2 Today’s Standard Essential Questin 10.7 Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I.Explain the rise of Stalin and compare and contrast Stalin's Communist Russia to Hitler and Mussolini’s Fascist nations.Essential Questin
3 Stalin Becomes Dictator After Lenin dies (1924), Trotsky & Stalin compete for power1928: Stalin has total command of Communist PartyFocus on Russian development4. Trotsky, Stalin’s main opponent forced into exile
4 Communism Under Stalin Karl Mark Communism = no central governmentStalin communism = Totalitarian governmentTotalitarianism = total control over every aspect of public & private lifeSeems secure & stable, but no freedom
5 Economy Under Stalin Command Economy = Gov’t. controlled 5 Year Plan rapid industrialization & strengthening of national defenseIncrease output of steel, coal, oil, etc. by limiting production of consumer goodsImproving transportationIncreasing farm out-putJobs, workers, & hours decided by gov’tSecret police (Cheka) enforced with imprisonment or executionDifferent from Lenin’s NEP which allowed some small capitalist enterprizeStalin said USSR yrs behind advanced countriesSoviet Postcard of Worker Holding Five-Year Plan Postcard states that "with honor, we will fulfill and fulfill again Stalin's new Five Year Plan".
6 Results of 5 Year Plan 1928-1939 huge growth in industry Working men and women had little to showStandard of living remained lowLow quality goodsWages were low and workers were not allowed to strike
7 Agricultural Revolution Creation of Collective Farms:Government-ownedProduce food for the StatePeople resisted collectivization by killing farm animals, destroying tools and burning croupsKulaks = wealthy peasants; thousands executed or sent to campsResistance continued million died due to famine; millions more sent to Siberia
8 Weapons of Totalitarianism Police TerrorGulags – brutal labor campsSecret policePropagandaIndoctrinationCensorshipReligious PersecutionpogromsPhone tapped; mail read; planted informers everywhere (even children to inform vs. parents)4. Replace religious teaching with ideals of communism; League of the Militant Godless; Orthodox, Roman Catholics, and Jews targets; many religious leaders killed or sent to labor camps
9 Soviet Propaganda Posters The Giants of the Five Year Plan“The results of the Five Year Plan show that the working class is not only capable of destroying the old, but also of building the new”Long Live the Great Stalin!!
10 The Great Purge 1934 – 1939 Targets of Purge included Early Bolshevik revolutionariesMilitary heroesAnyone who became a threatAt least 4 million people executedResultsIncreased Stalin's PowerHurt the government because so many important people were executed.
11 PropagandaStalin propaganda poster, reading: "Beloved Stalin—good fortune of the people!">Propaganda: biased or incomplete info used to sway people beliefs or actionsStalin sought to control the hearts and minds of Soviet citizensCensored opposing ideas, made himself a godlike figureBombarded radios, loudspeakers, movies, theaters, schools, billboards, posters, newspapers w/ communist propaganda
12 Censorship and the Arts Gov’t controlled what books were published, what music was heard, and which works of Art were displayed.Stalin encouraged:Russification- making the cultures of nonRussians more RussianAtheism- belief that there is no GodSocialist Realism- Show soviet life in a positive lightSoviet ArtIn this Socialist Realist sculpture, a factory worker and a collective farmer raise the hammer and sickle together.
13 Benefits and Drawbacks Did not create a society of equals as promisedhead of society were the members of the Soviet partyAll Children attended free communist schoolsState provided free medical care, day care, inexpensive housing, public recreationHousing was scarce, meat , fruit and other foods were hard to get
14 Women Won equal rights Did same job as men More educational opportunitiesAlso expected to produce offspring for future obedient citizensThis woman is one of the workers charged with the job of constructing a giant tractor plant in Byelorussia as part of Stalin's new "Five Year Plan".