5Why Write Social Stories, Using Social Stories™ is a cost-effective way to provide a student with an autism spectrum disorder an unlimited amount of information about social events and social expectations.It is an individualized approach, but Social Stories™ can be used for different students.
6A TRUE SOCIAL STORY,There are many “social stories” available on the internet and other sources that are not true Social Stories™.To be a true Social Story™, the story must meet the criteria presented today.At ARD meetings, we are required to use evidenced-based practices to address the individual needs of students with ASDs. Using Social Stories is an evidenced-based practice we are using as part of the autism programming. We need to make sure, however, that we are using actual “Social Stories.”
7BEFORE WE BEGIN, AUDIENCE – the student or child AUTHOR – parent or teacherSTORY – social storyTEAM – parents and professionals workingtogether on behalf of the child
8The 10.1 Criteria, One Goal Two-Part Discovery Three Parts and a Title FOURmatFive Factors Define Voice and VocabularySix Questions Guide Story DevelopmentSeven Types of SentencesA Gr-eight FormulaNine Makes It MineTen Guides to Editing and Implementation
9Criterion 1: One Goal,The goal of a Social StoryTM is to share accurate information using a process, format, voice, and content that is descriptive, meaningful, and physically, socially, and emotionally safe for the Audience. Every Social StoryTM has an overall patient and reassuring tone.
10Criterion 1: One Goal,Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders perceive social events differently.Social Stories™ help students with Autism Spectrum Disorders understand social events and social expectations.
11Criterion 1: One Goal, • Yes • No Is the goal of a Social Stories™ to get the Audience to do what the Author or Team wants him/her to do?• Yes • No
12Criterion 1: One Goal,NO: The most common misconception is that the goal of a Social Story™ is to change the Audience’s (i.e., student) behavior.
13Criterion 1: One Goal,Not understanding social events and expectations can result in frustration and/or maladaptive behavior.We use the Social Story™ to address the student’s difficulty understandingsocial situations.
14Criterion 1: One Goal,Improving understanding of social events and expectations can improve behavior.
15Criterion 1: One Goal,Every Social Story™ has an unfaltering respect for its Audience, regardless of the topic.
16Criterion 1: One Goal,The physical, social, and emotional safety of a Story is an Author’s first concern.
17Don’t write a socially unsafe story. Criterion 1: One Goal,Don’t write a socially unsafe story.Mrs. Barnes, a first grade teacher, writes a story for Adam, age six. She includes the following statements about her class: “We’re all friends here. Friends cooperate with friends.”
18Criterion 1: One Goal,Two “friends” from his class approach him, and tell him to pull down his pants. Working from the information in the story, that these two classmates are friends and friends cooperate with one another, Adam complies with their request. He’s confused as they turn, laughing, and walk away.
19Criterion 1: One Goal,Adam’s story was inaccurate. Classmates in a classroom are not all friends. Mrs. Barnes did not write a Social StoryTM. With all good and noble intentions, she wrote a socially unsafe story.
20Criterion 1: One Goal,Carol Gray states that the most frequent Author mistakes are statements in a story that threaten emotional safety.Examples:“I often interrupt”“Sometimes, I hit other children”“I often don’t listen when people are talking to me and that’s rude.”
21Criterion 1: One Goal,Self-deprecating statements or negative references to the Audience are not allowed in a Social Story™.
22Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery, Keeping the goal in mind, Authors (i.e., teachers and parents)Gather accurate informationThen, identify the topic and types of information that will be shared in the STORY.
23Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery, A child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may frequently perceive social events differently.Here, the Author attempts to understand how the situation from the Audience’s point of view.
24Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery, Ex.Andrew, a student in Mrs. Clark’s first-grade class, struggled in math. Only once had he raised his hand for help. As his consultant, I was curious as to why Andrew had given up on the hand-raising process. I decided to try drawing apicture with Andrew to learn more.We drew about what happenedwhen Andrew raised his hand.
25Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery, While doing so, Andrew said, “I’m never going to raise my hand again. My teacher doesn’t know anything about math.” I asked why he felt that way. “Well, I raised my hand. Mrs. Clark came over and said, ‘Okay, Andrew, what’s the first number?’ Mrs. Gray, she doesn’t even know her numbers!”’ The story topics becameclear.
26Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery, One described what his teacher knows. It included copies of her diploma and first- grade math assignments that she had completed. The second Story explained why teachers ask questions when they already know the answers.
27Criterion 3: Three Parts and a Title, A Social StoryTM has a title and introduction that clearly identifies the topic, a body that adds detail, and a conclusion that reinforces and summarizes the information.
28Criterion 3: Three Parts and a Title, BODYCONCLUSION
29Criterion 3: Three Parts and a Title, TITLE & INTRODUCTION (Introduce)BODY (Describe)CONCLUSION (Reinforce the mostimportant concepts in a Social StoryTM .
30Criterion 3: Three Parts and a Title, INTRODUCTIONIncludes a clear topic sentence. Ex. “If I lose a toy, people can help.”May include a sentence to gain attention:Ex. “My name is Jeremy.”
31Criterion 3: Three Parts and a Title, BODYAdds further description/explanation. Ex. “Mom or dad knows how to find my toy. We will try to think and look.”
32Criterion 3: Three Parts and a Title, CONCLUSIONRefers the Audience back to the beginning. It restates the original purpose with the benefit of additional information. Ex. “People can help me look for mytoy.”
33Criterion 3: Three Parts and a Title, My name is Jeremy.If I lose a toy, people can help.Mom or dad knows how to findmy toy. We will try to think andlook.People can help me look for my toy.
34Criterion 3: Three Parts and a TitleACTIVITY, Directions: Considering the 3rd Criterion, complete the sentence below:A Social StoryTM must have a minimum of___ sentences.3
35LET’S REVIEW, Name the first 3 criteria: One Goal Two-Part Discovery Three Parts & a Title
36Criterion 4: FOURmat!,A Social StoryTM has a format that clarifies content and enhances meaning for the Audience.
37Criterion 4: FOURmat!,The “format” refers to how the text and illustration are tailored to the needs of the Audience.
38Criterion 4: FOURmat!, Must consider: The length of the Story Sentence structureVocabularyFont style/sizeOrganization
39Criterion 4: FOURmat!, Age and Ability Younger Child Story needs to be brief!Will contain 3 to 12 short sentences (eliminate commas to create 2 short sentences rather than 1 longsentence)
40Criterion 4: FOURmat!, Repetition, Rhythm, and Rhyme Ex. “On the playground, I may play on the swings, I may play on the slide, I may play on the monkey bars, or I may play something else.”Ex. Feeling angry is okay. It’simportant what I do and say.”
41Criterion 4: FOURmat!, Repetition, Rhythm, and Rhyme Consider the Audience when deciding. Some Audiences may regard them as “babyish” and insulting.Never risk insulting the Audience!
42Criterion 4: FOURmat!, ILLUSTRATION Using visual arts to support the meaning of text (e.g., actual objects, photos, videos, drawings, PowerPoint presentations, figures, charts, and diagrams).
43Criterion 4: FOURmat!, ILLUSTRATION Use caution. Don’t use anything that misleads or confuses the Audience.
44Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, A Social StoryTM has a patient and supportive “voice” and vocabulary that is defined by five factors:First- or Third- Person PerspectivePositive and Patient TonePast, Present, and/or Future TenseLiteral AccuracyAccurate Vocabulary
45Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, First- or Third- Person PerspectiveMany Social StoriesTM are written in a first-person voice, as though the Audience is describing the situation, event, or concept.This presents information from anAudience vantage point.
46Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, Take care not to “put words into the mouth” of the Audience, when it is not representative of the Audience’s experience.Ex. “I will like recess.”Even though a Story is written in thefirst-person voice, it is likely it will contain both first- and third-person perspective statements.
47Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, A Social StoryTM that is written from a third- person voice, similar to a newspaper article, is called a Social Article.Social Articles may use columns, advanced vocabulary and/or Times New Roman font to minimize any “babyish” or insultingquality in the text. They are for an olderor more advanced Audience.
48Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, POSITIVE AND PATIENT TONEA Social StoryTM uses positive language. A person with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more likely to be challenged, corrected, and re-directed far more frequently than his or her peers.
49Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, POSITIVE AND PATIENT TONEA Social StoryTM keeps the self-esteem of the Audience safe.Examples like “I have difficulty listening to my teacher” or “Sometimes when I am angry, I hit people” provide little usableinformation.
50Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, POSITIVE AND PATIENT TONEAuthors never use the Audience voice in reference to his or her negative behavior.Instead, an Author may describe a specific negative behavior in general, without“pointing a finger” at the Audience.
51Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, PAST, PRESENT, AND/OR FUTURE TENSEPeople readily use information from their past to build self-esteem, solve problems, and anticipate likely outcomes.So, Authors may include references to the past, and use the past, present,and/or future tense in a STORY.
52Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, ACCURATE VOCABULARYAccurate vocabulary refers to words that most efficiently represent the Author’s intended meaning.
53Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, ACCURATE VOCABULARYTwo considerations:Positive verbs are preferable to negative counterparts.Ex. “I will try not to run in the hallway.”“I will try to walk in the hallway.”
54Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, ACCURATE VOCABULARYTwo considerations:Verbs are notorious for the subtle but critical contrasts between them.“Dad will get the milk at the store.”“Dad will buy milk at the store.”(Get milk may be shoplifting).
55Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and VocabularyACTIVITY, Directions: Which of the sentences may be used in a Social StoryTM?___ I shouldn’t run in the house.___I will keep the paint on the paper.___You’ll have fun at recess.___Veterinarians know a lot aboutdogs, cats, and other animals.5. ___ Because our plans are up in the air,this is no time to decide on an itinerary.
56Criterion 5: Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary, I shouldn’t run in the house.Many times, it’s important to run in the house.I will keep the paint on the paper.I will try to keep the paint on the paper.You’ll have fun at recess.At recess, I may play on the swings. I may play with ball. Or, I may decide to play something else.Because our plans are up in the air, this Is no time to decide on an itinerary.When Dad knows the dates for his vacation this year, our family will plan a trip to California.
57LET’S REVIEW, Name the first 5 criteria: One Goal Two-Part Discovery Three Parts & a TitleFOURmatFive Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary
58Criterion 6: Six Questions Guide Story Development, A Social StoryTM answers six relevant questions:1. Where - describing the context2. When - time-related information3. Who - relevant people4. What - important cues5. How - basic activities, behaviors6. Why – reasons and/or rationale behind them
59Criterion 6: Six Questions Guide Story Development, A single, opening sentence can answer many “wh” questions:“My family (who) is going (what) to the beach (where) today (when).
60Criterion 6: Six Questions Guide Story Development, This may be followed with a brief statement that answers how the trip to the beach will occur: “We’ll ride in our car to the beach.”or a sentence that explains why this activity is planned:“Many families have fun when theyvisit the beach.”
61Criterion 6: Six Questions Guide Story Development, A Social StoryTM succinctly identifies who is involved, where and when a situation occurs, what is happening, how it happens, and why.While not all “wh” questions are answeredin every Story, they are all considered.
62Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, There are 7 possible types of sentences that may be used in a Story.Descriptive Sentences are the only required sentences; all of the others are optional.
63Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, DESCRIPTIVE SENTENCESDescriptive sentences are factual and objective.They describe:ContextThe relevant but often unspokenaspects of a situation, person,activity, skill, or concept.
64Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, DESCRIPTIVE SENTENCESThe best place to start when learning to write Descriptive Sentences is to pretend that you are looking through the lens of a camera.Describe:What you see.And, the information the camera doesn’t record –what many people mistakenly assume thateveryone knows and understands.
65Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, DESCRIPTIVE SENTENCES EXAMPLES:“There are many vacation days during the year.”“Some vacations are long, and others are short.”“Wrapping hides a gift, and helps tokeep it a secret.”
66Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, PERSPECTIVE SENTENCESAuthors may make mistakes when guessing the Audience perspective. For this reason, Perspective Sentences are rarely used to describe the internal status of the Audience.The only exception is when the Audience’sown references to positive thoughtsor feelings are used. Ex. “I often say,‘I really love to swim.’”
67Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, PERSPECTIVE SENTENCESA Social StoryTM Article may contain Perspective Sentences.Perspective Sentences are statements that accurately refer to, or describe, a person’s internal state,or their knowledge, feelings, beliefs,opinions, motivation, or physicalcondition or health.
68Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, PERSPECTIVE SENTENCES“May people think that nice surprises are fun.”“Adults may think it’s polite to wait a while before opening a gift.”“May students want to help our substitute teacher, Mr. Jackson.”
69Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, SENTENCES THAT COACHCan coach the AudienceCan coach the teamCan self-coach
70Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, SENTENCES THAT COACH THE AUDIENCEI will try to follow Mrs. Wakefield’s directions.I may choose to play on the swings. Or, I may choose another recess activity.I will try to keep the paint on the paper.
71Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, SENTENCES THAT COACH THE TEAMMrs. Franklin will try to give me more time toComplete each science test.My mom will be with me in the doctor’soffice.Mom or dad will be with me in thewater.
72Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, SENTENCES THAT SELF-COACHWhen someone says, “I changed my mind,” I can think of a caterpillar turning into a butterfly.To help me stay calm, I may try thinking about the next fun activity. For example, I may think about “After the test, it’s time for recess.”I can use a paper chain to help me keeptrack of the number of days until mybirthday.
73Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, AFFIRMAATIVE SENTENCESStress an important pointRefer to a law or ruleTo reassure
74Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, AFFIRMAATIVE SENTENCESPeople wake up. Sometimes they are happy to wake up. Other times they would like to be able to sleep longer. That’s Life on Planet Earth.Sometimes a student is absent. This is okay. The teacher will help them get their assignments sothat they can finish their schoolwork.To stay safe, children take turns goingdown the slide. This is very important.
75Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, PARTIAL SENTENCES (Fill-in-the-blank format)Used to:Check comprehensionEncourage the Audience to make guesses regardingthe next step in a situationMake guesses about the response ofanother individualMakes guesses about his/her responses
76Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social StoryTM Sentences, PARTIAL SENTENCES (Fill-in-the-blank format)Wrapping hides a gift, and helps to keep it a_____________.Many people think that nice surprises are____________.To stay safe, children take turns goingdown the slide. This is very important.
77Criterion 8: A GR-EIGHT Formula, The Social Story Formula is an equation that defines the relationship between the different types of sentences in a Social Story.
78Criterion 8: A GR-EIGHT Formula, The Social Story Formula# of Sentences that DESCRIBE ≥ 2# if Sentences that COACHSocial Stories™ that describe = Descriptive + Perspective + Affirmative Sentences
79Criterion 8: A GR-EIGHT Formula, The Social Story Formula contributes to the patient and unassuming quality of the Social Story.Reminds Authors to take the time to share information, including the information thatwe often assume “everyone knows.”
80Criterion 9: Nine Makes It Mine, Whenever possible, a Social Story is tailored to the individual preferences, talents, and interests of its Audience.We all choose to read materials which interest us. We don’t want to read information we find confusing or frustrating.
81Criterion 9: Nine Makes It Mine, One grandmother embroidered a Social Story about what love means on a quilt for her grandson’s bed.A mother pasted a Social Story about buying new shoes on the top of a shoe box, placing phots of the exact shoes her child would try on in the storethe next day.For a child who is interested in the USPostal System, Social Stories can bemailed with postmarks from differentlocations.
