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Review of (UPFLF) Plasma Focus Numerical Experiments S Lee 1,2,3 & H Saw 1,2 1 INTI International University, Nilai, Malaysia 2 Institute for Plasma Focus.

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Presentation on theme: "Review of (UPFLF) Plasma Focus Numerical Experiments S Lee 1,2,3 & H Saw 1,2 1 INTI International University, Nilai, Malaysia 2 Institute for Plasma Focus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review of (UPFLF) Plasma Focus Numerical Experiments S Lee 1,2,3 & H Saw 1,2 1 INTI International University, Nilai, Malaysia 2 Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, Melbourne, Australia 3 University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia International Workshop on Plasma Science and Applications, 4 & 5 October 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

2 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Plasma Focus Numerical Experiments- Outline of Lecture Development, usage and results Basis and philosophy Reference for Diagnostics Insights and frontiers Continuing development- Ion beam modelling

3 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw UNU ICTP PFF- 3 kJ Plasma Focus Designed for International Collaboration within AAAPT Background

4 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Design of the UNU/ICTP PFF- 3kJ Plasma Focus System Background

5 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw UNU/ICTP PFF- placed at ICTP, 1988 Background Network: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Pakistan, India, Egypt, Similar machines with designs based on or upgraded: Zimbabwe, Syria, USA, Bulgaria, Iran

6 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw The Code Intro code From beginning of that program it was realized that the laboratory work should be complemented by computer simulation. A 2-phase model was developed in 1983 We are continually developing the model to its present form It now includes thermodynamics data so the code can be operated in H 2, D 2, D-T, N 2, O 2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe. We have used it to simulate a wide range of plasma focus devices from the sub-kJ PF400 (Chile), the small 3kJ UNU/ICTP PFF (Network countries), the NX2 3kJ Hi Rep focus (Singapore), medium size tens of kJ DPF78 & Poseidon (Germany) to the MJ PF1000, the largest in the world. An Iranian Group has modified the model, calling it the Lee model, to simulate Filippov type plasma focus.

7 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Review of UPFLF Plasma Focus Numerical Experiments Intro code The code 10 couples the electrical circuit with PF dynamics, thermodynamics and radiation. Using standard circuit equations and Newtonian equations of motion adapted for the plasma focus: the code is consistent in (a) energy, (b) charge and (c) mass.

8 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Development of the code Intro code It was described in and used in the design and interpretation of experiments An improved 5-phase code incorporating finite small disturbance speed 16, radiation and radiation-coupled dynamics was used 17-19, It was web-published 20 in 2000 and Plasma self- absorption was included 20 in 2007

9 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Usage Intro code It has been used extensively as a complementary facility in several machines, for example: UNU/ICTP PFF 12,14,15,17-19, NX2 19,22, NX1 19, DENA 23, AECS It has also been used in other machines for design and interpretation including Chile’s sub-kJ PF and other machines 24, Mexico’s FNII 25 and the Argentinian UBA hard x-ray source 26. More recently KSU PF (US), NX3 (Singapore), FoFu I (US) and several Iranian machines APF, Tehran U, AZAD U

10 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Information derived Intro code Information computed includes axial and radial dynamics 11,17-23, pinch properties SXR emission characteristics and yield 17-19, 22, 27-33, design of machines 10,12,24,26, optimization of machines 10,22, 24,30 and adaptation to Filippov-type DENA 23. Speed-enhanced PF 17 was facilitated.

11 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Information Derived Intro code Scaling Properties; Constancy of energy density (per unit mass) across range of machines 14 Hence same temperature and density 14 Constancy of drive current density I/a relating to the speed factor 14 (I/a)/  0.5 Scaling of pinch dimensions & lifetime 14 with anode radius ‘a’: pinch radius ratio r p /a =constant pinch length ratio z p /a=constant pinch duration ratio t p /a=constant

12 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Recent development and Insights Intro code PF neutron yield calculations 34 Current & neutron yield limitations 35 with reducing L 0 Wide-ranging neutron scaling laws Wide-ranging soft x-ray scaling laws in various gases Neutron saturation 36,37 - cause and Global Scaling Law Radiative collapse 38 Current-stepped PF 39 Extraction of diagnostic data 33,40-42 Anomalous resistance data 43,44 from current signals Benchmarks for Ion Beams- scaling with E 0.

