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Common Core State Standards Phonics and Word Recognition Fluency Grades K-2 SNRPDP.

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1 Common Core State Standards Phonics and Word Recognition Fluency Grades K-2 SNRPDP

2 Foundational Skills Pages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder They are not an end in and of themselves. They are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program. They are necessary to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. SNRPDP

3 Foundational Skills Pages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder Good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. Teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know. Each skill need not to be a separate focus of instruction. Often several skills can be addressed by a single rich task. SNRPDP

4 Phonics and Word Recognition ELA Kindergarten page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sound for each consonant. b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. c. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does). d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. SNRPDP  NV Standard (translation document) Identifying high frequency words to build fluency and comprehension; identifying letter-sound relationships; decoding words using letter/sound relationships; and decoding words in text through short/long vowels.

5 Phonics and Recognition ELA First Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder l. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and words analysis skills in decoding words. a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs. b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. e. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. f. Read words with inflectional endings. g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. SNRPDP  NV Standard (translation document) Decoding words in text through short and long vowels, and digraphs; decoding words through structural analysis using syllables, with assistance.

6 Phonics and Word Recognition ELA Second Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words. b. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. c. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels. d. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. e. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences. f. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. SNRPDP  NV Standard (translation document) Decoding words in text through phonics (long vowel spelling patterns) and structural analysis (prefixes and suffixes)

7 Reading: The Big Picture Comprehension Fluency Decoding Phonological Awareness

8 Beginning Reading… Thirty years of research suggests that the most effective beginning reading programs are those that provide systematic, explicit phonics instruction and also focus on comprehension. (Adams, 1990; Chall, 1967, 1987; Pressley, 1998)

9 Reading = automatic accurate quick effortless automatic + strategic knowledgeable flexible persistent Decoding X Comprehension

10 Decoding Comprehension Expert Reader Novice Reader Comprehension Decoding

11 How important is word identification instruction? Critically important in that many students have difficulty “breaking the code” without explicit instruction. If lack of success continues through primary grades, students continue in a “negative spiral” (Stanovich 1986).

12 is p.a. not p.a. Matthew Effects (Stanovich, 1986) good decoding good comprehension likes to read poor decoding reads more poor comprehension doesn’t like to read reads less

13 When a word comes in Proficient Struggler spreading activation automatic subconscious conscious process R = D X C

14 My decoding is so automatic, I have time to work on understanding Rules/ Analogies Background Knowledge Mental Dictionary (words you know in your head) Word recognition Proficient

15 Struggler My decoding is so slow, that I have to rely on what the word means, rather than what it actually says. syntax semantic lexical orthographic....

16 Word Identification Goal: Novice readers need to be able to: identify most words automatically, that is, at sight. decode unfamiliar words by analogy (using “chunks” and “chunks with meaning” from words they know automatically). Check to see if the word they generated makes sense and adjust, if necessary.

17 “Phonics instruction includes the teaching of letter-sound correspondences, the pronunciations of spelling patterns, and decoding skills (i.e. how to apply this phonics knowledge to the reading and spelling of unknown words, including how to blend the sounds together).” Dr. Timothy Shanahan, 2006 IRA President 06-07

18 Phonics Instructional Approaches Analogy Phonics Analytic Phonics Embedded Phonics Phonics through Spelling Synthetic Phonics NRP, 2000

19 National Reading Panel Phonics Instruction (pp. 8-11) Types Questions Findings *!?*!? New Interesting Questions

20 Discussion What approach do you use to teach phonics? How often do you teach phonics? In relation to phonics, what are you doing to meet the needs of your struggling readers?

21 English as it is Spelled This year, I firmly made a vow, I’m going to learn to spell. I’ve studied phonics very hard. Results will surely tell. “A little bird sat on a bough, And underneath stood a cough.” That doesn’t look just right somehow. I guess I should have spelled ‘cou’. I thought I heard a distant cough But when I listened, it shut ‘ough’. Oh dear, I think my spelling’s ‘auf’. I guess I meant I heard a ‘coff’. To bake some pizza, take some dough And let it rise, but very ‘slough’. That doesn’t look just right, I know. I guess on that I stubbed my ‘tow’. My father says down in the ‘slough’ The very largest soybeans ‘grough’. Perhaps he means the obvious ‘cloo’ To better crops, is soil that’s ‘nue’ Cheap meat is often very tough. We seldom like to eat the ‘stough’. I’m all confused; this spelling’s ‘ruff’. I guess I’ve studied long ‘enuph’.

