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Chapter 17— Loss Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17— Loss Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17— Loss Control

2 Chapter 17 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to perform loss control operations

3 Philosophy of Loss Control
Minimize damage & provide customer service through effective recovery efforts Builds goodwill (Continued)

4 DISCUSSION QUESTION How does effective loss control contribute to goodwill in the community?

5 Salvage & Overhaul Most effective means of loss control
Restoration of the property Salvage - methods & operating procedures that reduce fire, water & smoke damage during & after fires Overhaul – Searching for & extinguishing hidden fires

6 Salvage Operations that aid in reducing primary & secondary damage during firefighting Primary damage is caused by the fire Secondary damage is caused by fire suppression activities (Continued)

7 Salvage Both primary & secondary damage can be minimized through salvage Some damages cannot be avoided Starts as soon as adequate personnel are available May be done simultaneously with fire attack

8 Overhaul Consists of operations involved in searching for & extinguishing hidden or remaining fires Protecting the scene & preserving evidence are components of overhaul (Continued)

9 Overhaul If possible, do not start overhaul operations until
Fire is under control Fire cause has been determined Evidence has been identified & protected

10 Salvage Methods & operating procedures by which FFs attempt to save property & reduce further damage Removing property Covering property Other means (Continued)

11 Salvage Proper salvage operations Early planning
Knowing the procedures Being familiar with tools & equipment

12 Planning for Salvage Operations
Efficient operations require planning & training SOPs should be developed (Continued)

13 Planning for Salvage Operations
Pre-incident plans High-value contents Residential occupancies Commercial occupancies

14 DISCUSSION QUESTION What should be done with other smaller items, such as photographs & documents?

15 Salvage Procedures Operations can be started at same time as fire attack Members performing salvage should be in full PPE & SCBA Group building contents into compact piles Salvage usually begins a floor below fire

16 Salvage Procedures Group household furnishings in center of the room
Remove pictures & place w/ furniture Raise furniture off wet floors (Continued)

17 Salvage Procedures Commercial occupancies present special challenges
Place stock on pallets Be very cautious of high-piled stock that gets wet at the bottom (Continued)

18 Salvage Procedures Large quantities of water can be removed by a variety of methods Remove toilets fixtures Use water chutes Use squeegee’s Water may ruin finishes; wipe off surfaces

19 Salvage Covers Made of waterproof canvas materials
Manufactured in various sizes Have reinforced corners & edge hems Used to: Control runoff water Collect debris Cover furniture As a catchall (Continued)

20 Salvage Covers Synthetic covers Some covers may be disposable
Lightweight Easy to handle Economical Indoor & outdoor use Some covers may be disposable

21 Salvage Cover Maintenance
Proper cleaning, drying, & repairing increases service life (Continued)

22 Salvage Cover Maintenance
Canvas salvage covers Wetting or rinsing with hose stream & scrubbing w/ a broom Detergent solution if needed Don’t let dry when dirty Should be completely dry before being folded & placed in service (Continued)

23 Salvage Cover Maintenance
Synthetic salvage covers Do not require as much maintenance as canvas Rinse w/ hose stream & scrub w/ broom Use approved detergent on heavy stains Do not dry in direct sunlight (Continued)

24 Salvage Cover Maintenance
After salvage covers are dry, examine for damage, i.e. holes Look up at the underside to locate holes Mark holes w/ chalk or marking pen Repair holes w/ duct tape

25 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why should you repair holes in salvage covers?

26 Salvage Equipment Should be located in a readily accessible area on apparatus SOPs dictate where equipment is carried & who performs operations (Continued)

27 Salvage Equipment Keep smaller tools/equipment in a salvage toolbox
Plastic tub may be used for supplies

28 Typical Salvage Equipment
Electrician’s pliers Sidecutters Various chisels Tin snips Tin roof cutter Adjustable wrenches Pipe wrenches Hammer Sledgehammer Hacksaw Crosscut handsaw Heavy-duty stapler and staples Linoleum knife Wrecking bar (Continued)

29 Typical Salvage Equipment
Padlock & hasp Hinges Screwdriver(s) Battery-operated power tools Hydraulic jack Assortment of nails Assortment of screws Plastic sheeting Wooden laths Wooden wedges Soft wood plugs Sawdust (Continued)

30 Typical Salvage Equipment
Mops Squeegees Scoop shovels Brooms Mop buckets with wringers Automatic sprinkler kit Water vacuum Submersible pump & discharge hose Sponges Chamois Paper towels Assortment of rags (Continued)