13 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Philosophy of our Modelling Philosophy Experimental based Utility prioritised To cover the whole process- from lift-off, to axial, to all the radial sub-phases; and recently to post-focussed phase which is important for advanced materials deposition and damage simulation.

14 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Priority of Basis Philosophy Correct choice of Circuit equations coupled to equations of motion ensures: Energy consistent for the total process and each part of the process Charge consistent Mass consistent Fitting computed current waveform to measured current waveform ensures: Connected to the reality of experiments

15 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Priority of Results Philosophy Applicable to all PF machines, existing and hypothetical Current Waveform accuracy Dynamics in agreement with experiments Consistency of Energy distribution Realistic Yields of neutrons, SXR, other radiations; Ions and Plasma Stream (latest-Benchmarks); in conformity with experiments Widest Scaling of the yields Insightful definition of scaling properties Design of new devices; e.g. Hi V & Current-Step Design new experiments-Radiative cooling & collapse

16 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Philosophy, modelling, results & applications of the Lee Model code Philosophy

17 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Numerical Experiments Philosophy Range of activities using the code is so wide Not theoretical Not simulation The correct description is: Numerical Experiments

18 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw UPFLF-The Code Control Panel- configured for PF1000 Demo L 0 nH C 0  F b cm a cm z 0 r 0 m  f m f c f mr f cr V 0 P 0 M.W. A At/Molecular

19 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw PF1000, ICDMP Poland, the biggest plasma focus in the world Firing the PF1000 DemoPF1000

20 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Fitting: 1. L 0 fitted from current rise profile 2. Adjust model parameters (mass and current factors f m, f c, f mr, f cr ) until computed current waveform matches measured current waveform (sequential processes shown below) Demo

21 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw PF1000 fitted results Demo

22 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw PF1000: Y n Focus & Pinch Properties as functions of Pressure Demo

23 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Plasma Focus- Numerical Experiments leading Technology Insights Numerical Experiments- For any problem, plan matrix, perform experiments, get results- sometimes surprising, leading to new insights In this way, the Numerical Experiments have pointed the way for technology to follow

24 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw NE showing the way for experiments and technology Insights PF1000 (largest PF in world): 1997 was planning to reduce static inductance so as to increase current and neutron yield Y n. They published their L 0 as 20 nH Using their published current waveform and parameters we showed a. their L 0 =33 nH b. their L 0 was already at optimum c. that lowering their L 0 would be a waste of effort and resources

25 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Results from Numerical Experiments with PF For decreasing L 0 - from 100 nH to 5 nH Insights 1 As L 0 was reduced from 100 to 35 nH - As expected –I peak increased from 1.66 to 3.5 MA –I pinch also increased, from 0.96 to 1.05 MA Further reduction from 35 to 5 nH –I peak continue to increase from 3.5 to 4.4 MA –I pinch decreasing slightly to - Unexpected  1.03 MA at 20 nH,  1.0 MA at10 nH, and  0.97 MA at 5 nH. Y n also had a maximum value of 3.2x10 11 at 35 nH.

26 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Pinch Current Limitation Effect - Insights 1  L 0 decreases  higher I peak  bigger a  longer z p  bigger L p  L 0 decreases  shorter rise time  shorter z o  smaller L a L 0 decreases, I pinch /I peak decreases

27 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Pinch Current Limitation Effect Insights 1 L 0 decreases, L-C interaction time of capacitor decreases L 0 decreases, duration of current drop increases due to bigger a  Capacitor bank is more and more coupled to the inductive energy transfer 

28 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Pinch Current Limitation Effect Insights 1 A combination of two complex effects –Interplay of various inductances –Increasing coupling of C 0 to the inductive energetic processes as L 0 is reduced Leads to this Limitation Effect Two basic circuit rules: lead to such complex interplay of factors which was not foreseen; revealed only by extensive numerical experiments

29 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Neutron yield scaling laws and neutron saturation problem Insights 2 One of most exciting properties of plasma focus is Early experiments show: Y n ~E 0 2 Prospect was raised in those early research years that, breakeven could be attained at several tens of MJ. However quickly shown that as E 0 approaches 1 MJ, a neutron saturation effect was observed; Y n does not increase as much as expected, as E 0 was progressively raised towards 1 MJ. Question: Is there a fundamental reason for Y n

