Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

How A Bill Becomes A Law I'm Just a Bill.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "How A Bill Becomes A Law I'm Just a Bill."— Presentation transcript:

1 How A Bill Becomes A Law I'm Just a Bill

2 How A Bill Becomes A Law Overview

3 Step #1: Introducing A Bill
Anyone may introduce a Bill In the House of Representatives: Hand Bill to a clerk Drop Bill into a “hopper” (tradition from UK) In the Senate: Being recognized by the presiding officer and announcing the bill’s introduction Bill is numbered and sent to a printer

4 Step #1: Introducing A Bill
Types of Bills: Public- public affairs Private- a person pressing a financial claim against the government Seeking special permission for something (citizenship) (once numerous) Types of Resolutions Simple (passed by either house) Example - establishing the rules under which each body will operate Types of Resolutions (Cont) b) Concurrent Resolution- Settles housekeeping and procedural matters that impact both houses Both Simple and Concurrent are not signed by the president and do not have the force of law c) Joint Resolutions- Requires approval of both houses + the signature of the President Essentially, same as law Often used to propose constitutional amendments…

5 Step #2: Study By Committee
Bill referred to a committee by either; Speaker of the House Presiding officer of the Senate Rules govern which committee will get a bill Rules vary per house

6 Step #2a: Study By Sub-Committee
2. Referred to a Sub-committee Sub Committees are the research arm of the larger, Full/Standing Committee Multiple Referral vs. Sequential Referral What happens in a subcommittee? Witnesses appear Evidence is taken Questions are asked Hearings used to Inform members Permit interest groups Build public support Sample Testimony 3. After hearing, sub-committee “marks up” bill

7 Step #2: Study By Committee
4. Back to the Standing Committee for a possible vote If majority of the committee votes to report a bill out of committee, it goes on Accompanied by a report that explains: Why the committee favored it Why they wish to see its amendments, if any, adopted b) If the committee does not report favorably on the bill, the bill dies Note about Committees: Committees may hold bills hostage! Discharge Petition House – 218 signatures Senate – motion Last 100 years – attempted times, successful 24 times Are we done yet? I’m bored

8 Out of Committee…onto Rules
5. Bill must be placed on calendar before it can go before the house again Though it goes on the calendar, Not considered in order or Necessarily at all 6. Moves onto Rules Committee

9 Rules Committee Adopt a rule to govern the procedures under which the bill will be considered Closed Rule: sets strict time limits on debate forbids the introduction of amendments from the floor (except if offered by sponsoring committee) Open Rule: Permits amendments Restrictive Rule: Permits some amendments but not others Exceptions to the Rules: In House: Member can move that the rules be suspended Requires 2/3 vote A discharge position can be filed House can use the “Calendar Wednesday Procedure” Rules are in place to prevent “riders” Provision added to legislation that is not germane to the bill’s purpose “Christmas Tree” Bill Purpose of Riders?

10 Step #3: Floor Debate THE HOUSE THE SENATE
Discussed by “Committee of the Whole” Whoever is present at the time Quorum for C.W.: 100 ppl (usually 218) Speaker chooses presider Committee debates, amends, decides final shape During this time, no riders allowed- unless related to bill’s purpose Time for debate divided evenly 5 minutes per person “Quorum Call”- time staller No rule limiting debate Senators can speak as long as they want Remarks need not be relevant Anyone can offer an Amendment at anytime Amendments need not be germane Often had many riders No Committee of the Whole If house has passed a bill, Committee hearing can be waived in Senate Senate Filibuster- time staller

11 Step #3: Floor Debate THE SENATE (continued)
Filibuster -The use of obstructionist tactics, especially prolonged speechmaking, for the purpose of delaying legislative action. Strom Thurmond set a record in 1957 by filibustering the Civil Rights Act of 1957 for 24 hours and 18 minutes, although the bill ultimately passed. Thurmond broke the previous record of 22 hours and 26 minutes set by Wayne Morse (I-OR) in 1953 protesting the Tidelands Oil legislation. Visited a steam room before his filibuster in order to dehydrate himself so he could drink without urinating. An aide stood by in the cloakroom with a pail in case of emergency.“ Cloture Rule- parliamentary procedure by which debate is ended and an immediate vote is taken on the matter under discussion. Requires 16 Senators for petition Motion is voted on 2 days after petition is introduced To pass, 3/5 of Senate membership is needed- 60 Senators If passed, each Senator is limited to 1 hour of debate After that, total debate can only = 100 hours (including role call) vs.

12 Step #3: Floor Debate Cloture (Continued) Double Tracking-
One way to keep Senate going during cloture Disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get other work done

13 Step #4 Voting THE HOUSE The Senate
Voice Vote- Yea vs Nay Division (Standing Vote)- Stand and be counted (in both, members names are not recorded) Teller Vote- the members pass between two tellers..yeas first, nays second Usually recorded Role Call Vote- Yea or Nay to people’s names Can be done at the request of 1/5 of reps present The Senate No teller vote and not electronic counters

14 Step #5 (Sometimes): Reconciling Different Bills
If a bill passes the house differently in the House than in the Senate, differences must be reconciled. If changes minor, last house may refer back to first house to accept alterations If differences are major, bill goes to conference committee: Each house votes to make committee Members picked by chairperson of the House + Senate Committees that have been handling the bill 3-15 members per house (depending on bill) Decision must be approved by majority of all members Bill goes back to each house to accept or reject

15 Step #6: Off To The White House
If bill is accepted by both houses, goes to President President’s options: Sign or veto If President signs, Bill becomes a law! If President vetos, bill goes back to Congress Congress can override with a 2/3 vote of members present in each house (if quorum exists) Vote must be a roll call

16 Review… Who can propose a bill?
How is a resolution different from a bill? Simple Concurrent In which house do “bills for raising revenue” get proposed? Why? Why is it cool to be on the ways and means committee? What does an appropriation mean? Os multiple referral of a bill better than the traditional way of referring a bill? Is the discharge petition useful in speeding things up? Why is adopting a closed rule most common in the House, not in the Senate? How is the “Committee of the Whole” different from a quorum? What are some differences that exist as far as Floor Debate in each house? What is a filibuster? Does cloture help move things along? What are the advantages/disadvantages of a teller vote? Does Congress take too long to accomplish its goal? Are there too many members concerned with self interest?

17 The End!

Download ppt "How A Bill Becomes A Law I'm Just a Bill."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google