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Chapter 2 — Firefighter Safety & Health

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1 Chapter 2 — Firefighter Safety & Health

2 Chapter 2 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to apply FF safety & health practices following the policies & procedures set forth by FrPD

3 Ways to Prevent Injuries
Conducting effective training Maintaining company discipline & accountability Following established SOPs All ranks in FrPD have a responsibility for safety (Continued)

4 Ways to Prevent Injuries
Using personal protective clothing & equipment Maintaining high levels of physical fitness

5 DISCUSSION QUESTION What do you think causes the greatest number of firefighter injuries?

6 Firefighter Injuries Overexertion/strain is leading cause of injury
Slips, trips & falls Improper lifting 100,000 in US every year (average)

7 Firefighter Deaths 21.7% due to vehicle crashes
24.4% to “other” causes 53.9% due to stress/overexertion Heart attack/cardiac arrest An average of 100 FF’s die each year in US

8 NFPA Standards Relate to firefighter safety & health
Consensus documents; not law unless adopted by governing body Many U.S. & Canadian governing bodies have adopted some NFPA® standards; others have not

9 NFPA 1500 Most comprehensive firefighter safety & health standard
Specifies fire department safety & health program minimum requirements Applied to any fire department or similar organization Fire departments should: Recognize safety & health as official objectives Provide as healthy & safe work environment as possible (Continued)

10 NFPA 1500 Promotes safety throughout the fire service
Minimum standard; can be exceeded

11 NFPA 1500 Topics Safety & health-related policies & procedures
Training & education Fire apparatus, equipment, & driver/operators Protective clothing & protective equipment (Continued)

12 NFPA 1500 Topics Emergency operations Facility safety
Medical & physical requirements Member assistance & wellness programs Critical incident stress management program

13 NFPA 1500 — Safety & Health-Related Policies & Procedures
Fire departments must: Develop an organizational plan, risk management plan, safety & health policy Define roles & responsibilities Establish safety & health committee Keep records Appoint a health & safety officer (Continued)

14 NFPA 1500 — Safety & Health-Related Policies & Procedures
Safety & health program must: Address anticipated hazards Include provisions for dealing with nonemergency issues Include SOPs

15 NFPA 1500 — Training & Education
Goal must be to prevent occupational deaths, injuries & illnesses Training — Developing & maintaining job skills Education — Learning new information, concepts, & procedures Train & educate personnel to consider safety in all activities Safety must be reinforced (Continued)

16 NFPA 1500 — Fire Apparatus, Equipment, & Driver/Operators
Safety & health must be primary considerations for apparatus Providing restraint devices Meeting requirements for vehicle’s intended role All apparatus driver/operators must be trained (Continued)

17 NFPA 1500 — Fire Apparatus, Equipment, & Driver/Operators
Personnel riding in apparatus must be seated & securely belted inside the cab when in motion Three exceptions: Hose loading Tiller training Some EMS operations (Continued)

18 NFPA 1500 — Fire Apparatus, Equipment, & Driver/Operators
If noise levels exceed 90 decibels (dB), hearing protection must be worn Exposures above 90 dB can lead to hearing loss

19 NFPA 1500 — Protective Clothing & Protective Equipment
Departments must provide at least one set of protective clothing & protective equipment Protective clothing Helmet Hood and/or shroud Coat Pants (Continued)

20 NFPA 1500 — Protective Clothing & Protective Equipment
Safety shoes or boots Gloves Goggles or safety glasses (Continued)

21 NFPA 1500 — Protective Clothing & Protective Equipment
SCBA Supplied air respirator (SAR) Personal alert safety system (PASS) device Other respiratory protection Some areas provide body armor for protection against violence

22 NFPA 1500 — Emergency Operations
Requires an incident management system Most use ICS Risk management Personnel accountability (Continued)

23 NFPA 1500 — Emergency Operations
Limits emergency operations to those that can be safely conducted (Continued)

24 NFPA 1500 — Emergency Operations
NFPA 1500 requires Rapid intervention Rehabilitation Limiting exposure to violence Post-incident analysis: a general overview & critique of incident, occurs within 2 wks Both NFPA 1500 & NFPA 1561 contain specific requirements regarding accountability (Continued)

25 NFPA 1500 — Facility Safety Sets minimum design requirements that meet NFPA 101, Life Safety Code Provides a means for cleaning, disinfecting, & storing infection control devices (Continued)

26 NFPA 1500 — Facility Safety Fire stations must be smoke-free environments (per Aramco policy) Requires inspection, maintenance, & prompt repair of facilities

27 NFPA 1500 — Medical & Physical Requirements
Candidates must be medically evaluated Prohibits firefighters under the influence from participating Physical performance standards (Continued)

28 NFPA 1500 — Medical & Physical Requirements
Annual medical verification for fitness for duty Establishment of job-related fitness standards & fitness program Confidential health database (Continued)

29 NFPA 1500 — Medical & Physical Requirements
Infection control program Designated fire department physician Reporting & documenting injuries & exposures

30 NFPA 1500 — Member Assistance & Wellness Programs
Member assistance program Substance abuse Stress Personal problems Wellness program Smoking Cessation

31 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why is Saudi Aramco concerned with safety off the job as well on the job?