31 Typical Salvage Equipment
100-foot (30 m) length of electrical cable Junction boxes Approved ground fault interruption device Salvage covers J-Hooks S-hooks Floor runners Duct tape Plastic bags Cardboard boxes Styrofoam blocks Rope Bungee cords

32 Equipment Descriptions
Automatic sprinkler kit Needed for buildings protected by automatic sprinkler systems Used to stop flow of water from an open sprinkler (Continued)

33 Equipment Descriptions
Carryalls — Used to carry debris, catch falling debris, & provide a water basin for immersing small burning objects (Continued)

34 Equipment Descriptions
Floor runners — Protect floor coverings; lightweight, tough material, heat & water resistant, easy to maintain Used in hallways or traffic areas (Continued)

35 Equipment Descriptions
Dewatering devices Used to remove water from basements, elevator shafts, & sumps Do not use FrPD pumpers because water can damage pumps Trash-type pumps are best for salvage (Continued)

36 Equipment Descriptions
Water vacuum — removes water from areas where water is not deep enough to be picked up by other means 4-5 gallon capacity Backpack & floor models PPE, i.e. SCBA, limited w/ backpack model

37 Equipment Descriptions
J-hooks — Driven into walls or wooden framing to provide a strong point from which to hang things S-hooks — Used like J-hooks but cannot be driven into walls or framing; must have a horizontal ledge

38 Equipment Descriptions
Grommets Found along the edges of salvage covers Can be used w/ rope, S & J hooks

39 One-Firefighter Spread with a Rolled Salvage Cover
One person can quickly unroll a cover May be carried on the shoulder or under the arm Same may be done w/ folded cover

40 Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover
Large covers cannot be easily handled by a single FF Carry this fold on the shoulder w/ open edges next to neck Position cover so carrier can grab lower corners & second FF can grab upper corners (Continued)

41 Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover
Balloon throw is most common method for deployment (Continued)

42 Using Chutes: Removing Water
Practical way to remove water that comes through the ceiling from upper floor Used to route water short distances through windows or doors May be constructed on floor below firefighting operations (Continued)

43 Using Chutes: Removing Water
Prepared chutes are approximately 10 feet (3 m) long Chutes can be constructed from plastic sheeting, a heavy-duty stapler, & duct tape & pike poles or a ladder

44 Using Chutes: Constructing a Catchall
Constructed from a salvage cover placed on the floor to hold small amounts of water (Continued) Firefighter I

45 Using Chutes: Constructing a Catchall
Temporarily control large amounts of water Place into position as soon as possible Usually requires 2 people

46 Using Chutes: Constructing a Catchall
Open salvage cover fully Roll sides inward to fit area Fold ends over to form a 90° angle Roll in Lock corner

47 DISCUSSION QUESTION How much water do you think a catchall can carry?

48 Splicing Covers Used when: Splice covers w/ watertight joints
Objects/groupings are large Long chutes or catchalls need to be made Splice covers w/ watertight joints (Continued)

49 Splicing a Chute to a Catchall
Method of removing accumulated water should be prepared Submersible pumps may be used Water chute spliced to the catchall

50 Covering Openings One of final parts of salvage operations
Prevents damage by weather Cover doors/windows Cover openings in roofs (Continued)

51 DISCUSSION QUESTION What is the point of covering doors, windows, and openings on a home that has already been affected by fire?

52 Operations conducted once main body of fire has been extinguished
Overhaul Operations conducted once main body of fire has been extinguished Searching for & extinguishing hidden or remaining fire Placing building & contents in safe condition (Continued)

53 Overhaul Ideally, fire investigators begin their work before overhaul starts Overhaul is completed after: Determining fire cause Recognizing & preserving evidence of arson

54 DISCUSSION QUESTION What is the purpose of overhaul?

55 Safety During Overhaul
Steps required Inspecting premises to ensure building is safe to work in Developing operational plan Providing tools & equipment Eliminating or reducing hazards (Continued)

56 Safety During Overhaul
Toxic gases Common & dangerous threat during overhaul Wear appropriate PPE, including respiratory protection (Continued)

57 Safety During Overhaul
Other hazards are present, such as fire-weakened floors Mark or barricade hazardous areas Use gloves & eye protection (Continued)

