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Periodontal/Gum Disease Periodontal/gum diseases are serious infections that, left untreated, can lead to tooth lossPeriodontal/gum diseases are serious.

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Presentation on theme: "Periodontal/Gum Disease Periodontal/gum diseases are serious infections that, left untreated, can lead to tooth lossPeriodontal/gum diseases are serious."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Periodontal/Gum Disease Periodontal/gum diseases are serious infections that, left untreated, can lead to tooth lossPeriodontal/gum diseases are serious infections that, left untreated, can lead to tooth loss The word periodontal literally means "around the toothThe word periodontal literally means "around the tooth Periodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bones supporting the teethPeriodontal disease is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the gums and bones supporting the teeth Periodontal disease can affect one tooth or many teeth. It begins when the bacteria in plaque causes the gums to become inflamedPeriodontal disease can affect one tooth or many teeth. It begins when the bacteria in plaque causes the gums to become inflamed

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7 Do you have gum disease??? Do you ever have pain in your mouth?Do you ever have pain in your mouth? Do your gums ever bleed when you brush your teeth or when you eat hard food?Do your gums ever bleed when you brush your teeth or when you eat hard food? Have you noticed any spaces developing between your teeth?Have you noticed any spaces developing between your teeth? Do your gums ever feel swollen or tender?Do your gums ever feel swollen or tender? Have you noticed that your gums are receding (pulling back from your teeth) or your teeth appear longer than before?Have you noticed that your gums are receding (pulling back from your teeth) or your teeth appear longer than before? Do you have persistent bad breath?Do you have persistent bad breath? Have you noticed pus between your teeth and gums?Have you noticed pus between your teeth and gums? Have you noticed any change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite?Have you noticed any change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite? Do you ever develop sores in your mouth?Do you ever develop sores in your mouth?

8 How to look after your teeth

9 How to Brush Place your toothbrush next to the teeth so that it rests on the gums forming a 45-degree angle against the gums. Move the toothbrush from the gums towards the edge of teeth to move the dental plaque away from the gum line. After brushing, one by one tooth, all the outer teeth surfaces do the same for the inner surfaces. After brushing, one by one tooth, all the outer teeth surfaces do the same for the inner surfaces. Brush the chewing surfaces of the teeth with horizontal moves.

10 How to Floss

11 Human Torso Model *Please refer to your handout of the human digestive system

12 Human Digestive System Alimentary Canal + Associated Glands

13 Alimentary Canal and Associated Glands MouthMouth PharynxPharynx OesophagusOesophagus StomachStomach Small IntestineSmall Intestine Large IntestineLarge Intestine AnusAnus Salivary GlandsSalivary Glands Gastric GlandsGastric Glands PancreasPancreas LiverLiver Intestinal GlandsIntestinal Glands

14 Digestion

15 Digestion Digestion is the process of breaking down large, complex substances into smaller, simpler molecules for absorptionDigestion is the process of breaking down large, complex substances into smaller, simpler molecules for absorption Carbohydrates -> glucose/fructose/galactoseCarbohydrates -> glucose/fructose/galactose Proteins -> amino acids Proteins -> amino acids Fats -> fatty acids and glycerol Fats -> fatty acids and glycerol Vitamins, minerals and water can be absorbed directly without digestionVitamins, minerals and water can be absorbed directly without digestion

16 Mechanical Digestion vs. Chemical Digestion Mechanical processMechanical process Chewing of teethChewing of teeth Churning of stomachChurning of stomach Food is changed physically but not chemicallyFood is changed physically but not chemically Increase surface area of food substancesIncrease surface area of food substances Chemical processChemical process Involves action of digestive enzymes secreted from glandsInvolves action of digestive enzymes secreted from glands Different types of enzymes break down different food typesDifferent types of enzymes break down different food types

17 Protease Breaks down protein molecules A protein molecule is made of many different amino acids Amino acids

18 Carbohydrase A starch molecule is made of many glucose molecules Glucose Breaks down carbohydrate molecules

19 Lipase Glycerol Glycerol Fatty acids Breaks down fat molecules A fat molecule is made up of fatty acids and glycerol molecules

20 Example of Carbohydrase: Amylase In saliva and pancreatic juiceIn saliva and pancreatic juice Helps break down starch into simple sugars in mouth and in small intestineHelps break down starch into simple sugars in mouth and in small intestine

