Presentation on theme: "PA Mammalian Predators. Eastern Coyote AKA brush wolf, prairie wolf, coy- dog Largest wild canine in PA During wolf bounties of 1800’s, many were."— Presentation transcript:
Eastern Coyote AKA brush wolf, prairie wolf, coy- dog Largest wild canine in PA During wolf bounties of 1800’s, many were turned in by mistake By 1990 populations had rebounded
Eastern Coyote: Identification Larger than Western Coyote: may be due to hybridization with wolves Males: 45-55 lbs. Females: 35 to 40 pounds Many different coat colors and patterns: tri-color (German shepherd-like), red, blonde and dark brown (appears black at a distance)
Eastern Coyote: General Biology Monogamous, but not for life May hunt alone or with family group, not a true pack animal like the wolf Nocturnal Smell and hearing are keen; very alert Prefer heavy brush, edges PA population estimated at 40,000
PA Game Commission Bag Limits COYOTES: No closed season. Unlimited. Outside of any big game season (deer, bear, elk and turkey), coyotes may be taken with a hunting license or a furtaker license, and without wearing orange. During any big game season, coyotes may be taken while lawfully hunting big game or with a furtakers license.
WEASELS: Diet Consummate Predators: kill and consume wide varieties of prey (including animals larger than themselves) Mice, voles, rats, shrews, snakes, birds, insects Very fast metabolism for size: eat 1/3 body weight every 24 hrs. Keen smell, sight, hearing
WEASELS: Biology Aggressive and quick Secretive and wary=difficult to study in nature Delayed implantation: Mate in summer/fall Fertilized egg implants in uterus in spring WHY??? 1.Assures litters arrive when prey is abundant 2.Does not restrict mating to a short period
FISHER Size of a house cat 12lbs.-30 lbs. Males 2 times heavier than females Appear black from a distance, really cream underneath; tri-colored hair
FISHER: Habitat Climb trees very well: den in holes in the trees, rest in nests, pursue prey Continuous forest areas
FISHER: Biology Low population densities and large home ranges: 30 square miles Nocturnal Produce 1 litter per year: 2 or 3 cubs Born and raised in a tree cavity Solitary and opportunistic predators: Snowshoe hare and porcupine RARELY EAT FISH!!
FISHER: Population Widely distributed prior to 1800’s Timber cutting and unregulated trapping almost eliminated by 1900’s Reintroduced to Catskills, WV, PA 1994 PSU and Game Commission released in Allegheny National Forest
BOBCAT 336” long with a 6” tail 115-35 lbs. GGrey brown fur, dark spots and bars NNeck and belly white RRuff of fur on ears
Bobcat: Habitat Mountains, deep forest, swamp Very elusive, prefer to stay away from people Most common in North Central PA In 2000 estimated pop. was 3500 adults Very restricted hunting/trapping season
PA Game Commission Bag Limits BOBCAT (WMUs 2A, 2C, 2E, 2F, 2G, 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D, 4A, 4C, 4D and 4E): Jan. 15-Feb. 5. One bobcat per license year, but all licensed furtakers may obtain one permit.
Bobcat: Diet Mice, wood rat, shrew, squirrel, chipmunk, bird, rabbit, hare, porcupine, mink, muskrat, fish, frog Sick/injured deer: cover and save carcass
Bobcat: Breeding Males can travel up to 20 miles in a single night to find a female Males play no part in raising young Females guard litter; young often killed by males, owls, foxes Mature bobcat has few enemies except man
Bobcat: Hunting Adaptations Sharp sight, smell and especially hearing 4 large canines: pierce and hold 5 retractable, hooked claws on front 4 on rear
Red Fox And Gray Fox Canidae family (coyote, wolf, domestic dog, fox) Gray only member of Canidae to climb trees
Red Fox and Gray: Biology Males: “dogs” Females: “vixen” Young are born in dens underground Both parents care for young Do not hibernate but will use bushy tail to conserve heat in severe weather
Red Fox and Gray: Biology Swift runners, can swim Nocturnal Opportunistic predators: mice, rabbits, woodchucks, opossum, cats, chickens, squirrels, fruits, grasses Bury uneaten food in ground
Habitat Red: prefers rolling farmland, woods, marshes and streams Gray: heavy woods, rugged, mountains
Exit Ticket…..To leave this room you must answer these questions…. 1. List one surprising new idea you learned about mammalian predators. 2. Name 2 weasels found in PA. 3. See #2. 4. What is the common characteristic shared by the Mustelid family? 5. Name 2 adaptations that help the canines locate prey.