22 IRA Position Statement Three basic principles regarding phonics and the teaching of reading: The teaching of phonics is an important aspect of beginning reading instruction. Classroom teachers in the primary grades do value and do teach phonics as part of their reading program. Phonics instruction, to be effective in promoting independence in reading, must be embedded in the context of a total reading/language arts program.

23 Phonics Instruction: Beyond the Basics Phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and regular of letter-to-sound relationships…once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of letter- sound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read. —Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, and Wilkinson (1985)

24 Effective Teaching “…the most effective first-grade teachers…taught decoding skills explicitly and provided their students with many opportunities to engage in authentic reading.” “…it is what teachers do to promote application of phonics knowledge during the reading of connected text that matters most.” Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, and Hampston (1998)

25 Reading for Meaning “Children in classrooms that taught [phonics] skills in context did better than children in classrooms where skills were taught out of context on every measure of reading achievement including word analysis (phonics), fluency, comprehension, and spelling.” Cantrell (1999)

26 The Alphabetic Principle --The sounds within spoken words are represented in writing by letters, and that those letters represent the sounds rather consistently.

27 Why do we teach the sounds of letters? So they can be blended together to make words

28 Letter-Sound Sequence a b c d

29 Letter Sound Types Continuous Sounds Stop Sounds Voiced Sounds Unvoiced Sounds

30 Continuous Sounds “Stretch-able” sounds--/m/ Can be held out or elongated without distortion Easiest sounds for children to produce and blend Use first

31 Stop Sounds “Quick” sounds--/b/ Cannot be held out or elongated without distortion Voiced stop sounds are impossible to produce in isolation Avoid adding “uh” or “schwa” sound after

32 Voiced Sounds “Voice” occurs when the vocal folds (aka vocal cords) vibrate. This vibration makes the sound more audible. The vibration may also contribute to sound distortion, especially in voiced stop consonants--/b/

33 Unvoiced Sounds Produced without vocal fold vibration Air moves past still vocal folds during an unvoiced sound Unvoiced stop consonants are easier to blend--/p/

34 Continuous Stop Unvoiced Voiced a e i o u b c dgj hpt fs lmnrvw yz qx Find and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching points Write Letter-Sound Sequence next to the standard

35 Letter Sounds Teaching approximations of sounds Systematic: logical sequence – Start with the easiest and move to more difficult: Consonant—Voiced Continuous—Unvoiced Stop—Unvoiced Stop—Voiced

36 Decoding “…the purpose of teaching phonics… is to be able to decode words. Given this purpose, it follows that very early in the instructional sequence children should experience decoding some words.”

37 Confusions: Visual Similarities b and d b and p q and p n and m n, h and m v and w n and r

38 Confusions: Auditory Similarities f and v t and d b and d b and t k and g m and n i and e o and u ch and sh

39 “We can list the phonemes but the way they actually work in words is not quite as straight forward.” —Louisa Moats

40 BREAK

41 Blending Teaching Children How Words Work “Phonics instruction will be of limited value until a child can blend the component sounds in words.” Blevins, 1998

42 Blending Methods Final Blending (sound-by-sound) Successive Blending (whole word) This instruction is critical to enabling children to generalize sound-spelling relationships to new words.

43 Final Blending Sound-by Sound Blending The sound of each spelling is stated and stored. The whole word isn’t blended until all the sounds in the word have been identified and pronounced. sat /s/  /a/  /sa/  /t/  /sat/

44 Final Blending Allows the teacher to determine where a student is having difficulty as he or she attempts to blend unfamiliar words. Helps the teacher determine which students lack the ability to orally string together sounds.

45 Successive Blending Whole-Word or Continuous Blending Students stretch out, or hold, each sound in a word without pausing between the sounds. sat ssssaaaat  ssaat  sat

46 “The goal of teaching phonics is to develop students’ ability to read connected text independently.” Adams, 1990

47 Variety of Text Decodable (controlled) text Predictable/patterned text Trade books

48 Criteria for controlled/decodable text Comprehensible – Natural sounding—Words must be derived from children’s speaking/listening vocabularies Instructive – Strong connection between instruction and text Interesting – Engaging—revisited often to develop fluency and increase reading rate.

