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Ch. 18 All Sections.  In the 1400s and 1500s, countries in Europe began to explore the world.  Many different conditions came together to further this.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 18 All Sections.  In the 1400s and 1500s, countries in Europe began to explore the world.  Many different conditions came together to further this."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 18 All Sections

2  In the 1400s and 1500s, countries in Europe began to explore the world.  Many different conditions came together to further this exploration.  Trade with Asia: Europeans began to want more goods from Asia. Spices and Silk went down the Silk Road, while Mongol invaders made those goods more expensive by adding taxes on them.  Other trade routes with Asia became blocked forcing atlernativ e routes to be explored.  Sea routes were preferred because of Europe’s proximity to the sea.

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14  New Technology allowed more exploration.  The compass allowed direction to be determined  The Atrolab allowed lattitude to be determined  Triangular sails were improved allowing better navigation  A new type of rudder was invented  The Rise of Strong Nations  Many nations now had the money to explore  Spain, France, England, and Portugal all began to explore

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21  Henry The Navigator  He was a Portuguese Prince  He set up a research center for explorers and sailors and mapmaker in southern Portugal  He began to map the African coastline  He encouraged exploration and funded many famous explorers  His knowledge of the African continent and its resources would lead to the slave trade.  The slave trade was begun by Africans selling warriors and cultures that had been conquered.

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24  Many other countries sent explorers into the unknown  Christopher Columbus: crossed the Atlantic and found the West Indies.  Ferdinand Magellan: although he died on the trip, his crew became the first to circumnavigate the world  Vasco de Gama: first European to sail around the coast of Africa to get to India  Henry Hudson: Explored the Canadian coast and Hudson Bay

25 Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Vasco de Gama Henry Hudson

26  Mercantilism is the idea of countries gaining as much gold and silver as they can.  They do this by importing and exporting.  They want to export more than they import.  They also have to find sources for natural resources.  During the Age of Exploration, Africa and the New World were often the source of these resources  Countries would set up colonies in the new world and Africa to supply these resources

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30  Following the Renaissance, many scientist began to put forth new theories regarding the planets and solar system, chemistry, biology, and the knowledge of the human body.  Often these ideas were counter to the teaching of the church.  Many early scientist were excommunicated because of their writings and research

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35  Copernicus was a scientist, astronomer, and mathematician from Poland.  He developed a “sun-centric” model of the universe  In his model, the Earth, along with the other planets and the moon rotated around the sun in a circular manner.

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38  Galileo was an Italian scientist  He proved many theories from earlier scientist incorrect  He agreed with Copernicus, and improved many other inventions.  He invented many different instruments himself, such as the water thermometer.  He published his work and was quickly silenced by the pope and charged with heresy.  He recanted many of his ideas under pressure of excommunication.

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42  Most medical knowledge revolved around a Greek physician named Galen.  He believed that all people had 4 humors in them.  A person would become ill if any of the 4 humors got imbalanced  Black bile, yellow bile, blood, and water were the humors.  Galen was only able to dissect dogs at the time, because cutting open humans was forbidden  Beginning in the 1500’s, people began to research the human body more closely to determine its makeup.  We began to understand that blood flows through the body (Harvey) and that we have cells (Hook)

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45  Thinkers began to revive ideas from the greek philosophers.  Descartes was a thinker who wrote “I Think, therefore I am.”  Scientific Method was improved and accepted thanks to scientist such as Bacon who believe reason could help science.  See the scientific method on pg 679.

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48  A return to reason also led people to question their government and the way those governments operated.  People began to promote natural law.  This was the idea the the law applied to everyone and reason was its basis.  It greatly influenced thinkers such as Hobbes and Locke, who in turn influenced the formation of new governments.

49  Hobbes concluded that absolute monarchy was the best form of government.  He concluded that humans were violent and selfish by nature.  The only way a group of humans could co exist would be through the rule of a “Leviathan” or absolute power.  He wrote these ideas in the “Leviathan”  He believed that without this type of rule, human life would be “nasty, brutish, and short.”

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52  Locke used the idea of natural law to reaffirm people’s rights.  He claimed the government should answer to the people  He said people had certain rights that were given them from birth  The rights of “life, liberty, and the right to own property” were advocated by Locke  He greatly influenced the development of our own government.

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56  Montesquieu was a french thinker who advocated the separation of powers.  He said that a government should have three branches  Executive  Legislative  Judicial  He believed that by separating the powers of the government, the government could not become too powerful and threaten it’s peoples rights.

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