82Criterion 9: Nine Makes It Mine, Don’t take this one too far. Whenever an idea is “over the top” it threatens the Social Story goal of safety and meaning.
83Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, Plan for ComprehensionPlan Story SupportPlan Story ReviewPlan a Positive IntroductionMonitor!Organize StoriesMix and Match Stories to Build ConceptsStory Re-Runs and SequelsRecycle Instruction into Applause
84Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, This will catch regrettable errors and helps to ensure that the Story follows all criteria.
85Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, PLAN FOR COMPREHENSIONLook one last time at the text and illustration keeping comprehension in mind. Might want to develop questions to go with the Story.Once the Audience is familiar with theStory, consider adding PartialSentences.
86Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, 3. PLAN STORY SUPPORTInclude resources and instructional techniques to support the Story. Might want to put the Story on a PowerPoint or create a poster thatCan be used in the classroom whichcontains an important phrase fromthe Story.
87Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, 4. PLAN STORY REVIEWReview the Story patiently and with a positive attitude. Review the story in a comfortable setting with a positive tone.Never, never, never force review ofa Story or use a Story as a consequenceFor misbehavior.
88Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, 5. PLAN A POSITIVE INTRODUCTIONSocial Stories are introduced in the samematter-of-fact and unassuming quality as itstext.The Author can begin with “This is a storyThat I wrote for you!”For young children, might want tosit side by side with the story in the front ofboth.
89Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, Monitor!Once a Story is in place, monitor its impact. Watch the Audience’s response to make sure the Story was interpreted as intended.
90Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, 7. Organize StoriesOne Story does lead to another. Keep the Stories organized. Consider using a 3-ring binder with a personalized clear plastic cover.
91Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, Mix and Match Stories to Build ConceptsThere will be many topics to write about. It is uncommon for an Audience to acquire many Stories within a short time!May want to sort stories by topic.
92Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, STORY RE-RUNS AND SEQUELSIt may be the case that Stories are not “retired”. Long after it’s been set aside, a Story may be introduced like a re-run on television.You may want to create Story Sequels.
93Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, STORY RE-RUNS AND SEQUELSIt may be the case that Stories are not “retired”. Long after it’s been set aside, a Story may be introduced like a re-run on television.
94Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, STORY RE-RUNS AND SEQUELSFor example, a story about friendship at age six may be retrieved and updated with information about friendship at age six may be retrieved and updated with information about friendship at age eight.
95Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation, RECYLE INSTRUCTION INTO APPLAUSESocial Stories may be “recycled” too. A Story that originally introduces new skills may later be recycled into a Story that applauds their mastery.This is easy to do if the Stories aresaved on a computer.
96LET’S REVIEW, Name the first 10 criteria: One Goal Two-Part Discovery Three Parts & a TitleFOURmatFive Factors Define Voice and VocabularySix Questions Guide Story DevelopmentSeven Types of Social Story SentencesA GR-EIGHT FORMULANine Makes It MineTen Guides to Editing and Implementation
97LET’S PRACTICE,You have been given a handout with four different scenarios.Choose one of these scenarios.Write a Social Story to address the situation.
98LET’S PRACTICE,Andrea is a first grade student with Asperger’s Disorder. She becomes very upset on days her teacher, Mrs. Smith, has a substitute. Write a Social Story explaining why teachers have substitutes. Mrs. Smith has triplets.Jack is an eight-year-old with high-functioning autism. He has had great difficulty with campus safety drills. He covers his ears and runs. Write a Social Story that explains why principals schedule drills.Alyssa is a 12-year-old student with Asperger’s Disorder. Her mother has tried for years to get Andrea to take a shower appropriately. However, Andrea simply turns the water on and stands under it for a few minutes. Then she steps out of the shower and dries off. Write a Social Story explaining how to take a shower in ten steps.Caitlyn is a first grader with high functioning autism. She hasgreat difficulty when there are changes in her daily schedule.Write a Social Story explaining how her teacher, Mrs. Jones,will sometimes make changes in the schedule.