# Guidelines for working with the Elements of Design

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Guidelines for working with the Elements of Design
Principles of Design Guidelines for working with the Elements of Design

Proportion The relationship of parts of the same object OR
The relationship between different objects in the same group. Best proportion is 2:3 Equal proportions are LESS pleasing to the eye

Proportion Golden Rectangle---sides in a ration of 2:3. short sides are 2/3 the length of the long sides Golden Mean---division of a line midway between ½ and 1/3 of its length (wall arrangements, tying draperies, hanging pictures Golden Section---Division of a line so that the ratio of the smaller to the larger sections is equal to the ratio of the larger sections to the whole 1,2,3,5,8,13,21, …..

Scale Refers to the relative size of an object in relation to other objects. When furnishings are scaled to the space they occupy, they are visually pleasing.

Furnishings need to be:
Within a room, furnishings need to be in scale with one another. Large sofa----large coffee table. Furnishings need to be in scale to the people using them. A large person---substantial size chair Child needs small table and chairs

Visual Weight The perception of weight----that an object weighs more or less than it really does. Upholstered chair appears to weigh more than a wooden chair.

BALANCE Equilibrium among parts of a design.
When there is balance, there is a sense of equal weight on both sides of a center point. Formal Balance —identical objects are arranged on both sides of a center point. Also known as symmetrical balance. Informal Balance---different but equivalent objects are arranged to the sides of a center point. Also known as asymmetrical balance.

SYMMETRICAL BALANCE This garden is symmetrically balanced.
Right and Left sides of the garden are identical.

Symmetrical balance cont.

ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE In this garden the right and left sides are not the same. However, it is visually balanced. Notice that the large green tree and rocks (L) balance the larger rock formation (R)

Asymmetrical Balance cont.

EMPHASIS Emphasis creates a center of attention or a focal point in a room Every well designed room has a focal point. The eyes are immediately drawn to that point when entering the room. The focal point should be worthy of attention. The focal point should dominate the room, but not over power it.

Emphasis cont….

Emphasis cont. Some common focal points in rooms are: Windows
Fireplaces Artwork arrangements Entertainment centers

RHYTHM Rhythm smoothly leads the eyes from one area to another in a design. Rhythm results when an element of design forms an organized pattern. Rhythm is achieved through Repetition Gradation Radiation Opposition Transition

Rhythm -- REPETITION Created when an element o design---such as color, line, form or texture -- is repeated

Rhythm -- GRADATION Rhythm created by a gradual increase or decrease in size

Rhythm -- RADIATION Rhythm formed when lines flow from a central point.

Rhythm --- OPPOSITION Rhythm is formed as lines meet to form right angles