30 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Global Scaling Law Insights 2 Scaling deterioration observed in numerical experiments (small black crosses) compared to measurements on various machines (larger coloured crosses) Neutron ‘saturation’ is more aptly portrayed as a scaling deterioration- Conclusion of IPFS-INTI UC research S Lee & S H Saw, J Fusion Energy, (2008) S Lee, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 50 (2008) S H Saw & S Lee.. Nuclear & Renewable Energy Sources Ankara, Turkey, 28 & 29 Sepr S Lee Appl Phys Lett 95, (2009) Cause: Due to constant dynamic resistance relative to decreasing generator impedance

31 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Scaling for large Plasma Focus Scaling 1 Targets: 1.IFMIF (International fusion materials irradiation facility)-level fusion wall materials testing (a major test facility for the international programme to build a fusion reactor)- essentially an ion accelerator

32 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Fusion Wall materials testing at the mid-level of IFMIF: D-T neutrons per shot, 1 Hz, 1 year for dpa- Gribkov Scaling 1 IPFS numerical Experiments:

33 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Possible PF configuration: Fast capacitor bank 10x PF1000- Fully modelled- 1.5x10 15 D-T neutrons per shot Scaling 1 Operating Parameters: 35kV, 14 Torr D-T Bank Parameters: L 0 =33.5nH, C 0 =13320uF, r 0 =0.19m  E 0 =8.2 MJ Tube Parameters: b=35.1 cm, a=25.3 cm z 0 =220cm I peak =7.3 MA, I pinch =3.0 MA Model parameters 0.13, 0.65, 0.35, 0.65

34 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Ongoing IPFS numerical experiments of Multi-MJ Plasma Focus Scaling 1

35 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw 50 kV modelled- 1.2x10 15 D-T neutrons per shot Scaling 1 Operating Parameters: 50kV, 40 Torr D-T Bank Parameters: L 0 =33.5nH, C 0 =2000uF, r 0 =0.45m  E 0 =2.5 MJ Tube Parameters: b=20.9 cm, a=15 cm z 0 =70cm I peak =6.7 MA, I pinch =2.8 MA Model parameters 0.14, 0.7, 0.35, 0.7 Improved performance going from 35 kV to 50 kV

36 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw IFMIF-scale device Scaling 1 Numerical Experiments suggests the possibility of scaling the PF up to IFMIF mid-scale with a PF1000-like device at 50kV and 2.5 MJ at pinch current of 2.8MA Such a system would cost only a few % of the planned IFMIF

37 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Scaling further- possibilities Scaling 2 1. Increase E 0, however note: scaling deteriorated already below Y n ~E 0 2. Increase voltage, at 50 kV beam energy ~150kV already past fusion x-section peak; further increase in voltage, x-section decreases, so gain is marginal Need technological advancement to increase current per unit E 0 and per unit V 0. We next extrapolate from point of view of I pinch

38 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Scaling from I pinch using present predominantly beam-target : Y n =1.8x10 10 I peak 3.8 ; Y n =3.2x10 11 I pinch 4.4 (I in MA) Scaling 2

39 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw SXR Scaling Laws Scaling 3 First systematic studies in the world done in neon as a collaborative effort of IPFS, INTI IU CPR and NIE Plasma Radiation Lab: Y sxr = 8300× I pinch 3.6 Y sxr = 600 × I peak 3.2 in J (I in MA). Scaling laws extended to Argon, N and O by M Akel AEC, Syria in collaboration.

40 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Special characteristics of SXR-for applications Scaling 3 Not penetrating; for example neon SXR only penetrates microns of most surfaces Energy carried by the radiation is delivered at surface Suitable for lithography and micro-machining At low intensity - applications for surface sterilisation or treatment of food at high levels of energy intensity, Surface hammering effect;, production of ultra-strong shock waves to punch through backing material; or as high intensity compression drivers in fusion scenarios

41 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Compression- and Yield- Enhancement methods Scaling 4 Suitable design optimize compression Role of high voltage Role of special circuits e.g current-steps Role of radiative cooling and collapse

42 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Latest development Latest Modelling: Ion beam fluence Post focus axial shock waves Plasma streams Anode sputtered material

43 Plasma Focus Pinch Plasma Focus Pinch Latest photo taken by Paul Lee on INTI PF

44 Emissions from the PF Pinch region Emissions from the PF Pinch region Latest +Mach500 Plasma stream +Mach20 anode material jet

