Presentation on theme: "Common Core State Standards"— Presentation transcript:
1 Common Core State Standards Phonics and Word RecognitionFluencyGrades K-2SNRPDP
2 Foundational Skills Pages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder They are not an end in and of themselves.They are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program.They are necessary to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines.Information is from page 15 of the Common Core State Standards Initiative.SNRPDP
3 Foundational Skills Pages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder Good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will.Teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know.Each skill need not to be a separate focus of instruction. Often several skills can be addressed by a single rich task.See previous slide.SNRPDP
4 Phonics and Word Recognition ELA Kindergarten page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-oneletter-sound correspondences by producingthe primary or many of the most frequentsound for each consonant.b. Associate the long and short sounds withcommon spellings (graphemes) for the fivemajor vowels.c. Read common high-frequency words by sight(e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words byidentifying the sounds of the letters that differ.G NV Standard (translation document)Identifying high frequency words to build fluency and comprehension; identifying letter-sound relationships; decoding words using letter/sound relationships; and decoding words in text through short/long vowels.Allow participants to read the slide. These are the Common Core Standards for phonics and word recognition for kindergarten. These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.SNRPDP
5 Phonics and Recognition ELA First Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder l. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and words analysis skills in decoding words.a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences forcommon consonant digraphs.b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.c. Know final -e and common vowel teamconventions for representing long vowelsounds.d. Use knowledge that every syllable must havea vowel sound to determine the number ofsyllables in a printed word.e. Decode two-syllable words following basicpatterns by breaking the words into syllables.f. Read words with inflectional endings.g. Recognize and read grade-appropriateirregularly spelled words.G NV Standard (translation document)Decoding words in text through short and long vowels, and digraphs; decoding words through structural analysis using syllables, with assistance.Allow participants to read the slide. These are the Common Core Standards for phonics and word recognition for first grade.SNRPDP
6 Phonics and Word Recognition ELA Second Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.a. Distinguish long and short vowels whenreading regularly spelled one-syllable words.b. Know spelling-sound correspondences foradditional common vowel teams.c. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable wordswith long vowels.d. Decode words with common prefixes andsuffixes.e. Identify words with inconsistent but commonspelling-sound correspondences.f. Recognize and read grade-appropriateirregularly spelled words.G NV Standard (translation document)Decoding words in text through phonics (long vowel spelling patterns) and structural analysis (prefixes and suffixes)Allow participants to read the slide. These are the Common Core Standards for phonics and word recognition for second grade.SNRPDP
7 Reading: The Big Picture ComprehensionFluencyDecodingPhonological AwarenessWe have previously discussed Phonological Awareness and how it fits into the bigger picture of reading. Now we will begin our discussion of Decoding (or Phonics)—starting with letter names and sounds that will lead to blending words together.
8 Beginning Reading…Thirty years of research suggests that the most effective beginning reading programs are those that provide systematic, explicit phonics instruction and also focus on comprehension.Allow participants to read slide. Stress that both phonics and comprehension must be taught together.(Adams, 1990; Chall, 1967, 1987; Pressley, 1998)
9 Decoding X Comprehension Reading =Decoding X Comprehensionautomaticaccuratequickeffortlessautomatic+strategicknowledgeableflexiblepersistentShare slide.Ask the participants what the answer would be if word recognition or comprehension had a zero. Explain that the two work together. In order to comprehend on a proficient level, decoding must become automatic. It is not a question of giving equal time, rather knowing what the child is lacking.Once the child is automatic, he/she can be strategic. Teachers cannot assume that a child is lacking in comprehension.
10 Expert Reader Novice Reader Decoding Decoding Comprehension Have participants turn to one another and discuss the graphic.Explain to participants that cognitive capacity is finite. We can only keep so many “balls in the air” at once. Brain research shows that there are a limited number of slots for short-term memory. As children read, if each is taken up with decoding, there is little room for comprehension. Children as young as 3 and 4 can make this transition but some adults are still stuck in the novice reader.Kids who can’t access print struggle terribly.Ask participants to discuss with a partner what these children start doing.Debrief: How do children cope with that frustration … won’t read unless they are at “gunpoint”. They start to shut down or guess at words.Keep in mind, we are not talking about age. A novice reader can be 6 or 16.ComprehensionDecoding
11 How important is word identification instruction? Critically important in that many students have difficulty “breaking the code” without explicit instruction.If lack of success continues through primary grades, students continue in a “negative spiral” (Stanovich 1986).Read through each bullet stressing that students need explicit instruction in word identification.For most novice readers it is critically important.
