Presentation on theme: "Ch. 18 All Sections. In the 1400s and 1500s, countries in Europe began to explore the world. Many different conditions came together to further this."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 18 All Sections
In the 1400s and 1500s, countries in Europe began to explore the world. Many different conditions came together to further this exploration. Trade with Asia: Europeans began to want more goods from Asia. Spices and Silk went down the Silk Road, while Mongol invaders made those goods more expensive by adding taxes on them. Other trade routes with Asia became blocked forcing atlernativ e routes to be explored. Sea routes were preferred because of Europe’s proximity to the sea.
New Technology allowed more exploration. The compass allowed direction to be determined The Atrolab allowed lattitude to be determined Triangular sails were improved allowing better navigation A new type of rudder was invented The Rise of Strong Nations Many nations now had the money to explore Spain, France, England, and Portugal all began to explore
Henry The Navigator He was a Portuguese Prince He set up a research center for explorers and sailors and mapmaker in southern Portugal He began to map the African coastline He encouraged exploration and funded many famous explorers His knowledge of the African continent and its resources would lead to the slave trade. The slave trade was begun by Africans selling warriors and cultures that had been conquered.
Many other countries sent explorers into the unknown Christopher Columbus: crossed the Atlantic and found the West Indies. Ferdinand Magellan: although he died on the trip, his crew became the first to circumnavigate the world Vasco de Gama: first European to sail around the coast of Africa to get to India Henry Hudson: Explored the Canadian coast and Hudson Bay
Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Vasco de Gama Henry Hudson
Mercantilism is the idea of countries gaining as much gold and silver as they can. They do this by importing and exporting. They want to export more than they import. They also have to find sources for natural resources. During the Age of Exploration, Africa and the New World were often the source of these resources Countries would set up colonies in the new world and Africa to supply these resources
Following the Renaissance, many scientist began to put forth new theories regarding the planets and solar system, chemistry, biology, and the knowledge of the human body. Often these ideas were counter to the teaching of the church. Many early scientist were excommunicated because of their writings and research
Copernicus was a scientist, astronomer, and mathematician from Poland. He developed a “sun-centric” model of the universe In his model, the Earth, along with the other planets and the moon rotated around the sun in a circular manner.
Galileo was an Italian scientist He proved many theories from earlier scientist incorrect He agreed with Copernicus, and improved many other inventions. He invented many different instruments himself, such as the water thermometer. He published his work and was quickly silenced by the pope and charged with heresy. He recanted many of his ideas under pressure of excommunication.
Most medical knowledge revolved around a Greek physician named Galen. He believed that all people had 4 humors in them. A person would become ill if any of the 4 humors got imbalanced Black bile, yellow bile, blood, and water were the humors. Galen was only able to dissect dogs at the time, because cutting open humans was forbidden Beginning in the 1500’s, people began to research the human body more closely to determine its makeup. We began to understand that blood flows through the body (Harvey) and that we have cells (Hook)
Thinkers began to revive ideas from the greek philosophers. Descartes was a thinker who wrote “I Think, therefore I am.” Scientific Method was improved and accepted thanks to scientist such as Bacon who believe reason could help science. See the scientific method on pg 679.
A return to reason also led people to question their government and the way those governments operated. People began to promote natural law. This was the idea the the law applied to everyone and reason was its basis. It greatly influenced thinkers such as Hobbes and Locke, who in turn influenced the formation of new governments.
Hobbes concluded that absolute monarchy was the best form of government. He concluded that humans were violent and selfish by nature. The only way a group of humans could co exist would be through the rule of a “Leviathan” or absolute power. He wrote these ideas in the “Leviathan” He believed that without this type of rule, human life would be “nasty, brutish, and short.”
Locke used the idea of natural law to reaffirm people’s rights. He claimed the government should answer to the people He said people had certain rights that were given them from birth The rights of “life, liberty, and the right to own property” were advocated by Locke He greatly influenced the development of our own government.
Montesquieu was a french thinker who advocated the separation of powers. He said that a government should have three branches Executive Legislative Judicial He believed that by separating the powers of the government, the government could not become too powerful and threaten it’s peoples rights.