49 Word Building Supports decoding and word recognition by giving students opportunities consistently to experience and discriminate the effects on a word of changing one letter. An opportunity to play with sounds and spelling

50 a d h i s t Word Building Practice Find and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching points Write Word Building Practice next to the standard

51 A syllable is a unit of pronunciation containing a single vowel sound. Multisyllabic words are strings of syllables, made up of onsets and rimes.

52 Skillful readers’ ability to read long words depends on their ability to break the words into syllables. This is true for familiar and unfamiliar words. Adams

53 amphibolite chlorofluorocarbons poikilothermic SNRPDP

54 Syllabication is the process of analyzing the patterns of vowels and consonants in a word to determine where the word breaks into syllables.

55 Types of Syllables Closed Open r-controlled vowel team vowel-silent e consonant-le

56 Types of Syllables closedA syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic)

57 Types of Syllables closedA syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic) openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)

58 Types of Syllables closedA syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic) openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto) r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)

59 Types of Syllables closedA syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic) openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto) r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper) vowel teamA syllable containing two letters that together make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy)

60 Types of Syllables closedA syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic) openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto) r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper) vowel teamA syllable containing two letters that together make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy) vowel-silent eA syllable with a long vowel-consonant-silent e pattern. (shape, cube, slide, behave)

61 Types of Syllables closedA syllable in which a single vowel is followed by a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short. (cat, rabbit, picnic) openA syllable ending with a single vowel. The vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto) r-controlledA syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper) vowel teamA syllable containing two letters that together make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy) vowel-silent eA syllable with a long vowel-consonant-silent e pattern. (shape, cube, slide, behave) consonant-leAn unaccented final syllable containing a consonant plus –le. (apple, table)

62 What is the syllable type? scratch sharp tree beside harvest seeker candle napkin closed r-controlled vowel team open/silent e r-controlled/closed vowel team/r-controlled closed/consonant-le closed/closed Find and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching points Write Syllable Types next to the standard

63 Syllable Patterns VCCV VCV VCCCV VV

64 PatternDivisionType Definition/Example VCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them. rab – bit

65 PatternDivisionType Definition/Example VCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them. rab – bit VCVV/CV VC/V Open Closed If a word has one consonant between two vowels, divide the word before or after the consonant. mu – sic, clos – et

66 PatternDivisionType Definition/Example VCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them. rab – bit VCVV/CV VC/V Open Closed If a word has one consonant between two vowels, divide the word before or after the consonant. mu – sic, clos – et VCCCVVC/CCVClosedWords with three or more consonants in the medial position almost always contain a blend, and almost always have a closed first syllable. hun – dred, in – struct

67 PatternDivisionType Definition/Example VCCVVC/CVClosedIf a word has two consonants in the middle, divide between them. rab – bit VCVV/CV VC/V Open Closed If a word has one consonant between two vowels, divide the word before or after the consonant. mu – sic, clos – et VCCCVVC/CCVClosedWords with three or more consonants in the medial position almost always contain a blend, and almost always have a closed first syllable. hun – dred, in – struct VVV/VOpenIf a word has two vowels together that make different sounds, divide between the two vowels. ne – on

68 How do syllable patterns & types affect vowel sounds? monster basic human silky coma muscle deny moment basket humble silent compound music dentist

69 Reading: The Big Picture Comprehension Fluency Decoding Phonological Awareness

70 Fluency ELA Kindergarten page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to reading emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. SNRPDP  NV Standard (translation document) Not addressed in Nevada State Standards

71 Fluency ELA First Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder l. Move to reading with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. b. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. SNRPDP  NV Standard (translation document) Reading aloud with a focus on prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate, with assistance.

72 Fluency ELA Second Grade page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder 1. Move to reading with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression. c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding. SNRPDP  NV Standard (translation document) Reading Aloud with a focus on prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate.

73 Reading Fluency What is reading fluency? Why is fluency important? What instruction helps students develop fluency? How can we adapt instruction for students with special needs? How can we monitor students’ progress in fluency? SNRPDP

74 Fluency Anticipation Guide 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning stages of reading. 2. Fluency is independent of comprehension. 3. Research has identified several methods to increase reading fluency. 4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through independent reading. 5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining the student’s rate of reading in words per minute (WPM). 6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading.