45 Sequence of shadowgraphs of PF Pinch- M Shahid Rafique PhD Thesis NTU/NIE Singapore 2000 Sequence of shadowgraphs of PF Pinch- M Shahid Rafique PhD Thesis NTU/NIE Singapore 2000 Latest Highest post-pinch axial shock waves speed ~50cm/us M500 Highest pre-pinch radial speed>25cm/us M250

46 Much later…Sequence of shadowgraphics of post-pinch copper jet S Lee et al J Fiz Mal 6, 33 (1985) Latest Slow Copper plasma jet 2cm/us M20

47

48 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Extracted from V A Gribkov presentation: IAEA Dec 2012

49 Comparing large and small PF’s- Dimensions and lifetimes- putting shadowgraphs side-by-side, same scale Lifetime ~10ns order of ~100 ns Anode radius 1 cm 11.6 cm Pinch Radius: 1mm 12mm Pinch length: 8mm 90mm

50 Flux out of Plasma Focus Charged particle beams Neutron emission when operating with D Radiation including Bremsstrahlung, line radiation, SXR and HXR Plasma stream Anode sputtered material

51 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Plasma Focus Ion Beam Fluence and Flux –Scaling with Stored Energy E 0 Latest Many Measurements on plasma focus ion beams have been published Include various advanced techniques producing a bewildering variety of data using variety of units Yet to produce benchmark numbers. Our latest work uses the Lee Model code, integrated with experimental measurements to provide the basis for reference numbers and the scaling of deuteron beams versus E 0

52 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Basic Definition of Ion Beam characteristics Latest Beam number fluence F ib defines (ions m -2 ) Beam energy fluence defines (J m -2 ) Flux =fluence x pulse duration Beam number flux F ib/  defines (ions m -2 s -1 ) Beam energy flux defines (W m -2 )

53 Modelling the flux Modelling the flux Latest Ion beam number fluence is derived from beam-plasma target considerations as: F ib  = C n I pinch 2 z p [ln(b/r p )]/ (  r p 2 U 1/2 ) ions m -2 All SI units:calibration constant C n =8.5x10 8 ; calibrated against experimental point at 0.5MA I pinch =pinch current z p =pinch length b=outer electrode, cathode radius r p =pinch radius U=beam energy in eV where in this model U=3x V max (max dynamic induced voltage) These values are computed by our code

54 Example: Numerical Experiment for PF1000 based on following fitted parameters: Latest L 0 =33 nH, C 0 =1332 uF, r 0 =6.3 m  b=16 cm, a= 11.6 cm, z 0 =60 cm f m =0.14, f c =0.7, f mr =0.35, f cr =0.7 V 0 =27 kV, P 0 = 3.5 Torr MW=4, A=1, At=2 for deuterium Results are extracted from dataline after shot:  I pinch =8.63x10 5 A,  z p =0.188 m, b/r p =16 cm/2.23 cm, ln(b/r p )=1.97,  U=3Vmax=3x4.21x10 4 =1.26x10 5 V

55 From the above; estimate ions/m 2 per shot For PF1000 (at 500 kJ) we obtained J b  =4.3x10 20 ions/m 2 per shot =4.3x10 16 ions/cm 2 per shot at 126 keV Computing for various plasma focus we obtain the following table:

56 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Table 1: Parameters of a range of Plasma Focus and computed Ion Beam characteristics Latest Machine PF1000DPF78NX3INTIPFNX2PF-5MPF400J E 0 (kJ) L 0 (nH) V 0 (kV) 'a' (cm) c=b/a I peak (kA) I pinch (kA) z p (cm) r p (cm) t (ns) V max (kV)

57 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Latest Machine IB Ion Fluence (x10 20 m -2 ) PF DPF NX3 5.7 INTI 3.6 NX2 3.4 PF5M 2.4 PF400J 2.6 IB Ion Flux (x10 27 m -2 s -1 ) Mean Ion Energy (keV) IB Energy Fluence (x10 6 J m -2 ) IB Energy Flux (x10 13 W m -2 ) Ion Number (x10 14 ) IB Energy (J) (% E 0 )(2.5)(4.1)(3.3)(0.7)(4.1)(2.8)(1.3) IB current (kA) IB Damage Ftr (x10 10 Wm -2 s 0.5 ) Ion Speed (cm/ms) Ion Number per kJ (x10 14 ) Plasma Stream Energy (J) (% E 0 )(8.1)(1.3)(12.0)(7.4)(13.7)(4.5) Plasma Stream Speed (cm/  s)

