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Glycolipids By Amr S. Moustafa, M.D.; Ph.D.
Outlines Overview and Functions Structure and Types Synthesis and Degradation Sphingolipidosis
Overview Essential component of membranes Abundant in nervous tissue Extra-nervous tissue: e.g., Receptors for Cholera toxins Diphtheria toxins Viruses
Regulation of growth & development Very antigenic: Blood group antigen Embryonic antigen Tumor antigen Cell transformation Overview CONT’D
Sphingolipids: Structure and Types Ceramide = Sphingosine + fatty acid Sphingomyelin = Ceramide + Phosphorylcholine Cerebrosides = Ceramide + Monosaccharides Gangliosides = Ceramide oligosaccharides + NANA Globoosides = Ceramide + Oligosaccharides
Neutral Glycosphingolipids Globosides = Ceramide Oilgosaccharides Cerebrosides = Ceramide monosaccharides Galactocerbrosides = Ceramide + Galactose Glucocerbrosides = Ceramide + Glucose Lactosylceramide = Cer-Glc-Gal Forssman antigen = Cer-Glc-(Gal) 2 -(GalNac) 2
Acidic Acidic Glycosphingolipids Negatively charged at physiological pH 1.Gangliosides: Most complex Ganglion cells Ceramide oligosaccharides + NANA 2. Sulfatides: Nerve tissue and kidneys Cerbrosides + Sulfated Gal
Gangliosides G M2
Sulfate donor: PAPS
Sulfatides Galactocerbroside 3-sulfate
Sphingolipids’ Degradation Lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes Last on, First off Defective: Total or partial Sphingolipidosis
Synthesis (Normal); Degradation (Defective) Substrate accumulates in organs Progressive, early death Phenotypic and genotypic variability Autosomal recessive, Except Fabry (X-linked) Rare, Except Ashkenazi Jewish
Sphingolipidosis Measure enzyme activity Cultured fibroblasts or peripheral leukocytes Cultured amniocytes (prenatal) Histologic examination DNA analysis Replacement Therapy: Recombinant human enzyme Bone marrow transplantation: Gaucher disease Diagnosis: Treatment: CONT’D
Niemann - Pick Disease
Prostaglandins Eicosanoids (20 C): Prostaglandins (PG) Thromboxanes (TX) Leukotrienes (LT) PG Vs Hormones: All cells Local acting & Not stored Short half-life Plasma membrane & nuclear receptors
Prostaglandin’S Synthesis Dietary precursor: Linoleic acid 18:2 (9, 12) Immediate precursor: Arachidonic acid 20:4 (5, 8,11,14) Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase: Microsomal enzyme Two Catalytic activities: Fatty acid cyclooxygenase (COX), 2 O 2 Peroxidase (GSH) Parent Prostaglandin : PGH 2
Prostaglandin’S Synthesis CONT’D
COX Isoenzymes COX-1: Constitutive Most tissues Important for: Integrity of gastric mucosa Renal homeostasis Platelet aggregation
COX Isoenzymes COX-2 Inducible Limited No. of tissues Stimulus: Products of inflammatory & immune cells Mediates: Inflammatory response: Pain, Redness & Swelling Fever of infection CONT’D
COX Inhibitors Cortisol (Steroid): Selective COX-2 (-) Phospholipase A2 (-) NSAIDS: Both COX-1 and –2 (-) Side effects: Gastric, Renal & Clotting Low-dose Asprin therapy Celecoxib: Selective COX-2 (-)
Complex Lipid Metabolism UNIT III: Lipid Metabolism.
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EICOSANOIDS (,, ) EICOSANOIDS (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes)
COMPLEX LIPID METABOLISM. PHOSPHOLIPIDS Phospholipids are: –major constituents of all cell membranes –components of bile –anchor some proteins in membranes.
Stearic acid (C18) Oleic acid fatty acids ALA Essential 3.
Biological Lipids and Bilayers Lipids are nearly insoluble in Water –Form Biological membranes –Regulate solute flow and signalling –Provide concentrated.
Complex Lipid Metabolism. Phospholipids (PL) PL are composed of an alcohol (ethanolamine, serine, choline, inositol) attached by a phosphodiester bridge.
Fats. Fatty Acid Fatty acids exist “free” in the body Also found as fatty acyl esters such as triacylglycerol’s. Low levels of free fatty acids occur.
Sphingolipids C-C-C Pseudo glycerol N CH 3 CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC HO OH OPO 3 -CH 2 CH 2 N(CH 3 ) 3 Oligosaccharides Glycolipids Long Chain fatty.
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COO - CH 2 COO - CH 2 C COO - O AcCoA COO - CH 2 OC HCOO - CH 2 CH 3 C-SCoA O COO - CH 2 C COO - O CH 2 HC COO - OH COO - CH 3 C O CO2CO2 COO - CH 2 C.
PGH HPETE Prostaglandins, cyclo-oxygenase and the GIT.
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