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1 Division of Special Education Paraeducator Institute Specific Learning Disability.

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1 1 Division of Special Education Paraeducator Institute Specific Learning Disability

2 2 What is a Specific Learning Disability? ” It is defined by Federal law which informs the CA Ed Code, and frames LAUSD policy

3 3 How does the law define a Specific Learning Disability? It begins with an assessment, and all of the following parts must be in place before an IEP team can lawfully determine that a child has a Specific Learning Disability

4 4 The SLD Puzzle: All parts must fit A severe discrepancy must exist between the child’s ability and her achievement in one or more of these achievement areas Listening Comprehension Written Expression Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Mathematics Calculation Mathematics Reasoning Oral Expression First

5 5 More parts to SLD… The assessment must show that the discrepancy is due to a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes: AttentionVisual Processing Auditory Processing Cognitive Abilities including Association Conceptualization Expression 2nd Sensory-motor Skills

6 6 More SLD Criteria The severe discrepancy should not be primarily caused by: Lack of instruction in reading and mathematics Visual, hearing or motor impairments Mental retardation Environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage --Situational trauma 3rd Emotional Disturbance Limited English proficiency

7 7 If the severe discrepancy is caused by any of these factors, the child is not SLD, and these factors then become Lack of instruction in reading and mathematics Visual, hearing or motor impairments Mental retardation Environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage --Situational trauma Emotional Disturbance Limited English proficiency EXCLUSIONARY FACTORS

8 8 What behaviors do SLD students exhibit in the classroom and at school? They show a range of behaviors. Students are not grouped on the basis of their processing disorder(s).

9 9 In one classroom, students may have disorders in –Attention –Visual processing –Auditory processing –Sensory-Motor skills –Cognitive abilities (association, conceptualization, and expression) Or they may not have a processing disorder at all. They may only have behavior problems. What behaviors do SLD students exhibit?

10 10 Post and explain clear limits and guidelines. Daily Keep it S-I-M–P-L-E Make sure that consequences are clearly defined. When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines

11 11 When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Know your own agenda and goal –Avoid child-adult contests. They win the moment you enter the contest. –Keep objective and professional. You are the adult. Be respectful! Model, Model, Model

12 12 When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Create future. –If they are in elementary, help them visualize themselves in middle or high school. –If in high school, help them visualize themselves being independent adults. Ignore some behavior (for a short time).

13 13 When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Whenever possible, use the Socratic method. –Ask a specific question when calling attention to unacceptable behavior: “ Excuse me, what are you doing?” “Excuse me, what did we discuss?” “Is that what you are supposed to be doing ?” AVOID NONSPECIFIC “WHY” AND “WHAT” QUESTIONS. BAD QUESTION: “Why are you acting like that? 

14 14 When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Listen Acknowledge their point of view. –“I understand that you believe….” Speak softly, firmly, & emphatically. Loudness begets loudness.

15 15 ACTIVITYACTIVITY

16 16 Exhibited Difficulties: List 2 in each Category BEHAVIOR READING WRITING 1. 2.

17 17 Problem Solving At the end of the presentation we will look at the problems that you listed and find appropriate strategies based upon what we have learned.

18 18 Attention Problems  Constant movement and fidgeting  Difficulty taking turns in games  Blurts out in conversations  Acts without thinking about consequences

19 19 Attention  Difficulty controlling temper outbursts  Problems paying sustained attention  Unorganized, lack of attention to details  Difficulty listening or paying attention to details

20 20 Strategies for Attention Difficulties Provide a consistent schedule for daily activities. Help the child learn routines. For young children, use a picture calendar. Make labels for where things belong. Use specific color coded folders for each subject area.

21 21  Be consistent so that the child knows what to expect!  With praise and rewards  With consequences  Be generous with praise that is specific to the behavior.  Avoid being overly critical! Strategies for Attention Difficulties

22 22 To aid in organization: Daily supervise the child in reviewing homework assignments. Help the child develop and use checklists and to do lists. Help the child set goals. Strategies for Attention Difficulties

23 23 To aid in organization: Break projects into smaller manageable chunks. Allow movement breaks throughout each period. Stress organizational routines. Strategies for Attention Difficulties

24 24 The teacher will stay in communication with parents so that the parent knows what is going on at school. Parent tip: Have the child organize the backpack each evening at a set time. Do not organize it for him or her! Strategies for Attention Difficulties Organized backpacks

25 25 Avoid Being Overly Critical Children and adolescents who have a history of learning and behavior difficulties are very sensitive to criticism. Criticism creates hostility. Hostility is a barrier to learning because hostile thoughts are stronger than positive ones.

26 26 Auditory Processing Phonological Skill Difficulties Difficulties observed:  Phonemic awareness first noted in the very early grades which lead to  Reading problems  Distinguishing differences between similar sounds  Understanding spoken language

27 27 Difficulties Observed:  Staying focused on auditory information being given  Following verbal directions  Distinguishing meaningful sounds from background noise Auditory Processing

28 28 Difficulties Observed:  Remembering people’s names  Memorizing numbers, telephone numbers  Following multi-step directions  Recalling stories or songs Auditory Processing

29 29 Difficulties Observed:  Confusing similar sounding words reserve preserve  Understanding people who speak quickly  Finding the right words to use when speaking Auditory Processing

30 30 Difficulties Observed:  Understanding and recalling sequences  Confusing multi-digit numbers, (e.g., 74 and 47)  Confusing lists and other types of sequences Auditory Processing

31 31 Difficulties Observed:  Often needs words or sentences repeated  Remembering a list or sequence  Poor ability to memorize information learned by listening  Interprets words too literally Auditory Processing What am I supposed to do?