75 Fluency Anticipation Guide 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading. 8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students experiencing difficulty in reading. 9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their purposes for reading. 10. Round-robin oral reading is an effective fluency activity.

76 Reading Fluency The Bridge from Phonics to Comprehension SNRPDP

77 Four Components of Fluency 1.comprehension 2.accuracy 3.speed 4.expression SNRPDP

78 Rally Coach 1. Partner A reads the first component and explains it to Partner B. 2. Partner B watches and listens, asks questions if necessary, and praises. 3. Partner B reads the next component and explains it to Partner A. 4. Partner A watches and listens, asks questions if necessary, and praises. 5. Repeat starting at Step #1. Continue until the 4 components have been discussed.

79 Rally Robin Partner A Comprehension Partner B Accuracy Partner A Speed (Automaticity) Partner B Expression SNRPDP

80 Fluency Fluency: reading quickly, accurately, and with expression Combines rate and accuracy Requires automaticity Includes reading with prosody Rate + Accuracy = Fluency Comprehension SNRPDP

81 Fluent Reading What does fluent reading sound like? Fluent reading flows. It sounds smooth, with natural pauses. SNRPDP

82 Why Is Reading Fluency Important “Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.” —National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), 2001, p. 22 Fluent readers are able to focus their attention on understanding text. Because non-fluent readers focus much of their attention on figuring out words, they have less attention to devote to comprehension. SNRPDP

83 What Students Need To Learn How to decode words (in isolation and in connected text) How to automatically recognize words (accurately and quickly with little attention or effort) How to increase speed (or rate) of reading while maintaining accuracy SNRPDP

84 “Typical” first graders read 60 wpm. “Typical” second graders read 70 wpm. INDEPENDENT-LEVEL <1 in 20 words is difficult 95%–100% accuracy INSTRUCTIONAL-LEVEL <1 in 10 words is difficult 90%–94% accuracy FRUSTRATIONAL-LEVEL difficulty with >1 in 10 words <90% accuracy SNRPDP

85 Steps to Providing Fluency Instruction Measure students’ fluency Set fluency goals for individual students Select appropriate texts for fluency-building instruction Model fluent reading Provide repeated reading opportunities with corrected feedback Monitor student progress SNRPDP

86 Fluency-Building Practices Teacher Read Alouds – Models the proper phrasing and speed of fluent reading Readers Theatre – Involves small groups of students rehearsing and reading a play Repeated Reading – Helps monitor the student’s growth in fluency SNRPDP

87 More Fluency-Building Practices Choral readin g – Actively involves students as they read in unison Chunking – Involves reading phrases, clauses, and sentences by parsing, or dividing text into chunks SNRPDP Find and highlight the Common Core State Standard(s) that match these teaching points Write activity names next to the standard

88 Consider Diversity: English Language Learners Fluency practice for English language learners involves: – Listening to models – Repeated readings – Choral reading – Partner reading SNRPDP

89 Students with Special Needs Students with disabilities usually benefit from: – Repeated reading practice, especially in expository or informational texts – More time on task – Paired reading and rereading – Additional feedback and progress monitoring SNRPDP

90 Monitoring Fluency Progress Students: – Independently read unpracticed text to the teacher and graph their wpm – Practice rereading the same text several times – Independently read the text again to the teacher – Graph score in a different color SNRPDP

91 Fluency Anticipation Guide 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning stages of reading. False 2. Fluency is independent of comprehension. False 3. Research has identified several methods to increase reading fluency. True 4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through independent reading. False 5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining the student’s rate of reading in words per minute (WPM). True 6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading. True

92 Fluency Anticipation Guide 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading. False 8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students experiencing difficulty in reading. False 9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their purposes for reading. True 10. Round-robin oral reading is an effective fluency activity. False

93 Remember... Fluency is increased when students: – Develop instant, efficient word recognition (automaticity) – Practice repeated reading of texts – Receive feedback and guidance from others SNRPDP

94 What “squared” (agreed) with something you already knew about the CCSS? What about the CCSS did you see from a new “angle?” What was new or created a new “circle” of knowledge for you when looking at the Translation Guide? In what “new direction” might you go when school starts? What action will you take when implementing the CCSS?


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