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Chapter 1 Delinquency and the Juvenile Justice System.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Delinquency and the Juvenile Justice System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Delinquency and the Juvenile Justice System

2 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Juvenile crime is typically ignored by most public officials. Uniform Crime Report (UCR) statistics suggest only a slight increase in arrests--from 1,280,260 to 1,348,731 between the years 1988 to 1999.

3 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Conservative v. Liberal Ideology Conservative Ideology Belief that police should not be handcuffed Belief that society and in particular the criminal justice system should get tough on crime Liberal Ideology View of crime as a result of social influences such as family peer groups or neighborhoods

4 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. The majority of all juvenile crime is for status or property offenses.

5 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. The Construction of Myths Serve 4 Purposes 1.They organize our views of crime, criminals, and the proper operation of the criminal justice system. 2.Myths support and maintain established views on crime. 3.Myths tend to provide the necessary information for the construction of a social reality of crime. 4.Crime myths provide an outlet for emotionalism and channel emotions into action.

6 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Juvenile Justice as a System A loose collection of agencies that often find it difficult to work together and which are autonomous and independently funded.

7 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Open v. Closed Systems Open System These systems interact with and are influenced by their environment. Closed System These systems do not interact with their environment.

8 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Delinquency Defined A delinquent is a person who is found to have violated the criminal code and who is between the ages of 7 and 18.

9 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Types of Delinquency Criminal Offenses Those acts that if committed by an adult would be considered criminal Status Offenses Offenses that if committed by an adult would not be a crime

10 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Factors That Affect and Shape the Juvenile Justice System 1. Parens Patriae The state views itself as the benevolent parent 2. Development of the juvenile court in The desire to shield children from the predations of adults in prisons and jails.

11 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Juvenile Justice System in Historical Perspective 1600Children often died in infancy. Adults distanced themselves from children. 1800Emergence of parens patriae; laws of apprenticeship repealed. 1824First House of Refuge in New York. 1841Adult probation makes first appearance.

12 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Juvenile Justice System in Historical Perspective, contd. 1850Chicago Reform School funded. 1869MA requires that an agent attend all trials of children. 1872MA requires separate court trials for all children. 1899Juvenile Court founded Cook County, IL.

13 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Juvenile Justice System in Historical Perspective, contd states had juvenile courts. 1923All states but ME, WY, and DC had juvenile courts. 1944All states and DC had juvenile courts. 1967In re Gault was decided.

14 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Juvenile Justice System in Historical Perspective, contd. 1974Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention was formed. 1989Thompson v. OKU.S. Supreme Court ruled it is unconstitutional to execute a 15 year-old; Stanford v. KentuckyU.S. Supreme Court ruled it is constitutional to execute those who were 16 & Violent and Repeat Offenders Act passed.

15 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Wedding Cake Model Layer 1 (Top) Celebrated cases Layers 2 & 3 Felony cases Layer 4 Misdemeanors and status offenses

16 Juvenile Justice: Theory, Systems, and Organization Houston/BartonPrentice Hall © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. 3 Crime Measures 1. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) 2. National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) 3. Self-Report Surveys


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