduct researchHigh Altitude Airship (HAA) model will be adapted from current OneSAF UAV/Satellite model with the following focuses:MOBILITY:Ascent-get on station (Assumed at scenario start)Power characteristics and behaviorsOn-station drift patterns and behaviorsOff station or mobility modelingAltitude, speed, on station timePayload:Payload modeling (Camera and/or Comms)HA message set development (OneSAF observation reports)Comm frequency, etc. parametersPersistence on/off (based on power consumption modeling)Develop the code, test cases, and associated scenarios.Develop KAKE Document Set.*Develop Use Cases*Test and create Handover Package** Note: These tasks not yet completed
5Existing HA Airship Types Program LeadPayloadPowerAltitudeHAALockheed Martin/ SMDC50 lbs1.7% of weight50 Watts65- 70,000 FtISISDARPA30-40% of weight(Built inside)400 watts70,000HiSentenialSMDC Technical Center50 watts67,00 FtHALELindstrand (ESA)600kg80 watts70,000FtData collected from various on-line sources
6OCDL HA Airship Research Findings Researched Areas:Types of Airships/Airship ProgramsWeather at Higher AltitudesAirship PayloadsAirship PowerOperational Facts:Airships are characterized as untethered and are equipped with propulsion systems that allow them to travel from site to site, as required for the mission.Generally, an Airship will be placed in the Stratosphere with the following conditions:Above precipitative weather.Low atmospheric absorption (Helium Loss).Above FAA air traffic domain.Mean atmospheric temperature: - 65 degrees Fahrenheit.Mean wind below 20 knots, occasional peak above 100 knots.Military experiments and testing showed:HA’s value as an ISR sensor platform (EO/IR and MTI).Potential for increased value as a communications platform.
7OCDL HA Airship Research Findings cont’d Additional Operational Facts:Powered by Photovoltaic and fuel cells.When camera dependent, an airship has a 700 square mile target detection range, with a boresight of 90 degrees, and will be stationary.Low power transmit and receive, therefore they have low signatures—acoustic, IR, RF.Eliminates fuel dependency creating longer flight durations.Eliminates need for more aircraft sorties plus payloads with continuous on-station keeping.Fewer take offs and landings than fixed wing aircraft.Consumes less resources to deploy and utilize.Operating infrastructure costs potentially low relative to other forms of aviation.Requires an open unobstructed launch/recovery area.HA airship volumes are relatively large, which provides a potential for very large, internal antennas.High–strength fabric to minimize puncture and hull weight and highly survivable.Upon hasty unit relocation, airship is expendable and payload is recoverable via parachute.
8HA Airship Perspective 25 km (82 kft)20 km (65.6 kft)12 km (39.3 kft)Sea LevellNote:Airship operating altitudes are above weather altitudes.Object altitude location in perspective provide good representation of real altitudes
9Line of Sight Distance to Horizon vs Altitude (304.5 sm)(261.0 sm)(217.5 sm)(174.0 sm)(130.5 sm)(87 sm)Increased LOS starts ataltitude of 10k feetHA airships are capable of ascending to higher altitudes and increase the line of sight to the horizon. This figure shows how the line of sight is increased as altitude increases. In a typical environment, line of sight (for communication or surveillance) is limited to less than miles. Line of sight can be increased to over 100 miles by ascending to less than 10,000 feet, an altitude easily attainable by the aerostats available today. It also demonstrates the value of moving to higher altitudes since line of sight can be increased by ascending to or above 60,000 feet.
10Wind Effects on Station Keeping The chart above shows maximum wind velocities from the earth’s surface to an altitude of 140,000 feet. The chart does not depict wind direction, which varies considerably within the bands shown. The higher wind velocities shown between 10,000 and 60,000 feet are not prevalent at all latitudes. The chart shows the altitudes best-suited for station-keeping. Hence the most energy-efficient altitudes for station-keeping are either low or between 65,000 to 70,000 feet.
11Potential HA Uses in Battle Extended Range Communications Network Relay:Enable Battle CommandGPS Enhancement for Anti-Jamming (GPS Pseudo Satellite)Communication’s NodeImagery:Air/Ground Moving Target IndicatorRegional and Wide Area Persistent SurveillanceThreat Tracking of Urban Combat ZonesTargeting OpportunitiesImproved Situational AwarenessAlternate Space Asset:Improved Asset UtilizationAirspace ManagementTBM and Cruise Missile DetectionFree-Floater (Balloon)Station Keeping LTA (Airship)Station Keeping HTA (UAV)
12OCDL HA Design Decisions Airship Characteristics (Default):Development: Team modified UAV/Satellite models in OneSAF to save time/cost.Launch and Recovery: Airships have an adequate amount of helium to sustain them for a minimum of 30 days. Most OneSAF scenarios are usually a few days with all players active on the playboard. We model the HA as starting on station and do not model launch or recovery.Station-keeping: The HA airship remains on station in access of 30 days. The airship will maintain position at a designated location until directed to relocate by the GCS.Altitude: HA airships are emplaced at an altitude located between 60-70,000 ft.Vulnerability: Vulnerability is not modeled in this PoC version (Weather, Hostiles).Ground Command Station (GCS): Comm modeling in the PoC HA assumes perfect comms (OneSAF dependent – no terrain/weather degradation) to the GCSPower: Will be a user selectable attribute that may effect near max-load payloads over a long mission life (Airship power compromises sensor persistence). Payloads exceeding power capacities not modeled.Drift: Random drift will occur which will require the airship to utilize it’s power to run the motor (uses x power) in order to relocate to it’s assigned on-station position. In OneSAF wind is random and is not modeled. Therefore, we will model a random wind drift based on a user input. This will effect power usage on board and potentially sensor persistence.