58 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Ion Beam PropertyUnits (multiplier)RangeSuggested Scaling FluenceIons m -2 ( x10 20 )2.4 – 7.8independent of E 0 Average ion energykeV independent of E 0 Energy FluenceJ m -2 (x10 6 )2 - 33independent of E 0 Beam exit radiusfraction of radius 'a' scales with 'a' Beam Ion numberIons per kJ ( x10 14 ) *scales with E 0 Beam energy% of E – scales with E 0 Beam chargemC per kJ # scales with E 0 Beam durationns per cm of ‘a’8 – 20scales with ‘a’ Fluxions m -2 s -1 (x10 27 )1.5 – 50independent of E 0 Energy fluxW m -2 (x10 13 )3 – 56independent of E 0 Beam current% of I peak 14 – 23scales with I peak Damage Factor(x10 10 Wm -2 s 0.5 )1.6 – 11independent of E 0 *= 6 for INTI PF + = 0.7 for INTI PF # = 0.1 for INTI PF Table 2: Summary of Range of Ion beam properties and suggested scaling

59 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw (b) Philosophy, modelling, results and applications of the Lee Model code TR Package

60 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Plasma Focus Numerical Experiments- Conclusions: We have covered Development, usage and results Basis and philosophy Reference for Diagnostics Insights and frontiers Continuing development- Ion beam modelling

61 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw References 10 S Lee, Radiative Dense Plasma Focus Computation Package: RADPF. websites) 11 S Lee in Radiation in Plasmas Vol II, Ed B McNamara, Procs of Spring College in Plasma Physics (1983) ICTP, Trieste, p , ISBN , Published byWorld Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore (1984) 12 S Lee, T.Y. Tou, S.P. Moo, M.A. Elissa, A.V. Gholap, K.H. Kwek, S. Mulyodrono, A.J. Smith, Suryadi, W.Usala & M. Zakaullah. Amer J Phys 56, 62 (1988) 13 T.Y.Tou, S.Lee & K.H.Kwek. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 17, (1989) 14 S Lee & A Serban, IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 24, (1996) 15 SP Moo, CK Chakrabarty, S Lee - IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 19, (1991) 16 D E Potter, Phys Fluids 14, 1911 (1971) 17 A Serban and S Lee, Plasma Sources Sci and Tehnology, 6, 78 (1997) 18 M H Liu, X P Feng, SV Springham & S Lee, IEEE Trans Plasma Sci. 26, 135 (1998) 19 S Lee, P.Lee, G.Zhang, X.Feng, V.A.Gribkov, M.Liu, A.Serban & T.Wong. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, 26, 1119 (1998) 20 S.Lee in (archival website) (2012)http://ckplee.home.nie.edu.sg/plasmaphysics/ 21 S. Lee in ICTP Open Access Archive: (2005)http://eprints.ictp.it/85/ 22 D.Wong, P.Lee, T.Zhang, A.Patran, T.L.Tan, R.S.Rawat & S.Lee. Plasma Sources, Sci & Tech 16, 116 (2007) 23 V. Siahpoush, M.A.Tafreshi, S. Sobhanian, & S. Khorram. Plasma Phys & Controlled Fusion 47, 1065 (2005)