12 Matthew Effects (Stanovich, 1986) reads morelikes to readgoodcomprehensiongooddecodingis p.a.poordecodingnot p.a.If children are not phonemically aware they usually travel in a downward spiral. If children are phonemically aware, they are more likely to travel upward when given solid instruction in the other areas. Most special education referrals occur in the “not p.a.” and “poor decoding area.” They become “instructional casualties.”poorcomprehensiondoesn’t liketo readreads less
13 spreading activation automatic When subconscious a word comes in ProficientStrugglerThe model with the most credibility in the research world is called the Interactive Model. You’ll see that it is not an approach that falls in the middle of the pendulum like many tend to believe. Although it has some basic qualities of each, it is not meeting any approach halfway.In the Interactive Model, a proficient reader looks much different than a struggling reader. Discuss this slide briefly. In the next few slides, we will demonstrate their differences.conscious processR = D X C
14 Proficient..Rules/AnalogiesBackground Knowledge......Mental Dictionary(words you know in your head)WordrecognitionWith a proficient reader, a word enters the brain and a process called spreading activation occurs. Spreading activation is when similar concepts are stored in your memory. For example, when a word is processed in your brain, it immediately looks for the connectors of that word to something familiar. It sends the word to your lexicon, which is your mental dictionary (words you know in your head). The lexicon sends the word to text representation, which is trying to connect the word to any rules and analogies you already have stored. Once you have processed the word, you move on to the next word. You can only imagine the speed of this process. It happens on the subconscious level.My decoding is so automatic, I have time to work on understanding.
15 . . . . Struggler syntax semantic lexical orthographic With a struggling reader, it is a very conscious process. These strugglers look for clues in meaning instead of decoding because they don’t know how to tackle a word.They try looking at how it’s placed in the sentence (could this be a noun or verb).If that doesn’t work, they look at the picture and try to guess at what the word could be.If that doesn’t work, they activate prior knowledge to see if they recognize parts of the word.If that doesn’t work, they read past the word and come back to it to figure out what it could say.All of these techniques that this struggling reader is trying are all things we do when figuring out the meaning of the word, not what the word says.Our job is to make sure they tackle each word so they don’t have to rely on meaning in order to decode.My decoding is so slow, that I have to rely on what the word means, rather than what it actually says.
16 Word Identification Goal: Novice readers need to be able to:identify most words automatically, that is, at sight.decode unfamiliar words by analogy (using “chunks” and “chunks with meaning” from words they know automatically).Check to see if the word they generated makes sense and adjust, if necessary.By sight: Readers need to get to the point where they do not have to decode every word. They need to be able to recognize the word by sight. We need to understand the process that children go through in order to get to this point. It does not always happen through exposure to the entire word.Analogy: If I can read hat, I can read cat, because I recognize the pattern.
17 “Phonics instruction includes the teaching of letter-sound correspondences, the pronunciations of spelling patterns, and decoding skills (i.e. how to apply this phonics knowledge to the reading and spelling of unknown words, including how to blend the sounds together).”Dr. Timothy Shanahan, 2006IRA President 06-07Share the quote with participants.
18 Phonics Instructional Approaches Analogy PhonicsAnalytic PhonicsEmbedded PhonicsPhonics through SpellingSynthetic PhonicsNRP, 2000Analogy Phonics—Teaching students unfamiliar words by analogy to known words (i.e. reading brick by recognizing that –ick is contained in the known word kick).Analytic Phonics—Teaching students to analyze letter-sound relations in previously learned words to avoid pronouncing sounds in isolation (i.e. whole-to-part: implicit approach).Embedded Phonics—Teaching students phonics skills by embedding phonics instruction in text reading, a more implicit approach that relies to some extent on incidental learning.Phonic through Spelling—Teaching students to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes (i.e. teaching students to spell words phonemically).Synthetic Phonics—Teaching students explicitly to convert letters into sounds (phonemes) and then blend the sounds to form recognizable words. (i.e. part-to-whole: explicit approach).