21 Example of Protease: Pepsin In gastric juiceIn gastric juice Helps break down proteins into amino acids in stomachHelps break down proteins into amino acids in stomach

22 Example: Lipase In pancreatic juiceIn pancreatic juice Helps break down oil droplets into fatty acids and glycerol in small intestineHelps break down oil droplets into fatty acids and glycerol in small intestine

23 Saliva The taste, smell and sight of food can stimulate salivary glands to secrete saliva into the mouth via salivary ductsThe taste, smell and sight of food can stimulate salivary glands to secrete saliva into the mouth via salivary ducts Saliva – contains water, mucus and salivary amylase. Slightly alkalineSaliva – contains water, mucus and salivary amylase. Slightly alkaline Water – moistens and softens foodWater – moistens and softens food Mucus – lubricate food for swallowing Mucus – lubricate food for swallowing Salivary amylase – starch -> maltose Salivary amylase – starch -> maltose

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25 Swallowing 1)Food is chewed and mixed with saliva 2)Tongue rolls the food into a bolus 3)Food is swallowed down the oesophagus through the pharynx 4)Tongue moves upwards and backwards to prevent food from entering the trachea/nasal cavity 5)The soft palate moves up to block the nasal cavity 6)The larynx moves upwards to so that the glottis (the opening to the larynx) is covered by the epiglottis to prevent food from entering the trachea

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27 Movement of Food Along the Alimentary Canal Inner surface of alimentary canal is lined with one to several layers of cells – epitheliumInner surface of alimentary canal is lined with one to several layers of cells – epithelium Some epithelial cells produce mucus, which acts as a lubricantSome epithelial cells produce mucus, which acts as a lubricant

28 Peristalsis The small intestine has two muscle layers that work together in peristalsis and segmentation

29 Peristalsis The inner circular muscles contract, tightening the tube and pushing the food forward in the intestine

30 Peristalsis When the circular muscles relax, the outer longitudinal muscles contract, and the intestinal tube is shortened

31 Peristalsis As the circular and longitudinal muscles tighten and relax, the food moves forward

32 Stomach a muscular, elastic, pear-shaped bag, lying crosswise in the abdominal cavitya muscular, elastic, pear-shaped bag, lying crosswise in the abdominal cavity food enters the stomach from the esophagus. The connection between the stomach and the esophagus is called the cardiac sphincterfood enters the stomach from the esophagus. The connection between the stomach and the esophagus is called the cardiac sphincter The other end of the stomach empties into the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. The pyloric sphincter separates the stomach from the duodenum The other end of the stomach empties into the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. The pyloric sphincter separates the stomach from the duodenum

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35 Sphincter Closed Sphincter Opened

36 Functions of Stomach StorageStorage Mechanical digestion – turns food into chymeMechanical digestion – turns food into chyme Chemical digestionChemical digestion

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38 The lining of the stomach contains deep collections of cells organized into gastric glandsThe lining of the stomach contains deep collections of cells organized into gastric glands The openings of the gastric glands into the surface of the stomach are called gastric pitsThe openings of the gastric glands into the surface of the stomach are called gastric pits The mucous cells in the gastric pits secrete mucusThe mucous cells in the gastric pits secrete mucus In the deeper part of the gland, the parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acidIn the deeper part of the gland, the parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid The chief cells secrete pepsinogen (an inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin)The chief cells secrete pepsinogen (an inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin)

39 Rennin In young children, the gastric juice also contains a type of protease called renninIn young children, the gastric juice also contains a type of protease called rennin Rennin coagulates milk – allow the proteins to stay in stomach longer for digestionRennin coagulates milk – allow the proteins to stay in stomach longer for digestion * Rennin can be used to curdle milk to make cheese!

