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1 2.008 Design & Manufacturing II Spring 2004 Process Planning CAD/CAM Ref 1: CAD/CAM/CAE systems, by K.W. Lee, Addison-Wesley, 1999 Ref. 2: Computer Aided Manufacturing, 2 nd ed. by T.C. Chang, R. A. Wysk, and H-P Wang, Prentice Hall 1998 Ref.3: Manufacturing: Design, Production, Automation and Integration, by B. Benhabib, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003

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2 - Lab starts today. - Monday 2/16, President’s day, a Holiday - Tuesday 2/17, Monday’s lecture & lab group A - HW#1 due 2/11 (W)

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3 2D drafting v.s. digital Playdo

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4 Product Cycle AnalysisCAE SynthesisCAD Functional Requirements Design Paramete Design Process Planning CAM Production Quality control Packaging Shipping Manufacturing 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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5 3 day prototyping by CAD/CAM/CAE 2.008 MIT-S. Kim -Catia, Euclid, AutoCAD, ProEngineer Solidworks - MasterCAM, PowerMill - Moldflow, C-Flow, ANSYS, I-DEAS

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6 Geometric Modeling – Historical Development 1960-1962: The first Graphical User Interface (GUI), Sketchpad, developed at MIT. 1964-1965: DAC-1 by GM and CADAM by Lockheed. 1970-1980: Various systems that ran on proprietary hardware – only a handful survived beyond the 1990s. 1990-2000: Pro/Engineer, Solid Works and I-DEAS run on PC platforms. 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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7 3D object geometric modeling WireframeSurface modeling Solid modeling ? 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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8 Wire frame ■ List of ■ Curve equations ■ Coordinates of points ■ Connectivity ■ Easy method ■ Ambiguity ■ No mass, no surface 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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9 Wireframe Conversion to surface 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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10 Surface Modeler MIT Stata Center Guggenheim, Bilbao 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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11 Surface Modeler ■ Wireframe data + ■ Surfaces ■ Connectivity, Adjacency ■ Interpolation of points, curve nets ■ Translation or sweeping of curves ■ Fits to complex free formed surfaces ■ Visual, aesthetic design ■ NC code generation 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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12 Solid Modeler 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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13 Solid modeler ■ Has a closed volume. ■ Knows “in” or “out” ■ Has a mass and inertia. ■ Huge input data, maths. ■ User friendliness is a must. ■ Primitives ■ +/- by Boolean operations ■ Sweeping, rounding, lifting ■ Hybrid (solid + Surface, CSG + BREP, Parametric + explicit) 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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14 Primitives 2.008 MIT-S. Kim BlockCylinder WedgeSphere ConeTorus Translation sweepRotation sweep Tool Then ■ Add/subtract ■ Move ■ Modify

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15 Boolean operations 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Acceptable Operation? union intersection difference

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16 By sweeping, skinning surfaces translational rotational skinning Director curve Swept solid Axis of revolution Swept solid Section 2 Trajectory Generator surface Section 1 Section 3 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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17 By modifying existing shapes Edge roundingFilleting Lifting 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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18 Constructive Solid Geometry 2.008 MIT-S. Kim CSG modelers allow designers to combine a set of primitives through Boolean operations:

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19 Boundary Representation 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Polyhedron

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20 Feature-based Design Open slot Through hole Chamfering Hole Pocket fillet 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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21 Machining Features Blind hole Through holePocket Blind slotThrough slotRadius Open slotShoulderAngle 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Counterbore Through tap Counterbore Blind tap Countersink

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22 Parametric modeling ■ Feature-based ■ Dimension data ■ Geometric constraints ■ Assembly modeling ■ No standard of data exchange ■ IGES (Initial Graphic Exchnage Standards) 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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23 Geometric Modeling - Curves Least-square fit spline fit Bezier Curve 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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24 Geometric Modeling - Curves B-spline : more flexibility than Bezier NURB (non-uniform rational B-spline): Combine all 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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25 Geometric Modeling – Free form Surface NURB (non-uniform rational B-spline): Combine all 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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26 Process Planning (CAPP) ■ “Act of preparing detailed work instructions to machine or assemble a part or parts” –Chang, Wysk, Wang ■ Sequence of manufacturing processes and/or assembly operations ■ Operation sheet 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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27 ■ Have customers eat well ■ Customers serviced well ■ speed ■ customization ■ Affordable tab ■ $$$ - Profit Restaurant Owner What’s the difference between McDonald v.s. Maison Robert? 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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28 Super bowl 2004 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Play book Play number

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29 Image removed due to copyright considerations.

