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The effect of age on the preference of various graphical aspects of a website Aurel Lazar Spring Valley High School.

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Presentation on theme: "The effect of age on the preference of various graphical aspects of a website Aurel Lazar Spring Valley High School."— Presentation transcript:

1 The effect of age on the preference of various graphical aspects of a website Aurel Lazar Spring Valley High School

2 General Information Marketers are using websites on the internet more to propagate products or inform possible customers about events. Attracting those searching for the site is an easy task, but gaining the attention of web surfers is not. (Rosen et al., 2004). A well planned site layout can attract a potential customer or viewer

3 Hue Perceived color from color wheel Children are known to prefer warmer hues over cool hues (Child, 1968) No correlation perceived between age and cool-warm hue preference (Child, 1968) Screenshots from

4 Saturation and Brightness Saturation - Measure of intensity of color Brightness - Measure of white in a color Screenshots from

5 Contrast Few websites have only one color Text-Background Contrast Difference in colors between text and container General Contrast Difference among multiple colors making up components of website Too much variation among colors may cause a “fruit salad” appearance (Ling et al., 2002)

6 Font Style Four of the main kinds of font style: Serif Sans Serif Children generally attracted to strange fonts whereas adults usually pay no special attention to the fonts

7 Page Entry & Interactivity Page Entry How a user arrives at a certain page Usually uses splash pages Interactivity Measure of how much a system responds to user generated stimuli Higher interactivity usually involves animation or changes to the layout

8 Past Research Higher saturation and brightness preferred by younger children (Child, 1968) Preference for cool colors observed at all ages (Child, 1968) Greater visual conspicuity increases preference (Ling et al., 2002) Children and adults attracted to sans serif fonts (Bernard et al., 2001)

9 Purpose To identify trends in the thinking processes of children and adults about graphical preferences. To aid marketers targeting a specific age group and help them make appropriate choices for pleasing web design.

10 Hypotheses As age increases, preference for the following decreases: Warm Hue High Saturation High Brightness Non-Standard Fonts Splash Pages High Interactivity High contrast will be preferred at all ages.

11 Materials Computer Adobe Photoshop CS Trial Macromedia Flash MX Questionnaire Sheet Image taken by Aurel Lazar

12 Experiment Design Diagram DV: Preference for hue, saturation, brightness, general contrast, text contrast, font style, page entry and interactivity Constants: Computer Resolution Internet Browser Relative age range of subjects Difficulty of reading passages Text Size IV: Age group ChildrenAdolescentsAdults 6 Subjects24 Subjects16 Subjects

13 Methodology Creation of layouts Survey Sheet Obtainment of subject consent Collection of data Data Analysis Screenshots from

14 Methodology Image taken by Aurel Lazar

15 Statistical Analysis Summary Table χ2χ2 Critical ValueP-value Hue4.1865.9910.123 Saturation 13.9169.4880.418 Saturation 215.03715.5070.058 Brightness10.23215.5070.249 General Contrast3.7859.4880.436 Text Contrast 11.2249.4880.874 Text Contrast 20.9555.9910.62 Font Preference 111.43512.5910.076 Font Ease of Reading 12.90512.5910.821 Font Preference 29.19112.5910.163 Font Ease of Reading 22.18712.5910.902

16 Results: Hue

17 Results: Saturation

18 Results: Saturation 2

19 Results: Brightness

20 Results: General Contrast

21 Results: Text Contrast

22 Results: Text Contrast 2

23 Results: Font Preference

24 Results: Font Preference 2

25 Results: Font Ease of Reading

26 Results: Font Ease of Reading 2

27 Results: Page Entry

28 Results: Interactivity

29 Discussion Only 3 of the original 7 hypotheses were supported: Contrast (No statistical difference) Page Entry (Descriptive Difference) Interactivity (Descriptive Difference) Color was not found, in general, to have a specific impact on a certain age group. Standard fonts were found to be the most preferred by all age groups.

30 Sources of Uncertainty Low Sample Size, especially for children Misunderstanding of instructions No interviewer for adults Reversed score ordering Time constraints Collaboration among test-takers

31 Future Research Interaction between various hues, saturations and brightnesses Examination of relationships between multiple colors Navigational arrangement Style Gender Other ranges of age (Younger Children and Older Adults)

32 Literature Cited Bernard, M. L., Liao, C. H., & Mills, M. M. (2001). The effects of font type and size on the legibility and reading time of online text by older adults [Electronic Version]. Proceedings of CHI ’01, 175-176. Bernard, M. L., Mills, M. M., & Chaparro, B. S. (2001). A study of children’s reading preference for different online fonts [Electronic version]. Proceedings of the Usability Professional Association. Child, I. L., Hansen, J. A., & Hornbeck F. W. (1968). Age and sex differences in children's color preferences [Electronic Version]. Child Development, 39(1), 237-247. Ling, J., & Schaik, P. V. (2002). The effect of text and background colour on visual search of web pages [Electronic Version]. Displays, 23(5), 223-230. Rosen, D. E., & Purinton, E. (2004). Website design: Viewing the web as a cognitive landscape [Electronic Version]. Journal of Business Research, 57, 787-794.

33 Acknowledgements I would like to thank: Kevin Shaw, Dale Soblo, and Ruth Cole for allowing me to use their classes to collect data. The many teachers and students who participated in the study. Valentin Lazar for aiding me with layout creation and data collection. My parents and friends for encouraging and sustaining me throughout the study.

34 The effect of age on the preference of various graphical aspects of a website Aurel Lazar Spring Valley High School

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