40 Ulcer/Peptic Ulcer A small erosion in the gastrointestinal tractA small erosion in the gastrointestinal tract A weakening of the mucus coating – acid erodes the wall of the GI tractA weakening of the mucus coating – acid erodes the wall of the GI tract Stomach – gastric ulcerStomach – gastric ulcer Small intestine – duodenal ulcerSmall intestine – duodenal ulcer Main cause – bacterial infectionMain cause – bacterial infection Can be treated with antibioticsCan be treated with antibiotics

41 Small Intestine The small intestine is divided into 3 sections: The small intestine is divided into 3 sections: DuodenumDuodenum JejunumJejunum IleumIleum * In the small intestine, both digestion and absorption occur * In the small intestine, both digestion and absorption occur

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43 Bile Bile is a dark green fluid containing:Bile is a dark green fluid containing: 1) bile salts 1) bile salts 2) sodium hydrogen carbonate 2) sodium hydrogen carbonate 3) bile pigments 3) bile pigments Bile does NOT contain digestive enzymesBile does NOT contain digestive enzymes Made by the liverMade by the liver Stored in the gall bladderStored in the gall bladder

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45 The gall bladder contracts to release bile into the duodenum via the bile ductThe gall bladder contracts to release bile into the duodenum via the bile duct Stimulated by the arrival of chyme in the duodenumStimulated by the arrival of chyme in the duodenum

46 Bile 1) Bile salts – EMULSIFICATION -Bile salts break up (emulsify) lipids into small oil droplets -This allows enzymes to have a larger surface area to break down the fat molecules Lipids Small oil droplets Bile salts (emulsification) Bile salts (emulsification)

47 Bile 2) Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate – NEUTRALIZATION -It neutralizes stomach acid to provide the necessary alkaline condition (pH 8) for the pancreatic and intestinal enzymes to work

48 The pH Scale AcidicAlkaline Neutra l More acidic More basic

49 The Need for Different pH Levels The stomach releases hydrochloric acid to provide an acidic condition (pH1 - 2) for stomach proteases (e.g. pepsin) to work. Acid also kills germsThe stomach releases hydrochloric acid to provide an acidic condition (pH1 - 2) for stomach proteases (e.g. pepsin) to work. Acid also kills germs The activity of salivary amylase is stopped in the stomach since it cannot work in acidic conditions. Pancreatic amylase also requires an alkaline condition to workThe activity of salivary amylase is stopped in the stomach since it cannot work in acidic conditions. Pancreatic amylase also requires an alkaline condition to work

50 The Need for Different pH Levels 3) The gall bladder releases bile into the small intestine to provide an alkaline condition (pH 8) for the pancreatic and intestinal enzymes to work

51 Bile 3) Bile pigments -Waste products formed from the breakdown of old red blood cells in the liver

52 Investigation #1: Investigating the effect of bile salts on oil

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54 Pancreas A yellowish organ found beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenumA yellowish organ found beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum Produces pancreatic juice that flows into the duodenum through the pancreatic ductProduces pancreatic juice that flows into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct

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57 Pancreas Pancreatic juice contains 3 types of digestive Pancreatic juice contains 3 types of digestive enzymes: enzymes: TryptaseTryptase AmylaseAmylase LipaseLipase *Pancreas also produces the hormones glucagon *Pancreas also produces the hormones glucagon and insulin to regulate the level of blood glucose and insulin to regulate the level of blood glucose

58 Intestinal Juice Alkaline solution containing digestive enzymes, hormones, mucus, neutralizing substances, etc.Alkaline solution containing digestive enzymes, hormones, mucus, neutralizing substances, etc. Secreted by intestinal glands in the wall of the duodenumSecreted by intestinal glands in the wall of the duodenum e.g. carbohydrases catalyze the breakdown of double sugars into simple sugarse.g. carbohydrases catalyze the breakdown of double sugars into simple sugars

59 Carbohydrase Maltase: Maltose -> Glucose + GlucoseMaltase: Maltose -> Glucose + Glucose 2) Sucrase: Sucrose -> Glucose + Fructose 3) Lactase: Lactose -> Glucose + Galactose

60 Lactose Intolerance Inability to digest significant amount of lactose, the predominant sugar of milk, due to a shortage of the enzyme lactaseInability to digest significant amount of lactose, the predominant sugar of milk, due to a shortage of the enzyme lactase Common symptoms include nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhoeaCommon symptoms include nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhoea The undigested lactose will serve as food for bacteria found in the large intestineThe undigested lactose will serve as food for bacteria found in the large intestine

