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 HVL 2001 Why LDAP & Security Are Critical to Your Success UBC Certificate in eBusiness Presentation Wednesday, January 17, 2001 Guy Huntington, President,HVL.

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Presentation on theme: " HVL 2001 Why LDAP & Security Are Critical to Your Success UBC Certificate in eBusiness Presentation Wednesday, January 17, 2001 Guy Huntington, President,HVL."— Presentation transcript:

1  HVL 2001 Why LDAP & Security Are Critical to Your Success UBC Certificate in eBusiness Presentation Wednesday, January 17, 2001 Guy Huntington, President,HVL

2  HVL 2001 Presentation Goals Understand the critical role that trust plays in achieving modern business models Relate this to the challenge of creating, managing and authenticating the identity Probe into accepting authorizations between system, partners and other enterprises Take a look at the role of LDAP vs. Databases See what kinds of tools are out there to do the job

3  HVL 2001 It All Starts With Trust Trust is the heart of successful ongoing transactions, relationships and business processes In the “old days” it was primarily based on someone you had physical proximity to or, taken on faith from someone you knew But what about today?

4  HVL 2001 Trust and E-business Billions of interactions occurring around the globe, increasingly with software based systems, where we may never ever see the face behind the transaction or business process A large enterprise may have tens or hundred of millions of customers (e.g. Wal*Mart, Coke or Pepsi) They may have hundreds of thousands of employees (e.g. United Airlines, McDonalds) They may have thousands, tens of thousands or more business partner’s employees interacting with the enterprise (e.g. GM)

5  HVL 2001 Interactions Are Fast, Varied and Sensitive Interactions often require split-second decision- making (several thousand identity lookups and authentications per second) Access can be to many traditional “back-office” systems (shipping, account info, manufacturing, sales/marketing, etc.) Customers and business partners are drilling to very sensitive information (e.g. data warehouses containing personal account info.)

6  HVL 2001 Identity Management Usually taken for granted Identity creation is usually a mixed bag of: –Different people doing the creation –Different ways of doing the creation –Different systems holding the creation

7  HVL 2001 Take “Fred Johnson” Fred Johnson – Facilities Fred S. Johnson - Parking Fjohnson – F. Johnson HR Manager - Payroll Fred Johnson Human Resources Manager - HRIS Fred Johnston (oops…typo!) - Security F. Johnsonn (another typo) - Networks

8  HVL 2001 Identity Integrity Causes a lot of grief Direct cost to the enterprise Lost productivity Hard to find up to date org charts and basic contact info Can cost many tens of millions of dollars annually

9  HVL 2001 Managing the Identity Who creates it? How do you handle the changes to it? The numbers can be staggering –15-30% identity changes –20-30% employee churn in some sectors –Thousands to millions of users You need to somehow both centralize identity reference and at the same time delegate admin to appropriate levels

10  HVL 2001 Security Lapses Time delays for system updates take days, weeks and even months Manual processes for updating mean manual errors –Wrong people get taken on and off systems –Identities entered differently don’t match in systems and access is denied to applications etc

11  HVL 2001 Authentication Now we have an identity, how do we authenticate it to continue the process of trust? “How do I know you’re you?”

12  HVL 2001 Challenges What if I don’t know you? What if you’ve been passed from one or two portals to my e- business website? How do you achieve single sign on to reduce the number of passwords, tokens, smartcards and number of times authentication is required? The answers affect ease of use, trust and manageability of the business models you’re building!

13  HVL 2001 Authentication Basics What you know What you have What you are

14  HVL 2001 Authentication Methods Basic authentication Certificate authentication Form authentication Tokens/smart cards authentication Biometric authentication

15  HVL 2001 Basic Authentication Uses something you know Username and password are the most common Most common form of authentication Can be a lot of problems/challenges in using it

16  HVL 2001 Basic Challenges Password cracking programs can guess passwords at over 1.5 million guesses per second to minute Passwords are difficult to remember and should be changed frequently

17  HVL 2001 Basic Challenges Password lengths are often insecure Password storage may be not secure Passwords may travel in the clear

18  HVL 2001 Basic Challenges Browsers cache passwords Lost password management is very expensive

19  HVL 2001 Certificate Authentication Uses public key infrastructure Involves use of trusted third parties called “certificate authorities” Certificates use a couple of different types of encryption to assure identity Parties exchange certificates and verify each other