13OCDL HA Design Decisions (cont) Initial Payload Characteristics:Payloads: Two types of payload modeled: EO sensor and communications.Payload Boresight: Emplacement of airship and HA coverage, using a camera, will be an area located above GCS with a 90 degree boresight. Airship will maintain a geo-stationary position with random drift and regular drift correction. The camera boresight on the ground will be reflective of the random drift and drift correction.Surveillance: Sensor will provide persistent surveillance with a observation report downloaded to the GCS on a 5 minute interval.
16PoC Testable HA Use Cases Airship Mobility (Staying on Station)Propulsion (Drift Correction): Algorithm has been implemented and testedSurvivability: Assumed to be invulnerableGround Command Station (GCS)LOS to Airship Testing: Not effective due to Perfect CommsAirship Control: Currently controlled by simulation controllerSensor Activation: Implemented by “Conduct Persistent Surveillance” behaviorSensor PayloadEO (Camera): Implemented via reuse and modification of the existing ISR modelsPersistent Surveillance: Continuous observation, sends reports every 5 minutesPower Sharing/Budgets: NA (Only one sensor being used)Communications Network: Acts as a point-to-point relay.Repeater/Radio/Network Support: NA (Can be implement as communication network)Power Budget (Stressing)Daily/Payload Usage (Between Airship & Payload): Power drain implemented for mobilityRegenerative Source: Rechargeable fuel cell increases and decreases depending on mobility state
17HA Scenario: Airship Behaviors Scenario Description:Battlefield Commanders have always sought to see farther or “over the next hill.”HA airships can provide the ability to carry ISR, EW, and communications-relay systems to greater altitudes than can presently be reached for tactical units.Potential ISR, EW, and communications-relay payloads for HA airships have become lighter and less power demanding than earlier designs.Objectives:Scenario will allow testing of:Measure Blue Force impacts; collect extended Battlefield FOV “metrics” once real airship parameters/characteristics are plugged in.Scenario with Airship: Expected reduced Battlefield impacts; greater FOV.Scenario w/o Airship: Expected greater Battlefield impacts; smaller FOV.Introduce Drift effects; power usage effects, persistence effects.Mini performance Scenario: Will allow testing of airship performance w/o payload or large entity count impacting studies.Provide means of preparing test cases/ procedures for verification of HA design requirements.
18HA Airship Scenario: Surveillance/ Comm Relay by Altitude Altitude provides the ability to see and achieve line of sight over both urban and geographic terrain features. At altitude, an airship can provide communication connectivity to the Ground Control Station hidden by terrain and provide surveillance of threats, which might otherwise be hidden by the environment.HAAVideo/Comm LinkRed Force ReconBlue Force GCS
23HA Test Findings To Date Forty Five test runs were conducted during this testing cycle. The following insights were noted:Weather and Ground effects are not available in OneSAF 2.1. When trying to obscure the ground effects with fog, dust, smoke, and cloud cover they would not take place in the PVD.The HAA was tested during night operations and it was concluded that night does effect HAA operations. The sensor on the Airship is an E/O camera. Night limits the objects seen by the camera and therefore the output of observation reports is ceased.The HAA drift has a One kilometer Outer Station-Keeping Radius (OSKR). The airship FOV is 31.4 miles in diameter (15.7 radius).The power being used by the rechargeable fuel cell is configurable. OneSAF does not allow for the adding of watts, etc, so a figure was inserted to allow for the gradual percentage degradation as power was consumed by the airship.The Inner Station-Keeping Radius (ISKR) was set to 250 meters to allow more time to recharge.Power for drift control can be used at anytime without being 100% recharged. This is a configurable parameter and needs real values. Currently, drift control is a function of station limits, not power availability.The system would experience lockup when trying to process a large number of entities when simulation time was increased. This is a OneSAF problem.The number of entities being reported is configurable, currently set for 100 for demo purposes.
24OCDL HA Project Status/Path Ahead Collect HA characteristicsCollect sensor/payload characteristics and behaviorsUse findings to write KAKE documentDevelop use casesDevelop test casesDevelop ModelsTest scenariosLock Down Design RequirementsIntegrate and test the model using approved use/test casesValidate Parameters with GovtBuild a final test planConduct final testingBuild Handover package materialsCollected (Initial–Theoretical)Collected (Theoretical)Working (Need Final Govt. Approved List)In ReviewWorking (Draft Form)Completed – will be refinedBuilt – RefinementsInitial Set CompleteWorkingTBD
25Actions Required to Continue HAA Development Requirements List Verified by GovernmentReal World Data for Airship CharacteristicsPayload/Sensor Behavioral Data Requirements/CharacteristicsPower Budgeting (Consumption vs Recharge Rate)Power limits/conditions/consumption valuesDrift management and control parametersDoctrine/Military Missions describedAdditional Use CasesAdditional ScenariosGuidance on an actual wind modelsAdditional behaviors to be modeledOSKR controlsAscent & Descent (if launch/recovery is required)Flight Operation (GCS control)Please note: because HAAs are not yet fielded systems, parameter values have been/are difficult to obtain and development assumptions are subject to change – we need approved Government values