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30 Process Planning ■ Manual Approach ■ Comupter Aided Process Planning (CAPP) ■ Variant Approach: Group Technology ■ Generative Approach: features, tolerances 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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31 Example 1 by manual approach Setup 1 Chuck the workpiece Turn S3 to a 100mm diameter Face S1 Core drill S2 Counter bore S4, S5 Setup 2 Chuck the workpiece on S3 Turn S6 to 50 mm diameter Undercut the neck Thread S6 Face S7 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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32 Group Technology Zip code: 02139 Product Classification Injection molding Aluminum diecasting Sheet metal fabrication Inflammable plastic Regular plastic With ribs Without ribs 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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33 Vuoso-Praha coding system 4 digit system -Kind -Class -Group -Material 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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34 Coding system (continued) 2.008 MIT-S. Kim 3 3 7 2 Alloy steel Threaded, hole not in axis Max.φ40-80 Rotational through hole

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35 Feature-based CAPP 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Open slot Through hole ChamferingHole Pocketfillet

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36 Numerical Control 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Spindle speed selector Feed change gear box Compound rest and slide (swivels) Apron Bed Lead screw Feed rod Headstock Spindle Ways Tool post Cross slide Cartridge (saddle) Center Tailstock quill Tailstockl Tool Worktable 5-axis millingLathe - conventional

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37 Motion Control ■ Point to point, Continuous ■ Interpolation ■ Encoders, tachometers and interferometers provide high-precision displacement and velocity feedback: ControllerAmplifierActuatorWorktable Displacement sensor ⊕⊕ Input from interpolator Velocity Sensor + -- + 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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38 Adaptable Control - sense cutting force, torque, temperature, etc. - tool wear, tool breakage CNC controller Adaptive controller Machine tool Sensors Signal processing Programmed dimensional data feed rate, spindle speed Updated spindle speed, feed rate Constraints Strategy Performance index Displacement/velocity feedback Displacement commands Spindle-speed command Torque Vibration Temperature B. Benhabib 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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39 NC milling machine 2.008 MIT-S. Kim CodefunctionExplanation g00Point to point, positioningUse with combination point-to-point/contouring systems for in- dicating positioning operation. g01Linear interpolation (normal dimensions) A mode of contouring control used of generating a slope or Straight cut, where the incremental dimensions are normal (i.e., Input resolution is as specified). g02Circular interpolation are CW (normal dimensions) A mode of contouring control that produces an arc of a circle by The coordinated motion of two axes. The curvature of the path (clockwise=g02, or counterclockwise=g03) is determined when viewing the plane of motion in the negative direction of The perpendicular axis. The distances to the arc center (I, j, k) are “normal dimensions.” g03Circular interpolation are CCW (normal dimensions) g04DwellA programmed (or established) time delay, during which there is No machine motion. Its duration is adjusted elsewhere, usually by The f word. In this case dimension words should be set at zero. g05HoldMachine motion stopped until terminated by an operator or inter- Lock action. g06Parabolic interpolation (normal dimensions) A mode of contouring control that uses the information contained In successive blocks to produce a segment of a parabola. g08AccelerationThe feed rate (axes’ velocity) increases smoothly (usually expo- nentially) to the programmed rate, which is noted later in the Same block. g09DecelerationThe feed rate decreases (usually exponentially) to a fixed percent Of the programmed feed rate in the deceleration block. g10Linear interpolation Long dimensions = LD) Similar to g01, except that all dimensions are multiplied by 10. For example, a programmed dimension of 9874 will produce a travel of 98740 basic lenth-units. (used only with incremental Programming.) g11Linear interpolation (short dimensions = SD) As g01, but dividing all dimensions by 10 (e.g., 987 units for the Example above). Source : Y.Korenl, Computer Control of Manufacturing Systems, McGraw-Hill, 1983.