32 32 Distinguishing phonemes  Practice:  rhyming  segmenting words into syllables  Segmenting compound words  Sound-blending  Using similar wounding words (like obvious/oblivious) Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties

33 33 Picking out important sounds from a noisy environment:  Seat the child near the audio source  Front of class or near a video monitor  Eliminate unnecessary background nose during tasks and learning time  Outdoor noise  TV, stereo Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties

34 34 Long-term and short-term auditory memory:  Provide written material to accompany verbal instructions or lectures  Strengthen note-taking skills  Provide visual cues  Use different colored chalks for emphasis or to reinforce a point.  Use hand signals when moving on to another topic. Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties

35 35 Understanding and recalling auditory sequences  Use charts, overhead presentations when sequential information is given.  Use gestures or images to reinforce understanding and memory of a sequence list. Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties

36 36 Using sight to notice and compare the features of different items to distinguish one item from another  Seeing differences between two similar shapes or objects  Noticing the similarities and differences between Visual Processing Orthographic Skill Development VISUAL DISCRIMINATON  Colors  Shapes  Patterns

37 37 Using sight to notice and compare the features of different items to distinguish one item from another  Differentiating colors or similarly shaped letters and numbers Visual Processing Orthographic Skill Development MORE VISUAL DISCRIMINATON PROBLEMS b d p q

38 38 Difficulties Observed: Seeing and distinguishing the order of symbols, words or images  Using a separate answer sheet  Staying in the right place while reading a paragraph  Skipping lines while reading  Reading the same line over and over  Reversing or misreading letters, numbers and words Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development VISUAL SEQUENCING

39 39 Difficulties Observed: Seeing and distinguishing the order of symbols, words or images  Understanding math equations  Aligning numbers in math problems Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development MORE VISUAL SEQUENCING

40 40 Difficulties Observed: Ability to recall something seen or learned some time ago Ability to remember something seen or learned very recently  Spelling  Reading comprehension Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development VISUAL MEMORY

41 41 Difficulties Observed: Remembering how to spell familiar words that have irregular spelling nightwrong knife intrigueantennae Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development More Visual Memory Problems

42 42 Difficulties Observed: Confusing or not understanding written symbols Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development More Visual Memory Problems +X/&+X/&

43 43 Difficulties Observed: Using a calculator or keyboard with speed and accuracy Remembering telephone numbers Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development More Visual Memory Problems TELEPHONE NUMBER

44 44 Difficulties Observed: Knowing an object when only parts are visible  Identifying a word with a letter missing  Understanding a passage when a word or words are missing. Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development What is this?

45 45 Difficulties Observed:  Organizing and solving math problems  Finding and retaining important information in reading assignments or tests  Writing coherent well-organized essays Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

46 46 Difficulties Observed:  Copying from the board or from books  Writing neatly and quickly  Reading with speed and precision Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

47 47 Difficulties Observed:  Accurately identifying information from pictures, charts, graphs, maps, etc.  Organizing information from different sources into one cohesive document Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

48 48 Difficulties Observed:  Finding specific information on a printed page  e.g., Getting a number out of the phone book  Remembering directions to a location Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

49 49 Table Discussion Which of these problems are you familiar with among students?

50 50 Difficulty distinguishing items or features of items when comparisons are made  Clearly space words/problems on a page. Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development VISUAL DISCRIMINATON

51 51  Look ahead in the lesson to anticipate confusions and point out examples of correct responses.  Heather confuses “was” with “saw.” If those words are coming up in the next day’s lesson, point them out to the her to give her a “head-up.” Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development was saw

52 52  Practice with “find the item” activities  “Where’s Waldo?”  Use an index card or marker when reading to remove the distraction of other words  Color code written instructions or important information. Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

53 53  Have a proof-reading buddy for all written materials  Use a tape recorder when getting important information  Before writing letters or essays, create an outline to simplify and organize ideas. Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

54 54  Read written directions aloud.  Vary teaching methods.  Written and spoken words  Images and sounds  Break assignments and chores into clear concise steps.  Multiple steps can be difficult to visualize. Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

55 55  Give examples.  Point out important details of visual information.  Provide information about a task before starting to focus attention on the activity Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development What are some examples of using an advance organizer?

56 56  Allow students to write answers on the same sheet of paper as the questions  Offer opportunities for the student to explain answers orally Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Nudge the student go go beyond one or two word answers. Lead, question, probe, encourage more.

57 57  Provide paper for writing and math work that has darker lines to make the boundaries more distinct.  Organize assignments to be completed in smaller steps instead of one large finished product Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

58 58  Use a ruler as a reading guide and a highlighter.  Provide a tape recording to supplement note-taking. Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

59 59  Use graph paper for math calculation to keep columns and rows organized  Have students proofread work after a delay  It’s easier to see mistakes after a break. Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

60 60  Help students create a checklist for editing work:  Spelling  Neatness  Grammar  Syntax  Clear progression of ideas Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

61 61  Reduce amount of copying  Focus on writing original answers and ideas  Break assignment deadlines up into smaller chunks Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development

62 62 The assignment is about the characters in a story.(Character Map) 1.What Lonnie looks like: 1.Due on May 2. 2.How Tish acts: 1.Due on May 9. 3.How the other characters react to Mark. 1.Due Due on May16. 4.Written report on “The Characters in Lonnie and the Plaid Chicken” due on May 23. Break assignment deadlines up into smaller chunks Break assignment deadlines up into smaller chunks Breaking an assignment deadline up into smaller chunks

63 63 So what? What is important to understand about this? Copyright 2003 Edwin Ellis Graphiorganizers.com BEHAVIOR PROBLEM READING PROBLEM WRITING PROBLEM Based on your previously listed problems, what strategies would assist the student(s) with their problems in behavior, reading, and writing? ACTIVITY


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