61 Digestion in Ileum Completion of digestionCompletion of digestion Food is churned by peristaltic movement and is mixed with digestive juicesFood is churned by peristaltic movement and is mixed with digestive juices Food becomes watery fluid called chyleFood becomes watery fluid called chyle Food is now present in simplest formFood is now present in simplest form

62 Absorption

63 Absorption Absorption is the uptake of simple and small food molecules from the alimentary canal into the blood streamAbsorption is the uptake of simple and small food molecules from the alimentary canal into the blood stream Food molecules can be absorbed into blood by diffusion or active transportFood molecules can be absorbed into blood by diffusion or active transport Absorption occurs in the stomach, the small intestine and the large intestineAbsorption occurs in the stomach, the small intestine and the large intestine

64 Absorption in Stomach Food substances that are absorbed in the Food substances that are absorbed in the stomach: stomach: WaterWater MineralsMinerals AlcoholAlcohol Simple sugarsSimple sugars Water-soluble vitaminsWater-soluble vitamins

65 Absorption in Small Intestine Most of the digested food is absorbed in the small intestineMost of the digested food is absorbed in the small intestine The inner lining of the small intestine is folded to provide a large surface areaThe inner lining of the small intestine is folded to provide a large surface area The inner surface of the small intestine is made up of a large number of finger-like projections called villi (singular: villus)The inner surface of the small intestine is made up of a large number of finger-like projections called villi (singular: villus) Peristalsis in the small intestine allows the digested food to come into contact with the villi for absorptionPeristalsis in the small intestine allows the digested food to come into contact with the villi for absorption

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70 Structure of Villi Epithelium liningEpithelium lining Blood capillaries (transportation of simple sugars, amino acids and minerals)Blood capillaries (transportation of simple sugars, amino acids and minerals) Lacteal (lymph vessel)Lacteal (lymph vessel)

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72 Lacteal fatty acids and glycerol recombine in the epithelium of the villus to form fat which then enters the lacteal as fine fat dropletsfatty acids and glycerol recombine in the epithelium of the villus to form fat which then enters the lacteal as fine fat droplets the lymphatic system converges with the circulatory system at a duct located in the neck area the lymphatic system converges with the circulatory system at a duct located in the neck area

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74 They take up the absorbed food and transport them away 4. Each villus contains a dense network of blood capillaries This allows the food to cross the membrane rapidly 3. The wall of villi is thin (one-cell thick) These villi can increase the total surface area for absorption 2. Its inner surface is covered with numerous finger-like projections called villi Food can stay long enough for absorption to occur 1. It is very long (6 m) AdaptationFeature

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77 Absorption in Large Intestine Much of the remaining water and minerals is absorbed in the colonMuch of the remaining water and minerals is absorbed in the colon The appendix, which has no known functions, is joined to the caecumThe appendix, which has no known functions, is joined to the caecum Appendicitis – food materials trapped in the appendix causing bacterial infectionAppendicitis – food materials trapped in the appendix causing bacterial infection

78 Caecum in Herbivores Do not have digestive enzymes to break down celluloseDo not have digestive enzymes to break down cellulose Rely on bacteria residing in the long caecum to provide the enzyme cellulaseRely on bacteria residing in the long caecum to provide the enzyme cellulase Cellulose -> GlucoseCellulose -> Glucose

79 Investigation #2: A Model Gut

80 What does the content inside the dialysis tubing represent?What does the content inside the dialysis tubing represent? What does the dialysis tubing represent?What does the dialysis tubing represent? What does the water in the beaker/boiling tube represent?What does the water in the beaker/boiling tube represent?

81 Assimilation

82 Assimilation the process by which absorbed food molecules in the blood are transported to cells for the use of growth, tissue repair and other metabolic activities. The actual destiny of each food molecule depends not only on its type but also on the body requirements at that time (e.g. use immediately or put into storage)the process by which absorbed food molecules in the blood are transported to cells for the use of growth, tissue repair and other metabolic activities. The actual destiny of each food molecule depends not only on its type but also on the body requirements at that time (e.g. use immediately or put into storage)

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85 Liver Largest organ of the bodyLargest organ of the body Reddish brown in colorReddish brown in color Lies on the right side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragmLies on the right side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm Blood is carried to the liver via two large vessels called the hepatic artery and the hepatic portal veinBlood is carried to the liver via two large vessels called the hepatic artery and the hepatic portal vein After processing in the liver, blood leaves the liver through the hepatic veinAfter processing in the liver, blood leaves the liver through the hepatic vein