20  HVL 2001 Certificate Challenges Managing certificate users can be very demanding, costly and time consuming Level of trust may not be appropriate for all your needs Encryption use may require accelerator cards on the authenticating servers Browser’s cache certificate info

21  HVL 2001 Form Authentication Uses an html form usually embedded in the internet, intranet or extranet interface Can use username and password or some other challenge and response Advantage to this method is the browser doesn’t cache the challenge and response

22  HVL 2001 Tokens You’ve probably seen or used some tokens many times This can include driver’s license and social security card It can also include key fobs with digitally changing numbers

23  HVL 2001 Token Challenges Can be forged or hacked People lose them Management of the whole process can be daunting People get sick of having to carry around so many tokens (just check your wallet for the number of loyalty cards you carry)

24  HVL 2001 Smart Cards Use chip technology Includes debit cards to financial and medical information cards Widely used in Europe Gaining momentum in N.America Lots and lots of politics involved in setting global standards Often use multi-factor authentication

25  HVL 2001 Smart Card Challenges Can be hacked (although it can be harder to do) A lot of behind the scenes fighting over standards for potentially billions and trillions of dollars in transactions Need plant and equipment to deploy

26  HVL 2001 Biometric Authentication “James Bond” comes of age Includes –Finger recognition –Fingerprint scans –Hand geometry –Face geometry –Signature recognition –Iris and retina recognition –Voice recognition

27  HVL 2001 Biometric Authentication Price points are dropping quickly below $150, $100 and even much less Becoming embedded in chips placed in cell phones, palm pilots and soon watches Often used with smart cards and/or other authentication methods such as passwords

28  HVL 2001 Biometric Challenges Can have trouble with people having hangovers, colds, etc Still a little pricey for widespread adoption Device required to conduct the enrollment and reading

29  HVL 2001 So What Do You Use? Probably combinations of all of these! You need to think in terms of layers of trust Let’s move on to authorization and then come back to view the challenges in providing single sign on, integrating different authentication methods and accepting other parties authentications/authorizations

30  HVL 2001 Authorization This is the second step of the triple A’s (authentication, authorization and auditing) How do you authorize? How do you integrate authorization mechanisms across an enterprise and between enterprises? It isn’t always easy

31  HVL 2001 Daily Sales Report Sales rep can view only their own reports Managers can view all direct reports “reports” and their summaries but not other areas Regional managers can view all reports below them, rolled up summaries but not outside their area VP, CEO and CFO can view all reports and summaries

32  HVL 2001 Daily Sales Report Special exemptions for some identities –Individuals, roles, groups, geography Special exemptions for some reports –Specific reports, groups of reports Special exemptions based on time –Hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly

33  HVL 2001 Granularity Your infrastructure needs to provide flexibility for different combinations of granularity at both the identity and resource/application level Some of this logic is already in your ERP’s, HRMS’s, data warehouses, CRM’s and the rest of your systems How do you knit this together both internally and externally?

34  HVL 2001 The Devil Is in the Details –Potential show stopper stuff for B2B’s and large internal reengineering –You’re crossing multiple systems, with little or no authentication and authorization standards –The information and rules are stored in specific formats, logic and databases each with their own generally inflexible standards –You’re also crossing over a lot of political power centers within the enterprise

35  HVL 2001 Databases Many of the systems requiring authentication/authorization integration use databases/data warehouses There’s challenges with using database only solutions

36  HVL 2001 Advantages of Databases Maintain state of the transaction Excellent for fast writes –Wal*Mart updates the DSS at approx 8.4 million updates per minute Great for routine and complex querying –Wal*Mart queries DSS at over 100,000 complex queries a week Flexible

37  HVL 2001 Disadvantages of Databases Lack standards when it comes to how information is stored Not optimized for fast reads Generally relational not hierarchical

38  HVL 2001 Infrastructure “Glue” Need to bind together/coordinate the identity management, authentication and authorization components of all the systems Has to work exceedingly fast Databases are not the best choice in either cost or performance for this application Databases may hold the authoritative source of the information e.g. ERP, HRMS That’s why directories come into play

39  HVL 2001 Directories Optimized for fast reads not writes Excellent for stateless/semi- stateless environments Scale relatively easily for replication and fail over Operate to standards

40  HVL 2001 LDAP Lightweight Directory Application Protocol IETF standard Built with the internet in mind Offspring of x.500 Provides enough standards to be attractive as a coordinating vehicle for identity management, authentication, authorization and auditing