19 National Reading Panel Phonics Instruction (pp. 8-11)TypesQuestionsFindings* ! ?New Interesting QuestionsHave participants read the ‘Phonics Instruction’ section of the NRP. A copy of the pages can be found in the facilitator materials. Pay attention tonew information (*), particularly interesting information (!), and questions (?) during reading. Discussion to follow.National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction (2000).A copy of this publication is available online at
20 Discussion What approach do you use to teach phonics? How often do you teach phonics?In relation to phonics, what are you doing to meet the needs of your struggling readers?Have participants consider the questions independently first, then have them discuss their thoughts with their small group.
21 English as it is Spelled This year, I firmly made a vow,I’m going to learn to spell.I’ve studied phonics very hard.Results will surely tell.“A little bird sat on a bough,And underneath stood a cough.”That doesn’t look just right somehow.I guess I should have spelled ‘cou’.I thought I heard a distant coughBut when I listened, it shut ‘ough’.Oh dear, I think my spelling’s ‘auf’.I guess I meant I heard a ‘coff’.To bake some pizza, take some doughAnd let it rise, but very ‘slough’.That doesn’t look just right, I know.I guess on that I stubbed my ‘tow’.My father says down in the ‘slough’The very largest soybeans ‘grough’.Perhaps he means the obvious ‘cloo’To better crops, is soil that’s ‘nue’Cheap meat is often very tough.We seldom like to eat the ‘stough’.I’m all confused; this spelling’s ‘ruff’.I guess I’ve studied long ‘enuph’.Share poem with participants.
22 IRA Position Statement Three basic principles regarding phonics and the teaching of reading:The teaching of phonics is an important aspect of beginning reading instruction.Classroom teachers in the primary grades do value and do teach phonics as part of their reading program.Phonics instruction, to be effective in promoting independence in reading, must be embedded in the context of a total reading/language arts program.Focus on number three for a few minutes—discuss the importance of phonics instruction within context of real reading.The next three slides are statements from reading researchers who support this position…
23 Phonics Instruction: Beyond the Basics Phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships…once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read.—Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, and Wilkinson (1985)Read aloud to participants, clarifying if necessary.
24 Effective Teaching“…the most effective first-grade teachers…taught decoding skills explicitly and provided their students with many opportunities to engage in authentic reading.”“…it is what teachers do to promote application of phonics knowledge during the reading of connected text that matters most.”Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, and Hampston (1998)Read aloud to participants, clarifying if necessary.
25 Reading for Meaning“Children in classrooms that taught [phonics] skills in context did better than children in classrooms where skills were taught out of context on every measure of reading achievement including word analysis (phonics), fluency, comprehension, and spelling.”Cantrell (1999)Read aloud to participants. Can you see a pattern? We need to teach phonics explicitly AND always in the context of reading. Just knowing the letter names and sounds is not enough! Students need to be able to apply their knowledge of letter sounds within the real context of reading.
26 The Alphabetic Principle --The sounds within spoken words are represented in writing by letters, and that those letters represent the sounds rather consistently.Ask participants “What is the ‘alphabetic principle’?” Allow time for responses and then show the rest of the slide.
27 Why do we teach the sounds of letters? So they can be blended together to make wordsShare slide and ask “What is the best order to teach the letter sounds?” Explain that participants will work on this question during the next slide.
28 Letter-Sound Sequence acbdMaterials needed: packets of alphabet cards for every 3-4 participants.Have participants work in small groups arrange alphabet cards to determine the sequence to teach letters and sounds—they must be able to defend WHY. Discuss differences/similarities among the sequences with the whole group.Have participants hold onto their letter cards and keep them in the sequence they decided upon. The next few slides will talk about the types of sounds that should be introduced first, next, and last.
29 Letter Sound Types Continuous Sounds Stop Sounds Voiced Sounds Unvoiced SoundsShare the various types of letter sounds. Emphasize the correct pronunciation of letter sounds; i.e. is /b/ /i/ /g/ NOT /buh/ /i/ /guh/--necessary to talk about correct pronunciation of each letter sound so when students begin blending the sounds together, they have an accurate understanding of what those letters sound like in context.
