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Listen to your classmates’ stories and see whether you’ll believe in what he said.

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Presentation on theme: "Listen to your classmates’ stories and see whether you’ll believe in what he said."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Listen to your classmates’ stories and see whether you’ll believe in what he said.

3 Why do you believe in what he/she said? -real? -evidence? -experience? -logical?

4 Why don’t you believe in what he/she said? -not real?(how do you know?) -Common sense? -no evidence? -illogical?

5 Why do you believe in what he/she said? -real? -evidence? -experience? -logical?

6 Why don’t you believe in what he/she said? -not real?(how do you know?) -Common sense? -no evidence? -illogical?

7 IS IT A FACT OR AN OPINION?  Joe is Tommy’s father.  ‘Joe is Tommy’s father,’shouted Tommy’s mother Maria, who was claiming money from Joe to support the boy.  ‘Tommy is a champion tennis player,’said his mother. F O O Normally, this would not be said unless it’s true.’ Maria has a big interest in the statement being true, which suggests that she may not be telling the truth. Any evidence provided? ‘champion’ could be an adjective.

8 IS IT A FACT OR AN OPINION?  Every nation is entitled to choose its own form of government.  Since 16% of candidates got a Grade C in UE last year, it is reasonable to assume that 4 out of a class of 25 will get Grade C.  ‘It won’t take you long to get to Central; get onto a No.2 bus outside, and you’ll be there in 15 mins. There’s a bus every 5 mins or so.’ O F O It’s logically correct but does everybody think the same? False logic No reason to assume otherwise

9 How to tell facts from opinions?  Are you given precise figures? Do these figures prove anything or are they just camouflage?  Are there any introductory words which suggest that it’s an opinion ( e.g. thinks, believes, suggests, etc.)?  Are any words in the statement indefinite (e.g. seems, appears)?  Is it reasonable to believe that the opposite is true?

10 Read this short story: Hong Kong angler Chan Tai man yesterday won the trophy awarded annually for the largest fish caught in Hong Kong waters. His catch, a 270-lb garoupa, had been verified by the Hong Kong fishermen’s Association. When we asked Chan about his catch, he replied, “Yes, it was a great day. Though this particular fish was quite easy to catch, you should have seen the one I almost caught the previous day. It was much bigger. I thought I had it properly hooked, and could see the fish just under the water… Oh! 400 lbs, I should think…but just as I thought I had it, it made a sudden dive and the line snapped. Yes, I wish you could have seen that one’!

11 Now decide which of the following are facts and which are opinions. Be prepared to justify your decision.  Chan Tai Man won a trophy.  He had caught the largest fish this year in Hong Kong waters.  The fish was a 270-lb garoupa.  He caught the fish easily.  He almost caught a bigger one the day before.  That fish weighed about 400 lb.  He had the big fish properly hooked.  The fish broke the line and got away. Look at the facts again, are they precise figures?

12 Now decide which of the following are facts and which are opinions. Be prepared to justify your decision.  Chan Tai Man won a trophy.  He had caught the largest fish this year in Hong Kong waters.  The fish was a 270-lb garoupa.  He caught the fish easily.  He almost caught a bigger one the day before.  That fish weighed about 400 lb.  He had the big fish properly hooked.  The fish broke the line and got away. Which trophy? How large? Precise! Clear?

13 So that means we have to evaluate the facts… Are they precise figures? Are they just vague descriptions? Affect the validity of the facts Your opinion may not be that convinced!

14 ASSIGNMENTS  Do the exercises on your Book(Section C).  Take a newspaper article or magazine article and tell your partner which sentence is a fact and which is an opinion.  Underline in red the opinions and underline in blue the facts. Annotate the sentences with (P) for precise facts and (I) for imprecise facts.

15 To justify an argument (to examine the facts- faked? Precise?) To evaluate the opinions (reasons) To reach a conclusion (use facts, to arrive at an opinion) To build an argument (opinions, supported by facts)

16 Let’s learn to justify an argument… What do you think of the following topics? Think about them and write down your opinions. In each case, you must say ‘Yes’or ‘No’ and give evidence. ( make sure you are giving precise facts to support your opinion) Should smoking be banned in all public transport? Should English be the language of institution in all secondary schools? Should the eating of dog meat be decriminalised? Should all cars be painted yellow? Should medical treatment be free to all?

17 Example: Should all Vietnamese boat people be forcibly repatriated? Reasons: 1.Hong Kong has too many people. Evidence: According to the survey of 1996, there are about 6 million people in H.K. 2.Government will spend a lot of money. Evidence: From , Hong Kong had spent about 10 billion dollars for Vietnamese boat people.

18 LET’S LEARN TO FIND EVIDENCE FOR A PARTICULAR CONCLUSION. Read the conclusion below and mark the key phrases which form the evidence for each conclusion. A.HKU students usually manage to find suitable employment after graduation. B.Smoking does not promote female attractiveness. C.Stiff prison sentences may not be a good idea in some cases. D.Some people at the golden Mile Holiday Inn had fun, despite the bad weather. E.Male and female joggers need four and five hours of exercise respectively, to burn off 2000 calories.

19 What about if you have read some facts and you have to draw conclusion from it? FACTS CONCLUSIONS (opinions) Known facts, or information which is assumed To be true for the Purposes of the argument Logical outcome of the premises Premise for an opinion Start: Argument End: Conclusion

20 PREMISES WHAT ARE THEY AIMING AT ---CONCLUSION CONCLUSION LOOK FOR SUPPORTING ‘PREMISES’( Be careful of unsupported assertions)

21 Read the article below, work out the arguments and state the conclusions  Democracy started in a small city-state with probably not more than 5,000 full citizens.  Each citizen could speak for himself.  Modern democracies have millions of citizens.  In a modern democracy, a citizen speaks through his representative. Therefore: Modern democracy is not real democracy.

22 After all, what’s the writer’s purpose, feelings and attitude?  His opinion sentence  Validity of his evidence/ facts  Choice of materials  Choice of words The flat has a gross area of 1080 square feet, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, a large living-room and dining-room. It has a fitted kitchen. Small servant’s quarters and car park. Harbour view. The large airy living-room has a stunning view of Hong Kong harbour: Spectacular in the daytime, and a fairyland at night. The three bedrooms are carefully designed and Elegantly furnished to make the best use of the space available. An ideal flat for a young couple who like entertaining.

23 ASSIGNMENT 1. Go to SCMP.com and download a letter to the editor. Try to analyse its arguments, reasons, supporting evidence and standpoint.


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