58 Safety During Overhaul
Physical conditioning & correct lifting are necessary Fatigue is a preventable cause of injury

59 Overhaul Tools and Equipment
Pike poles & plaster hooks Axes Prying tools Power saws, drills, & screwdrivers (Continued)

60 Overhaul Tools and Equipment
Carryall, buckets, & tubs Shovels, bale hooks, & pitchforks Thermal imaging camera

61 Supervision of Overhaul
By a supervisor/officer not directly engaged in overhaul tasks Fire investigator should be involved

62 Fire Safety During Overhaul
Size of charged hoselines in overhaul may not be the same as attack lines Do not disconnect all fire apparatus from hydrants Leave at least one pumper connected (Continued)

63 Fire Safety During Overhaul
Attack lines used for overhaul are 1.5” One attack line should be available to put out hot spots or flare ups Place nozzle so it will not cause additional damage Do not allow water damage from leaking hoselines (Continued)

64 Overhaul Safety Considerations
Maintain situational awareness Work in teams of 2 or more Maintain awareness of exit routes Maintain a RIC (Continued)

65 Overhaul Safety Considerations
Monitor personnel for rehab Beware of hidden gas or electrical utilities in walls & floors Continue using accountability system

66 Locating Hidden Fires Before starting a search, evaluate condition of area Factors that affect condition of building: Intensity of fire Amount of water used for control

67 Indicators of Loss of Structural Integrity
Weakened floors Concrete that has spalled Weakened steel roof members Walls offset Weakened roof trusses Mortar in wall joints opened (Continued)

68 Indicators of Loss of Structural Integrity
Heavy storage on mezzanines or upper floors Water pooled on upper floors Large quantities of wet insulation

69 Detecting Hidden Fires
Sight Cracked plaster, peeling paint, discoloration Touch Using back of hand, feel walls for heat Never remove gloves while inside

70 Detecting Hidden Fires
Sound Popping, crackling, or hissing of steam Electronic sensors Thermal imaging camera Sees heat signature

71 Overhaul Procedures Begins in area of most severe fire damage
Looking for fire extension should begin as soon as possible after fire is declared under control Systematically carried out (Continued)

72 Overhaul Procedures If fire extended to other areas, path must be determined When floor beams are burned at ends or where they enter a party wall, flush the voids in the wall w/ water (Continued)

73 Overhaul Procedures Check far side of wall to see if fire or water has come through Thoroughly check insulation materials Hidden fires can smolder for many hours May be necessary to remove insulation

74 Understanding Basic Building Construction
Assists FFs in searching for hidden fires Windows or doors Fire may remain within frames or casings Open these areas to ensure complete extinguishment (Continued)

75 Building Construction and Overhaul
When fire has burned around combustible roof or cornice, open cornice & inspect for hidden fires Balloon construction — Check the attic & basement for fire extension (Continued)

76 Building Construction and Overhaul
Opening concealed/void spaces Open all spaces immediately that may conceal a hot spot Move the furnishings of the room to locations where they will not be damaged Consider electrical wiring, gas piping, or plumbing Make neat, planned openings to ensure extinguishment & facilitate restoration (Continued)

77 Building Construction and Overhaul
Ceilings may be opened from below using a pike pole The plaster must first be broken on some ceilings When pulling a ceiling, do not stand directly under area to be opened (Continued)

78 Building Construction and Overhaul
Always position body between area being pulled & doorway to keep exit route from being blocked Pull down & away from your position Always wear full PPE, including SCBA (Continued)

79 Building Construction and Overhaul
Small burning objects Submerge entire objects in containers of water Bathtubs, sinks, lavatories, wash tubs Take mattresses & other large furniture outside & overhaul it (Continued)

80 Building Construction and Overhaul
Scorched or partially burned articles may prove helpful to an investigator Use of wetting agents such as Class A foam is valuable Cotton, upholstery, & baled goods Must break bales of rags, cotton, hay apart

81 Summary Customer service is the core of everything that fire departments do Loss control is an important component of fire department service delivery & is only one aspect of customer-service opportunities (Continued)

82 Summary Salvage & overhaul operations are two of the most effective means of loss control Planning, procedures, & equipment are essential for effective loss-control operations

83 Skills Clean, inspect, and repair a salvage cover.
Fold a salvage cover for a two-firefighter spread. Spread a folded salvage cover — Two-firefighter balloon throw. Construct a water chute with pike poles Construct a catchall. (Skill Sheet FF-I-112)

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