30 Continuous Sounds “Stretch-able” sounds--/m/ Can be held out or elongated without distortionEasiest sounds for children to produce and blendUse firstShare information on the slide.
31 Stop Sounds “Quick” sounds--/b/ Cannot be held out or elongated without distortionVoiced stop sounds are impossible to produce in isolationAvoid adding “uh” or “schwa” sound afterShare information on the slide.
32 Voiced Sounds“Voice” occurs when the vocal folds (aka vocal cords) vibrate.This vibration makes the sound more audible.The vibration may also contribute to sound distortion, especially in voiced stop consonants--/b/Share information on the slide.
33 Unvoiced Sounds Produced without vocal fold vibration Air moves past still vocal folds during an unvoiced soundUnvoiced stop consonants are easier to blend--/p/Share information on the slide.
34 Write Letter-Sound Sequence next to the standard Continuous StoplmnrvwbdgjyzFind and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching pointsWrite Letter-Sound Sequence next to the standarda e i o uUnvoiced VoicedchptfsThis chart follows the sequence of the alphabet and shows the types of sound each letter makes. Note all vowels are continuous/voiced sounds. Also, ‘q’ and ‘x’ are outside the chart because both are a combination of two other sounds (‘q’ = /kw/ and ‘x’ = /ks/)You can make copies of the handout from the facilitator materials and have participants complete the chart as you discuss the types of sound each letter makes.qx
35 Letter Sounds Teaching approximations of sounds Systematic: logical sequenceStart with the easiest and move to more difficult:Consonant—VoicedContinuous—UnvoicedStop—UnvoicedStop—VoicedWhen teaching letter sounds, you’re really just teaching an approximation of the sounds—it’s difficult (if not impossible) to produce exact sounds in isolation.Revisit letter-sound sequence activity the participants did with the alphabet cards—compare to logical sequence above. Discuss.
36 Decoding“…the purpose of teaching phonics… is to be able to decode words. Given this purpose, it follows that very early in the instructional sequence children should experience decoding some words.”Piano analogy: “It’s like when children take piano lessons and learn to play little pieces when they can read only a few notes. By playing the piece, they experience what those few notes can do. Similarly, in the early phases of learning to read, children should be provided with the knowledge and skills that enable them actually to decodes some words.”
37 Confusions: Visual Similarities b and db and pq and pn and mn, h and mv and wn and rKeep in mind when determining letter-sound sequence
38 Confusions: Auditory Similarities f and vt and db and db and tk and gm and ni and eo and uch and shKeep in mind when determining letter-sound sequence
39 “We can list the phonemes but the way they actually work in words is not quite as straight forward.” —Louisa MoatsRevisit letter cards. Change as necessary—keep in mind that it’s important to introduce letter sounds in relation to ease of articulation, little confusions, and ability to immediately begin blending. (Why don’t we start with /a/ and move through the alphabet in order to /z/?)
41 Blending Teaching Children How Words Work “Phonics instructionwill be of limited valueuntil a child can blendthe component soundsin words.”Blevins, 1998Letter-Sound relationships are not enough! Students must know how to put the sounds together to make words—to READ.
42 Blending Methods Final Blending (sound-by-sound) Successive Blending (whole word)This instruction is critical to enabling children to generalize sound-spelling relationships to new words.Two blending procedures that have the greatest reading payoff are final blending and successive blending (Resnick and Beck, 1976).
43 Final Blending Sound-by Sound Blending The sound of each spelling is stated and stored. The whole word isn’t blended until all the sounds in the word have been identified and pronounced.sat/s/ /a/ /sa/ /t/ /sat/Demonstrate this with participants so they know how to make it explicit for their students. Use several examples if necessary.
44 Final BlendingAllows the teacher to determine where a student is having difficulty as he or she attempts to blend unfamiliar words.Helps the teacher determine which students lack the ability to orally string together sounds.Major advantages of this method: like teaching long division in steps.