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40 Analogy: Word document ←→ Part EmbodimentPlan execution Translate plan Execute plan Rough draft User input FormattingPdf Post script Machine (i.e. printer) Word processor Print set up File exchange Generate tangible Sketch/idea User input Blueprint/ CAD Feature generation CAM Process planning G Code File exchange Machine (i.e. mill) Generate tangible 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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41 Tool path generation 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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42 g-code ■ N0027 G01 X175.25 Y325.00 Z136.50 F125 S800 T1712 M03 M08 Statement Number 27 (N0027) a linear-interpolation motion (G01) to a position defined by (X175.25 Y325.00 Z136.50), with a feed rate of 125 mm/min (F125), and a spindle speed of 800 rpm (S800), using a tool Number 1712 (T1712), performing a c/w turn of the spindle (M03), and having the coolant on (M08). 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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43 N001 G91 N002 G71 N003 G00 X0.0 Y0.0 Z40.0 T01, M06 N004 G01 X75.0 Y0.0 Z-40.0 F950 S717 M03 N005 G01 Z10.0 F350 M08 N006 G01 X110.0 N007 G01 Y70.0 N008 G01 X-40.86 N009 G02 X-28.28 Y0.0 I14.14 J5.0 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Manual Programming Start point

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44 Cutter Location, P4 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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45 APT –Automatic Programming Tool ■ APT developed at MIT in 1956. ■ APT II, APT III ■ Identification statement ■ Geometric Statements ■ Motion statement ■ Post-processor statement ■ Auxiliary statement 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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46 Geometry statements Points P1 = POINT/X,Y,Z P2 = POINT/L1,L1 ; intersection of two lines already defined P3 = POINT/CENTER,C1 ; center of a circle P4 = POINT/YLARGE, INTOF, L1, C1 ; intersection of a line and a circle, one with a larger y coordinate P5 = POINT/XLARGE, INTOF, L1, CI ; intersection of a line and a circle, one with a larger x coordinate P6 = POINT/YLARGE, INTOF, C1, C2 ; intersection of two circles, one with a larger y coordinate P7 = POINT/XLARGE, INTOF, C1, C2 ; intersection of two circles, one with a larger x coordinate 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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47 APT statements (cont.) LinesCircles degree 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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48 Motion statement P to P-motion: GOTO/Point_Name; Go to Point Point_Name. GODLTA/ΔX, ΔY, ΔZ; Move incrementally. CP-motion: / Drive_Surface,, Part Surface Check_ 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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49 Ending locations TO ONPAST 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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50 Example FROM/SP GO/TO, L1, TO, PS, ON L4 GORGT/L1, PAST, L2 GOLFT/L2, PAST, L3 GOLFT/L3, PAST, C1 GOLFT/C1, PAST, L3 GOLFT/L3, PAST, L4 GOLFT/L4, PAST, L1 GOTO/SP 2.008 MIT-S. Kim

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51 Tool path interval and Cusp Contour Non-lace Lace Parallel Cusp 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Contour Non-lace Parallel paths Path interval Cusp height

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52 Machined Surface 2.008 MIT-S. Kim Machined Surface W = “Waviness” R = “Roughness” Waviness Height Flaw Roughness Height Lay direction R. width W. widthR. Width cutoff W. height R. Height (arithmetical average) Lay R. width W. width R. Width cutoff Rough 1000 Medium 500 Avg. 125 Better than Avg. 63 Fine 32 Very fine 16 Extremely fine 8 µ inch

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53 Cutter Contact, Gouge Contact Point Gouging 2.008 MIT-S. Kim CC-point CL-point Location of gouging Neighboring surface Part surface

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Unit 5 Numerical Control

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