62 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw References 24 L. Soto, P. Silva, J. Moreno, G. Silvester, M. Zambra, C. Pavez, L. Altamirano, H. Bruzzone, M. Barbaglia, Y. Sidelnikov & W. Kies. Brazilian J Phys 34, 1814 (2004) 25 H.Acuna, F.Castillo, J.Herrera & A.Postal. International conf on Plasma Sci, 3-5 June 1996, conf record Pg C.Moreno, V.Raspa, L.Sigaut & R.Vieytes, Applied Phys Letters 89(2006) 27 S. Lee, R S Rawat, P Lee and S H Saw, J. Appl. Phys. 106, (2009) 28 S. H. Saw and S. Lee, Energy and Power Engineering, 2 (1), (2010) 29 M. Akel, Sh Al-Hawat, S H Saw and S Lee, J Fusion Energy, 29, 3, (2010) 30 S H Saw, P C K Lee, R S Rawat, S Lee, IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, 37, (2009) 31 Sh. Al-Hawat, M. Akel, S H Saw, S Lee, J Fusion Energy, 31, 13 – 20, (2012) 32 Sh Al-Hawat, M. Akel, S. Lee, S. H. Saw, J Fusio Energy 31, (2012) 33 S Lee, S H Saw, R S Rawat, P Lee, A.Talebitaher, A E Abdou, P L Chong, F Roy, A Singh, D Wong and K Devi, IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 39, (2011) 34 S Lee and S H Saw, J Fusion Energy, 27, (2008) 35 S. Lee and S H Saw, Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, (2008) 36 S Lee. Plasma Physics Controlled Fusion, (2008) 37 S Lee. Appl. Phys. Lett (2009)

63 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw References 38 S Lee, S. H. Saw and Jalil Ali, J Fusion Energy DOI: /s First Online 26 Feb (2012) 39 S Lee and S H Saw, J Fusion Energy DOI: /s First Online 31 January (2012) 40 S Lee, S H Saw, P C K Lee, R S Rawat and H Schmidt, Appl Phys Lett 92, (2008) 41 S H Saw, S Lee, F Roy, PL Chong, V Vengadeswaran, ASM Sidik, YW Leong & A Singh, Rev Sci Instruments, 81, (2010) 42 S Lee, S H Saw, R S Rawat, P Lee, R Verma, A.Talebitaher, S M Hassan, A E Abdou, Mohamed Ismail, Amgad Mohamed, H Torreblanca, Sh Al Hawat, M Akel, P L Chong, F Roy, A Singh, D Wong and K Devi, J Fusion Energy 31,198–204 (2012) 43 S Lee, S H Saw, A E Abdou and H Torreblanca, J Fusion Energy 30, (2011) 44 F M Aghamir and R A Behbahani, J. Plasma Physics: doi: /S in press (2012) 45 S.Lee, S.H.Saw, L..Soto, S V Springham, S P Moo, Plasma Phys and Control. Fusion, (11pp) (2009) 46 S.P. Chow, S. Lee and B.C. Tan, J Plasma Phys, (1972).

64 Review of (UPFLF) Plasma Focus Numerical Experiments S Lee 1,2,3 & H Saw 1,2 1 INTI International University, Nilai, Malaysia 2 Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, Melbourne, Australia 3 University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia International Workshop on Plasma Science and Applications, 4 & 5 October 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

65 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Developing the most powerful training and research system for the dawning of the Fusion Age TR Package Integrate: a the proven most effective hardware system of the UNU/ICTP PFF with b the proven most effective numerical experiment system Lee Model code with emphasis on dynamics, radiation and materials applications.

66 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Into the fusion era: Plasma focus for training/Research- A complete package integrating Experiment and Numerical Experiment TR Package (a) Experimental facility: TRPF (repetitive) 1 kJ focus: 10 kV 20 uF 80 nH Measurements: current, voltage sufficient to deduce dynamics and estimate temperatures Fibre-optics, pin diodes; magnetic probes directly measure speeds, ns imaging SXR spectrometry, neutron counters & TOF, ion collectors for radiation & particle measurements Simple materials processing experiments

67 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw Into the fusion era: Plasma focus for research training TR Package (b) Numerical Experiments code To complement TRPF Computes dynamics and energy distributions Plasma pinch evolution, size and life time Post focus Ion Beam, plasma stream and anode sputtered material Connection with reality: through fitting computed current to measured current trace Behaviour of plasma focus and yields as functions of pressure, gases, storage energies, circuit currents and pinch currents. Carry out above experiments with any plasma focus. Optimization of planned plasma focus

68 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw (a) The proven most effective 3 kJ PF system TR Package The trolley based UNU/ICTP PFF 3 kJ plasma focus training and research system will be updated as a 1 kJ system

69 Seminar on Plasma Focus Experiments 2012,(SPFE2012), 12 th July 2012 S H Saw (b) The proven most effective and comprehensive Model code TR Package Firmly grounded in Physics Connected to reality From birth to death of the PF Useful and comprehensive outputs Diagnostic reference-many properties, design, scaling & scaling laws, insights & innovations


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