45 Successive Blending Whole-Word or Continuous Blending Students stretch out, or hold, each sound in a word without pausing between the sounds.satssssaaaat ssaat satDemonstrate this with participants so they know how to make it explicit for their students. Use several examples if necessary.Have participants practice both methods (final blending and successive blending with a partner using CVC words).
46 “The goal of teaching phonics is to develop students’ ability to read connected text independently.” Adams, 1990After we’ve taught some letter names and sounds, AND how to blend them, students need to read real text.Classrooms are filled with a variety of books ranging from wordless picture books to chapter books.Three types of text that should be included in an early reading program are: Decodable Text, Predictable/Patterned Text, and Trade Books.
47 Variety of Text Decodable (controlled) text Predictable/patterned text Trade booksThree types of text that should be included in an early reading program.Variety is not only the spice of life, it is the spice of early reading instruction and a necessity because one text type cannot meet all your instructional goals.
48 Criteria for controlled/decodable text ComprehensibleNatural sounding—Words must be derived from children’s speaking/listening vocabulariesInstructiveStrong connection between instruction and textInterestingEngaging—revisited often to develop fluency and increase reading rate.In 1985, the government document Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson et al.) provided a set of criteria for creating controlled/decodable text. Three mandates required that the text be:ComprehensibleInstructiveInterestingDecodables ActivityGive each small group a set of decodable books and have them create a guided reading lesson using the selected book. Have the group determine:What students must already know in order to read this book with instructional assistance?What would be your teaching point with students who are reading this book for the first time?Does the book match the criteria identified by the Becoming a Nation of Readers document?
49 Word BuildingSupports decoding and word recognition by giving students opportunities consistently to experience and discriminate the effects on a word of changing one letter.An opportunity to play with sounds and spellingThe procedures require students to focus attention on every letter in the sequences of letters that make up words. This helps students “see” and develop a sense of English orthography.
50 Word Building Practice a d h i s tFind and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching pointsWrite Word Building Practice next to the standardDo this activity with participants—have them work in the same groups and use the letter cards they used for the sound sequence activity to build the words in each sequence as you direct them.Have participants find the letter cards a, d, h, i, s, & t. The first two words in each sequence are intended for teacher demonstration. Begin by making the first word, hit, in a pocket chart, reading the word, asking the students to read it, and telling them you are going to change one letter and make a new word hid. Change the t in hit to a d and have the students read the words. Now have the participants build the word hid, giving explicit directions for each letter placement. Continue by having participants change letters and have each word read aloud.“Put a letter a between h and d. What word did you make?” (had)“Change the h to s. What’s the word?” (sad)“Change the d to t. What’s the word?” (sat)“Change the s to h. What’s the word?” (hat)“Take away the h. What word is left?” (at)“Change the a to i. What’s the word?” (it)“Put an h before the i. What’s the word?” (hit)More explicit directions for the activity can be found in the book Making Sense of Phonics by Isabel L. Beck. (p )
51 A syllable is a unit of pronunciation containing a single vowel sound. Multisyllabic words are strings of syllables, made up of onsets and rimes.The presentation will now move from blending/word building to multisyllabic words. Knowing syllables is important for reading “big” words.
52 Skillful readers’ ability to read long words depends on their ability to break the words into syllables. This is true for familiar and unfamiliar words.AdamsTake a look at some familiar and some not-so-familiar words. Pay attention to the syllables. Does that knowledge help you read the word better?
53 amphibolite chlorofluorocarbons poikilothermic Have participants attempt to read the words chorally aloud. How did breaking words into syllables help you read the words?SNRPDP
54 Syllabication is the process of analyzing the patterns of vowels and consonants in a word to determine where the word breaks into syllables.Attending to syllables helps the reader decode “big” words.
55 Types of Syllables Closed Open r-controlled vowel team vowel-silent e consonant-leSix types of syllables. The next six slides will define and give examples of each type of syllable. It will be helpful to provide the participants with a copy of the completed chart. You may have them follow along as you discuss each type of syllable. There is a copy of the completed chart in the facilitators materials.
56 Types of Syllables closed A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic)Use the following six slides to discuss the types of syllables.
