Presentation on theme: "Division of Special Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Division of Special Education Specific Learning DisabilityParaeducator Institute
2What is a Specific Learning Disability? ”It is defined byFederal law which informs theCA Ed Code, and framesLAUSD policy
3How does the law define a Specific Learning Disability? It begins with an assessment,and all of the following partsmust be in place before an IEP team can lawfullydetermine that a child has aSpecific Learning Disability
4The SLD Puzzle: All parts must fit A severe discrepancy mustexist between the child’sability and her achievementin one or more of these achievement areasFirstOral ExpressionReading ComprehensionListening ComprehensionMathematics CalculationWritten ExpressionMathematics ReasoningBasic Reading Skills
5More parts to SLD…The assessment must show that the discrepancy is due to a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes:2ndAttentionVisual ProcessingSensory-motor SkillsAuditory ProcessingCognitive Abilities includingAssociationConceptualizationExpression
6More SLD CriteriaThe severe discrepancy should not be primarily caused by:3rdLack of instruction in readingand mathematicsVisual, hearing or motorimpairmentsMental retardationEmotional DisturbanceEnvironmental, cultural oreconomic disadvantage--Situational traumaLimited English proficiency
7If the severe discrepancy is caused by any of these factors, the child is not SLD, and these factors then becomeEXCLUSIONARY FACTORSLack of instruction in readingand mathematicsVisual, hearing or motorimpairmentsMental retardationEmotional DisturbanceEnvironmental, cultural oreconomic disadvantage--Situational traumaLimited English proficiency
8What behaviors do SLD students exhibit in the classroom and at school? They show a range of behaviors.Students are not grouped on the basis of their processing disorder(s).
9What behaviors do SLD students exhibit? In one classroom, students may have disorders inAttentionVisual processingAuditory processingSensory-Motor skillsCognitive abilities (association, conceptualization, and expression)Or they may not have a processing disorder at all.They may only have behavior problems.
10When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Post and explain clear limits and guidelines.DailyKeep it S-I-M–P-L-EMake sure that consequences areclearly defined.
11When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Know your own agenda and goalAvoid child-adult contests.They win the moment you enter the contest.Keep objective and professional.You are the adult.Be respectful! Model, Model, Model
12When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Create future.If they are in elementary, help them visualize themselves in middle or high school.If in high school, help them visualize themselves being independent adults.Ignore some behavior (for a short time).
13When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines Whenever possible, use the Socratic method.Ask a specific question when calling attention to unacceptable behavior:“Excuse me, what are you doing?”“Excuse me, what did we discuss?”“Is that what you are supposed to bedoing?”AVOID NONSPECIFIC “WHY” AND “WHAT” QUESTIONS.BAD QUESTION: “Why are you acting like that?
14When Behavior Gets in the Way of Everything: General Guidelines ListenAcknowledge their point of view.“I understand that you believe….”Speak softly, firmly, & emphatically.Loudness begets loudness.
15ACTIVITY Reading Specialist is the lead Clarity of purpose of the pieces of Open Court ReadingHow do we accommodate the program to allow access for all students
16Exhibited Difficulties: List 2 in each Category BEHAVIOR1.2.READING1.2.WRITING1.2.
17Problem SolvingAt the end of the presentation we will look at the problems that you listed and find appropriate strategies based upon what we have learned.
18Attention Problems Constant movement and fidgeting Difficulty taking turns in gamesBlurts out in conversationsActs without thinking about consequences
19Attention Difficulty controlling temper outbursts Problems paying sustained attentionUnorganized, lack of attention to detailsDifficulty listening or paying attention to details
20Strategies for Attention Difficulties Provide a consistent schedule for daily activities.Help the child learn routines.For young children, use a picture calendar.Make labels for where things belong.Use specific color coded folders for each subject area.
21Strategies for Attention Difficulties Be consistent so that the child knows what to expect!With praise and rewardsWith consequencesBe generous with praise that is specific to the behavior.Avoid being overly critical!
22Strategies for Attention Difficulties To aid in organization:Daily supervise the child in reviewing homework assignments.Help the child develop and use checklists and to do lists.Help the child set goals.
23Strategies for Attention Difficulties To aid in organization:Break projects into smaller manageable chunks.Allow movement breaks throughout each period.Stress organizational routines.
24Strategies for Attention Difficulties The teacher will stay in communication with parents so that the parent knows what is going on at school.Parent tip:Have the child organize the backpack each evening at a set time.Do not organize it for him or her!Organized backpacks
25Avoid Being Overly Critical Children and adolescents who have ahistory of learning and behaviordifficulties are very sensitive tocriticism.Criticism creates hostility.Hostility is a barrier to learningbecause hostile thoughts arestronger than positive ones.
26Auditory Processing Phonological Skill Difficulties Difficulties observed:Phonemic awareness first noted in the very early grades which lead toReading problemsDistinguishing differences between similar soundsUnderstanding spoken language
27Difficulties Observed: Auditory ProcessingDifficulties Observed:Staying focused on auditory information being givenFollowing verbal directionsDistinguishing meaningful sounds from background noise
29Difficulties Observed: Auditory ProcessingDifficulties Observed:Confusing similar sounding wordsreserve preserveUnderstanding people who speak quicklyFinding the right words to use when speaking
30Difficulties Observed: Auditory ProcessingDifficulties Observed:Understanding and recalling sequencesConfusing multi-digit numbers,(e.g., 74 and 47)Confusing lists and other types of sequences
31Difficulties Observed: Auditory ProcessingDifficulties Observed:Often needs words or sentences repeatedRemembering a list or sequencePoor ability to memorize information learned by listeningInterprets words too literallyWhat am Isupposedto do?
32Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties Distinguishing phonemesPractice:rhymingsegmenting words into syllablesSegmenting compound wordsSound-blendingUsing similar wounding words (like obvious/oblivious)
33Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties Picking out important sounds from a noisy environment:Seat the child near the audio sourceFront of class or near a video monitorEliminate unnecessary background nose during tasks and learning timeOutdoor noiseTV, stereo
34Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties Long-term and short-term auditory memory:Provide written material to accompany verbal instructions or lecturesStrengthen note-taking skillsProvide visual cuesUse different colored chalks for emphasis or to reinforce a point.Use hand signals when moving on to anothertopic.
35Strategies for Auditory Processing Difficulties Understanding and recalling auditory sequencesUse charts, overhead presentations when sequential information is given.Use gestures or images to reinforce understanding and memory of a sequence list.
36Visual Processing Orthographic Skill Development DISCRIMINATONUsing sight to notice andcompare the features of differentitems to distinguish one itemfrom anotherSeeing differences between two similar shapes or objectsNoticing the similarities and differences betweenColorsShapesPatterns
37Visual Processing Orthographic Skill Development MORE VISUALDISCRIMINATONPROBLEMSUsing sight to notice andcompare the features of differentitems to distinguish one itemfrom anotherDifferentiating colors or similarly shaped letters and numbersb d p q
38Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development SEQUENCINGDifficulties Observed:Seeing and distinguishingthe order of symbols, words or imagesUsing a separate answer sheetStaying in the right place while reading a paragraphSkipping lines while readingReading the same line over and overReversing or misreading letters, numbers and words
39Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development MORE VISUALSEQUENCINGDifficulties Observed:Seeing and distinguishingthe order of symbols, wordsor imagesUnderstanding math equationsAligning numbers in math problems
40Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Ability to recall somethingseen or learned some time agoAbility to remember somethingseen or learned very recentlySpellingReading comprehensionVISUALMEMORY
41Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Remembering how to spell familiar words that have irregular spellingnight wrong knifeintrigue antennaeMore VisualMemoryProblems
42Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Confusing or not understandingwritten symbolsMore VisualMemoryProblems+ X / &
43Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Using a calculator or keyboard with speed and accuracyRemembering telephone numbersMore VisualMemoryProblemsTELEPHONE NUMBER
44Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Knowing an object when only parts are visibleIdentifying a word with a letter missingUnderstanding a passage when a word or words are missing.What is this?
45Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Organizing and solving math problemsFinding and retaining important information in reading assignments or testsWriting coherent well-organized essays
46Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Copying from the board or from booksWriting neatly and quicklyReading with speed and precision
47Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Accurately identifying information from pictures, charts, graphs, maps, etc.Organizing information from different sources into one cohesive document
48Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulties Observed:Finding specific information on a printed pagee.g., Getting a number out of the phone bookRemembering directions to a location
49Table Discussion Which of these problems are you familiar with among students? Reading Specialist the leadIndependent Work time
50Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Difficulty distinguishingitems or features ofitems when comparisonsare madeClearly space words/problems on a page.VISUALDISCRIMINATON
51Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Look ahead in the lesson to anticipate confusions and point out examples of correct responses.Heather confuses “was” with “saw.” If those words are coming up in the next day’s lesson, point them out to the her to give her a “head-up.”was saw
52Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Practice with “find the item” activities“Where’s Waldo?”Use an index card or marker when reading to remove the distraction of other wordsColor code written instructions or important information.
53Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Have a proof-reading buddy for all written materialsUse a tape recorder when getting important informationBefore writing letters or essays, create an outline to simplify and organize ideas.
54Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Read written directions aloud.Vary teaching methods.Written and spoken wordsImages and soundsBreak assignments and chores into clear concise steps.Multiple steps can be difficult to visualize.
55Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Give examples.Point out important details of visual information.Provide information about a task before starting to focus attention on the activityWhat are some examples ofusing an advance organizer?
56Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Allow students to write answers on the same sheet of paper as the questionsOffer opportunities for the student to explain answers orallyNudge the student go go beyond oneor two word answers.Lead, question, probe, encourage more.
57Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Provide paper for writing and math work that has darker lines to make the boundaries more distinct.Organize assignments to be completed in smaller steps instead of one large finished product
58Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Use a ruler as a reading guide and a highlighter.Provide a tape recording to supplement note-taking.
59Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Use graph paper for math calculation to keep columns and rows organizedHave students proofread work after a delayIt’s easier to see mistakes after a break.
60Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Help students create a checklist for editing work:SpellingNeatnessGrammarSyntaxClear progression of ideas
61Strategies for Visual Processing and Orthographic Skill Development Reduce amount of copyingFocus on writing original answers and ideasBreak assignment deadlines up into smaller chunks
62Break assignment deadlines up into smaller chunks Break assignment deadlines up into smaller chunks Breaking an assignment deadline up into smaller chunksThe assignment is about the characters in a story.(Character Map)What Lonnie looks like:Due on May 2.How Tish acts:Due on May 9.How the other characters react to Mark.Due Due on May16.Written report on “The Characters in Lonnie and the Plaid Chicken” due on May 23.
63So what? What is important to understand about this? ACTIVITYSo what? What is important to understand about this?Copyright 2003Edwin EllisGraphiorganizers.comBased on your previously listed problems, what strategies would assist thestudent(s) with their problems in behavior, reading, and writing?WRITING PROBLEMBEHAVIOR PROBLEMREADING PROBLEM