41  HVL 2001 Putting It All Together LDAP directory acts as the coordinating hub for your authentication, identity management, authorization and auditing systems Can be Master, Child or both for authoritative source of information Store digital certificates, username, password(s), challenge phrases, biometric point info., etc. Also store summary info from the CRM or portal info on your business partners

42  HVL 2001 You Want: To provide a central integration point Something that scales Enhance not reduce existing security To provide end user ease of use To quickly integrate systems required by the existing and emerging business models

43  HVL 2001 Single Sign On (SSO) Need some tools to work with the directory and your systems Can be quite complex without the tools

44  HVL 2001 SSO Challenges Coordinate the identity management Delegate the identity management where warranted Coordinate authentication Security compatible with things like TLS/SSL, IPSec, digital certificates, etc. Pre and Post authorization features to hand off to ERP’s, NOS’s, CRM’s, data warehouses, portals and all your other many systems

45  HVL 2001 SSO Challenges Maintain state to identify session beginning and endings –Timing out the user Store authentication and authorization levels to which the identity is approved to prevent reauthentication unless desired –Involves the use of encrypted cookies and application servers –Work within a domain and across multiple domains

46  HVL 2001 SSO Challenges How are you going to handle managing the authorization rules for who gets to see what when? You need tools allowing you to delegate this where required –e.g. extranet, portal, departmental level How do you integrate your auditing systems with the ERP’s, NOS’s, firewalls, CRM’s, facilities and all your other systems?

47  HVL 2001 Infrastructure Tools Without tools, this kind of work is exceedingly complicated, fraught with peril, expensive and time consuming Tools must allow you to scale very quickly Easy to use Flexible to allow to you tailor your authentication, identity management, authorization and auditing just the way you want it and not to someone else’s preconceived idea of what they should be

48  HVL 2001 That’s Where Oblix and Others Comes Into Play Oblix Netegrity IBM Entrust others

49  HVL 2001 Features to Look For Deploys relatively quickly Delegate identity and authorization rule management to whatever level if granularity makes sense Solid identity management Gives you great flexibility in post authentication, authorization and post authorization actions

50  HVL 2001 Features to Look For Flexible in granularity for determining protection of resources/applications Flexible in determining auditing requirements to different levels of resources/applications Scales easily without performance loss Works with most NOS’s, directories, ERP’s, portals, etc.

51  HVL 2001 Making and Saving Money! Your business models will likely be taking advantage of globalization, new economies of scale, new distribution channels, one to one and one to many marketing, etc. Take a second and think about your models…

52  HVL 2001 Making and Saving Money! They’re all heavily dependent on building and passing trust through system integration This infrastructure technology I’ve talked about is imperative to achieving your business models Without it, you’re in danger of wafting onto dangerous shoals and lacking the competitive edge to deliver your business models anywhere in the world, anytime, anywhere with a high degree of trust and low operating costs

53  HVL 2001 Know Thy Identity! Customer Business Partner Employee

54  HVL 2001 Thanks for Having Me! This ends the formal part of the presentation I hope I’ve been able to open your eyes as to why you really need to know and use this infrastructure technology Appended to this presentation are some URL’s for the presentation itself and other useful resources you may want to pursue Contact me at or

55  HVL 2001 URL’s - Presentation This presentation is available for html and download viewing at Also other presentations there on SSO, Password Management, etc.

56  HVL 2001 URL’s - Authentication Authentication Resources –Password portal - –Certificates – Security Magazine Jan – “Implementing PKI” - –Smart Cards – Card Technology.com - –Biometrics – Biometric Consortium -

57  HVL 2001 URL’s – Security/Encryption Security and Encryption –A good read – “Secrets and Lies – Digital Security in a Networked World” – Bruce Schneier (Amazon.com link - 1/qid= /sr=2-1/ref=sc_b_1/ ) 1/qid= /sr=2-1/ref=sc_b_1/ –TLS – IETF Working Group - charter.html charter.html

58  HVL 2001 URL’s – Securing e-Business Vendors Infrastructure Vendors –Oblix – –Netegrity - –IBM/Tivoli - –Entrust -

59  HVL 2001 URL’s - XML/Authentication Standards A good read – Nand Mulchandani’s paper “ Industry Must Embrace Combination of Open Web Access Standards for True Interoperability” - html html


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