57 Types of Syllables closed A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic)openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)
58 Types of Syllables closed A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic)openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)
59 Types of Syllables closed A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic)openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)vowel teamA syllable containing two letters that together make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy)
60 Types of Syllables closed A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic)openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)vowel teamA syllable containing two letters that together make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy)vowel-silent eA syllable with a long vowel-consonant-silent e pattern. (shape, cube, slide, behave)
61 Types of Syllables closed A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic)openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)vowel teamA syllable containing two letters that together make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy)vowel-silent eA syllable with a long vowel-consonant-silent e pattern. (shape, cube, slide, behave)consonant-leAn unaccented final syllable containing a consonant plus –le. (apple, table)
62 What is the syllable type? scratchsharptreebesideharvestseekercandlenapkinclosedr-controlledvowel teamopen/silent er-controlled/closedvowel team/r-controlledclosed/consonant-leclosed/closedFind and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching pointsWrite Syllable Types next to the standardHave participants determine the type of syllable(s) each word contains. They may use the chart in their packet if necessary.
63 Syllable Patterns VCCV VCV VCCCV VV Four patterns of syllables. The next four slides will define and give examples of each syllable pattern. You may want to provide the participants with a copy of the syllable pattern chart. You can have them follow along as you discuss each syllable pattern. The syllable pattern chart is included in the facilitator materials.
64 PatternDivisionTypeDefinition/ExampleVCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them rab – bit
65 PatternDivisionTypeDefinition/ExampleVCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them rab – bitVCVV/CVVC/VOpenIf a word has one consonant between two vowels, divide the word before or after the consonant mu – sic, clos – et
66 PatternDivisionTypeDefinition/ExampleVCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them rab – bitVCVV/CVVC/VOpenIf a word has one consonant between two vowels, divide the word before or after the consonant mu – sic, clos – etVCCCVVC/CCVWords with three or more consonants in the medial position almost always contain a blend, and almost always have a closed first syllable.hun – dred, in – struct
67 PatternDivisionTypeDefinition/ExampleVCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them rab – bitVCVV/CVVC/VOpenIf a word has one consonant between two vowels, divide the word before or after the consonant mu – sic, clos – etVCCCVVC/CCVWords with three or more consonants in the medial position almost always contain a blend, and almost always have a closed first syllable.hun – dred, in – structVVV/VIf a word has two vowels together that make different sounds, divide between the two vowels ne – on
68 How do syllable patterns & types affect vowel sounds? monsterbasichumansilkycomamuscledenymomentbaskethumblesilentcompoundmusicdentistThese word pairs look similar but have different vowel sounds. Have participants work in small groups to determine the syllable patterns and types of syllables for each pair of words. First, determine the Syllable Patterns, then determine the Types of Syllables. Think about how the syllable patterns and types affect the vowel sound.
69 Reading: The Big Picture ComprehensionFluencyDecodingPhonological AwarenessWe have discussed how Phonics (decoding) fits into the bigger picture of reading. Now we will begin our discussion of Fluency.
70 Fluency ELA Kindergarten page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to reading emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.G NV Standard (translation document)Not addressed in Nevada State StandardsAllow participants to read the slide. These are the Common Core Standards for fluency in kindergarten.SNRPDP
71 Fluency ELA First Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder l. Move to reading with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.a. Read on-level text with purpose andunderstanding.b. Read on-level text orally with accuracy,appropriate rate, and expression.c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.G NV Standard (translation document)Reading aloud with a focus on prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate, with assistance.Allow participants to read the slide. These are the Common Core Standards for reading fluency in first grade. It includes reading aloud with a focus of prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate.SNRPDP
72 Fluency ELA Second Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to reading with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding.G NV Standard (translation document)Reading Aloud with a focus on prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate.Allow participants to read the slide. These are the Common Core Standards for reading fluency in second grade. It includes reading aloud with a focus of prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate.SNRPDP
73 Reading Fluency What is reading fluency? Why is fluency important? What instruction helps students develop fluency?How can we adapt instruction for students with special needs?How can we monitor students’ progress in fluency?Share the slide with participants. Explain that these questions will be addressed during this presentation. You may want to conduct a group discussion for the questions to determine participants knowledge about reading fluency.SNRPDP
74 Fluency Anticipation Guide 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning stages of reading.2. Fluency is independent of comprehension.3. Research has identified several methods to increase reading fluency.4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through independent reading.5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining the student’s rate of reading in words per minute (WPM).6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading.The next two slides contain an anticipation guide for fluency. Ask participants to number a blank piece of paper from Read each statement and ask participant to write a true or false answer for each statement. Have participants keep their answer available for a discussion at the end of the fluency presentation.