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88 Functions of Liver Carbohydrate metabolism - the liver converts excess glucose into glycogen as a temporary way of storing the glucose. Glycogen can also be converted back to glucose when neededCarbohydrate metabolism - the liver converts excess glucose into glycogen as a temporary way of storing the glucose. Glycogen can also be converted back to glucose when needed Fat metabolism - the liver converts excess protein and carbohydrate into fat. Excess glycogen is stored as fat for long term storageFat metabolism - the liver converts excess protein and carbohydrate into fat. Excess glycogen is stored as fat for long term storage

89 Functions of Liver 3) Protein metabolism – the liver can synthesize new proteins/ amino acids and deaminate excess amino acids

90 Deamination Amino group (~NH 2 ) removedAmino group (~NH 2 ) removed Ammonia (NH 3 ) produced (toxic)Ammonia (NH 3 ) produced (toxic) Ammonia converted to urea – excreted in urineAmmonia converted to urea – excreted in urine Carbon skeleton – converted to carbohydratesCarbon skeleton – converted to carbohydrates

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92 Functions of Liver 3) Protein metabolism – the liver can synthesize new proteins/amino acids and deaminate excess amino acids 4) Vitamin storage - the liver stores mainly vitamins A, D and B 12 5) Iron storage - the liver stores iron which is obtained from the breakdown of red blood cells. The iron salts can be used in the formation of new RBC

93 Functions of Liver 6) Bile production – emulsification and neutralization 7) Drug/Alcohol metabolism – the liver changes the drug into an excretable and harmless form (detoxification) 8) Disposal of bacteria - The liver filters many bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms from the blood

94 Egestion

95 Egestion Faeces – semi-solid, greenish brown mass containing undigested and unabsorbed food substances. Also contains bile pigment (hence the color of faeces), dead RBC, cells from intestinal wall, bacteria, etc.Faeces – semi-solid, greenish brown mass containing undigested and unabsorbed food substances. Also contains bile pigment (hence the color of faeces), dead RBC, cells from intestinal wall, bacteria, etc. Temporarily stored in rectumTemporarily stored in rectum Anal sphincter – relaxes to allow a person to defaecateAnal sphincter – relaxes to allow a person to defaecate

96 Constipation and Diarrhoea Peristalsis too slowPeristalsis too slow Too much water absorbedToo much water absorbed Some common causes include lack of fibre in diet, not enough liquids, lack of exercise, etc.Some common causes include lack of fibre in diet, not enough liquids, lack of exercise, etc. Lead to dry, hard faecesLead to dry, hard faeces Difficulty in defaecationDifficulty in defaecation May damage wall of rectum and cause bleeding or form pilesMay damage wall of rectum and cause bleeding or form piles Peristalsis too fastPeristalsis too fast Too little water absorbedToo little water absorbed Some common causes include bacterial / viral / parasitic infections, food intolerance, etc.Some common causes include bacterial / viral / parasitic infections, food intolerance, etc. Lead to loose, watery stoolsLead to loose, watery stools More frequent egestionMore frequent egestion May cause dehydrationMay cause dehydration

97 Haemorrhoids Also referred to as pilesAlso referred to as piles Haemorrhoids are enlarged veins just under the surface tissue of the rectum or the anusHaemorrhoids are enlarged veins just under the surface tissue of the rectum or the anus Haemorrhoids in the rectum are called internal haemorrhoids; those that occur around the anus are called external haemorrhoidsHaemorrhoids in the rectum are called internal haemorrhoids; those that occur around the anus are called external haemorrhoids May cause bleeding, pain, itching and a sense of pressureMay cause bleeding, pain, itching and a sense of pressure

98 Haemorrhoids Increased pressure in the veins around the anus is thought to be the cause of haemorrhoids: Increased pressure in the veins around the anus is thought to be the cause of haemorrhoids: straining to pass a bowel motion because of hard, dry stools (as in constipation)straining to pass a bowel motion because of hard, dry stools (as in constipation) diarrhoeadiarrhoea heavy liftingheavy lifting being very overweightbeing very overweight sitting or standing for long periodssitting or standing for long periods pregnancypregnancy

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