75 Fluency Anticipation Guide 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading.8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students experiencing difficulty in reading.9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their purposes for reading.10. Round-robin oral reading is an effective fluency activity.See notes for previous slide.
76 The Bridge from Phonics to Comprehension Reading FluencyThe Bridge from Phonics to ComprehensionFluency is one of three core elements of skilled reading; the other two are identifying words and constructing meaning. For students, fluency is the bridge or link between the ability to identify words quickly and the ability to comprehend text. It is an “important but often overlooked aspect of reading” (Strickland, Ganske, & Monroe, 2002, p. 120).SNRPDP
77 Four Components of Fluency comprehensionaccuracyspeedexpressionParticipants are going to learn about the four components of reading fluency by participating in a Kagan Cooperative Learning strategy called Rally Robin. Directions for Rally Robin appear on the next slide. For this activity, you will need to make copies of the four component cards for each pair of participants. A master copy of the component cards can be found in the facilitator materials.To begin the activity, ask participants to find a partner to work with. If there is an odd number of participants, three people may work together. Distribute sets of cards to the pairs of participants. Display the Rally Robin slide (next slide), go through the directions so that participants understand the activity.When participants understand the procedure, display the next slide to show the components assigned to Partner A and Partner B.After pairs have completed the Rally Robin activity, clarify any questions.SNRPDP
78 Rally Coach1. Partner A reads the first component and explains it to Partner B.2. Partner B watches and listens, asks questions if necessary, and praises.3. Partner B reads the next component and explains it to Partner A.4. Partner A watches and listens, asks questions if necessary, and praises.5. Repeat starting at Step #1. Continue until the 4 components have been discussed.See previous directions.
79 Rally RobinPartner A Comprehension Partner B Accuracy Partner A Speed (Automaticity) Partner B ExpressionSee previous directions.SNRPDP
80 Fluency Fluency: reading quickly, accurately, and with expression Combines rate and accuracyRequires automaticityIncludes reading with prosodyRate + Accuracy = FluencyComprehensionUse this slide as a review to the Rally Robin activity that the participants have just completed. Go through each statement. Be sure to emphasize that the end goal is comprehension. Fluency is the bridge between word recognition and comprehension.SNRPDP
81 Fluent Reading What does fluent reading sound like? Fluent reading flows. It sounds smooth,with natural pauses.Select one of your favorite pieces of writing from literature, speeches, poetry, etc. that you can read aloud to demonstrate reading fluency.SNRPDP
82 Why Is Reading Fluency Important “Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition andcomprehension.”—National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), , p. 22Fluent readers are able to focus their attention on understanding text.Because non-fluent readers focus much of their attention on figuring out words, they have less attention to devote to comprehension.Share bullets on the slide with the participants.SNRPDP
83 What Students Need To Learn How to decode words (in isolation and inconnected text)How to automatically recognize words(accurately and quickly with little attentionor effort)How to increase speed (or rate) of readingwhile maintaining accuracyShare slide with participants. Clarify statement if necessary.SNRPDP
84 <1 in 10 words is difficult 90%–94% accuracy FRUSTRATIONAL-LEVEL “Typical” first graders read 60 wpm. “Typical” second graders read 70 wpm.INDEPENDENT-LEVEL<1 in 20 words is difficult %–100% accuracyINSTRUCTIONAL-LEVEL<1 in 10 words is difficult %–94% accuracyFRUSTRATIONAL-LEVELdifficulty with >1 in 10 words <90% accuracyShare slide with participants. Clarify statement if necessary.SNRPDP
85 Steps to Providing Fluency Instruction Measure students’ fluencySet fluency goals for individual studentsSelect appropriate texts for fluency-building instructionModel fluent readingProvide repeated reading opportunities with corrected feedbackMonitor student progressShare slide with participants. Clarify statement if necessary.SNRPDP
86 Fluency-Building Practices Teacher Read AloudsModels the proper phrasing and speed of fluent readingReaders TheatreInvolves small groups of students rehearsing and reading a playRepeated ReadingHelps monitor the student’s growth in fluencyBullet #1: Being read to is widely considered to be a critical factor in becoming a successful reader (Routman, 2000). Reading aloud to students is a critical building block for fluency.Bullet #2: Readers Theatre is a viable vehicle for oral reading fluency (Keehn, 2003) and a genuine way to promote repeated readings (Rasinski, 2000).Bullet #3: Repeated Reading is a motivational strategy that engages students in repeated readings of text. A reading progress chart helps monitor the student’s growth in fluency. Engaging students in repeated readings of text “is particularly effective in fostering more fluent reading” for students “struggling to develop proficient reading strategies” (Allington, 2001, p. 73).SNRPDP
87 More Fluency-Building Practices Choral readingActively involves students as they read in unisonChunkingInvolves reading phrases, clauses, and sentences by parsing, or dividing text into chunksFind and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching pointsWrite activity names next to the standardBullet #1: Choral reading involves students reading a text in unison. It helps build confidence and extend enjoyment of the reading process. Repeated practice of choral reading materials helps develop reading competence, nurtures collaboration among students, and helps studentsfeel successful as readers.Bullet #2: One aspect of fluency involves clustering reading into appropriate phrases, rather than reading word by word. Ransinski (1990) found that the practice of marking phrase boundaries can lead to improved oral reading performance and comprehension.SNRPDP
88 Consider Diversity: English Language Learners Fluency practice for English language learners involves:Listening to modelsRepeated readingsChoral readingPartner readingShare slide with participants. Clarify statement if necessary.The first three bullets have been explained in previous slides.Bullet #4: Paired Reading was originally developed for use by parents and their children. The tutor, a more capable reader, supports the tutee in reading materials that are generally more difficult than those read independently. In addition to supplying support in word recognition, the tutot also plays a major role in extending understanding of the text through discussion and questioning.SNRPDP
89 Students with Special Needs Students with disabilities usually benefit from:Repeated reading practice, especially in expository or informational textsMore time on taskPaired reading and rereadingAdditional feedback and progress monitoringShare slide with participant. Clarify if necessary.SNRPDP
90 Monitoring Fluency Progress Students:Independently read unpracticed text to the teacher and graph their wpmPractice rereading the same text several timesIndependently read the text again to the teacherGraph score in a different colorThese are some suggestions for monitoring fluency progress.Determine the number of words the student needs to improve each week to reach an end-of-year goal.Set a goal for the student to reach by the middle of the year.Ask participants to share tools that they use to monitor fluency progress.SNRPDP
91 Fluency Anticipation Guide 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning stages of reading. False2. Fluency is independent of comprehension. False3. Research has identified several methods to increase reading fluency. True4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through independent reading. False5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining the student’s rate of reading in words per minute (WPM). True6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading. TrueThe next two slides contain the answers for the anticipation guide for fluency that the participants complete at the beginning of the presentation. Ask participants to check their answers using the slides. Briefly discuss each answer.
92 Fluency Anticipation Guide 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading. False8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students experiencing difficulty in reading. False9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their purposes for reading. True10. Round-robin oral reading is an effective fluency activity. FalseSee notes for previous slide.
93 Remember . . . Fluency is increased when students: Develop instant, efficient word recognition (automaticity)Practice repeated reading of textsReceive feedback and guidance from othersShare slide as a closing review.SNRPDP
94 Final ThoughtsWhat “squared” (agreed) with something you already knew about the CCSS?What about the CCSS did you see from a new “angle?”What was new or created a new “circle” of knowledge for you when looking at the Translation Guide?Idea from CORE, Instructor Toolkit, 2006Take a moment to reflect on your experience. Jot down your thoughts with this “Geometric Review” and share with a partner, table group, or whole group (depending on time).In what “new direction” might you go when school starts? What action will you take when implementing the CCSS?SNRPDP