32 IFSTA Principles of Risk Management — Development
NFPA 1500 requires incident management systems to include a risk management plan Risk management plan Established set of criteria Tactical decisions can be made (Continued)

33 IFSTA Principles of Risk Management — Development
Considered two well-known plans: Phoenix, AZ NFPA 1500

34 IFSTA Principles of Risk Management

35 IFSTA Principles of Risk Management — Key Points
Team integrity is vital to safety No property is worth the life of a FF FFs should not be committed to interior operations in abandoned or derelict buildings known or believed to be unoccupied

36 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why do you feel these principles are important to the fire service?

37 Fireground Priority Highest priority is for FFs to protect their lives & those of their fellow FFs If a FF is injured, unable to help others, other FFs must respond to the injured FF

38 Safety Program Goals Prevent human suffering, deaths, injuries, illnesses, & exposures to hazardous atmospheres & transmittable diseases Practiced & promoted at all levels in FrPD (Continued)

39 Safety Program Goals Prevent damage to or loss of equipment
Reduce incidence & severity of accidents & hazardous exposures

40 DISCUSSION QUESTION What do you do to help maintain your personal health?

41 Firefighter Health Considerations
Stay informed about job-related health issues Wear PPE & respiratory protection Clean PPE Follow hepatitis B vaccination recommendations (Continued)

42 Firefighter Health Considerations
Use precautions to avoid exposure to bloodborne pathogens Use proper lifting techniques (Continued)

43 Firefighter Health Considerations
Use lifting tools or get assistance with heavy objects Clean, disinfect, & store tools & equipment used in patient care Maintain a regular exercise program (Continued)

44 Firefighter Health Considerations
Maintain a diet low in cholesterol, fat, & sodium Maintain blood pressure & cholesterol levels Eliminate tobacco products Have regular physicals & checkups

45 Employee Assistance Program (EAP)
Offers confidential assistance Alcohol and drug abuse Personal & interpersonal problems Stress Depression Anxiety Divorce Financial problems

46 Wellness Program Health-related problems Nutrition Hypertension
Cessation of tobacco use Weight control Physical conditioning

47 Availability of EAP & Wellness Programs
Available to all members & their families Include appropriate referrals Allow easy, confidential access to help (Continued)

48 Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)
Process of managing stress A critical incident stress debriefing should be part of the CISM program Should be held ASAP after event but not later than 72 hrs (Continued)

49 Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)
Pre-briefing helps prepare the FF for responding to a gruesome incident If working more than one shift in stressful conditions, go through a minor debriefing Defusing: addresses chemical, medical exposures & identifies equipment/ apparatus problems

50 Riding on the Apparatus
One of the most common dangers for firefighters All protective clothing is put on before (prior) entering cab Everyone is seated before apparatus moves (Continued)

51 Riding on the Apparatus
NFPA 1500 requires FFs to ride in a seat within the cab Have seatbelts fastened (Continued)

52 Riding on the Apparatus
Hearing protection is needed if sirens & engine noise levels exceed 90 decibels (Continued)

53 Riding on the Apparatus
Volunteers responding in own vehicles should use defensive driving If riding in an unenclosed jump seat, use safety bars & wear appropriate PPE (Continued)

54 Riding on the Apparatus
Use steps & handrails when mounting/ dismounting If apparatus contacts energized electrical wires, jump clear of the apparatus

55 Safety in the Fire Station — Personnel Safety
Two most common ways people get hurt at the fire station: Improper Lifting Slips, trips, & falls (Continued)

56 Safety in the Fire Station — Personnel Safety
Improper lifting techniques cause Back strains (Most Common) Bruises, sprains, & fractures Damaged equipment (Continued)

57 Safety in the Fire Station — Personnel Safety
Correct lifting techniques Keep the back straight; lift with the legs Do not lift or carry heavy or bulky objects without help (Continued)

58 Safety in the Fire Station — Personnel Safety
Slip, trip, or fall Poor footing Minor or serious injuries; damaged equipment Good housekeeping can prevent

59 Safety in the Fire Station — Tool and Equipment Safety
Accidents can happen if FFs are not properly trained Poorly maintained tools & equipment can be dangerous NFPA 1500 stresses tool safety Always use appropriate PPE

60 Hand and Small Power Tool Safety
Wear appropriate PPE Remove loose clothing & keep long hair clear of operating tool heads Remove jewelry Select the appropriate tool Follow manufacturer’s instructions (Continued)

61 Hand and Small Power Tool Safety
Inspect tools before use Do not use badly worn or broken tools Provide adequate storage space & return tools after use Inspect, clean, & put all tools in a ready state before storing (Continued)

62 Hand and Small Power Tool Safety
Consult with manufacturer before modifying any tool Use intrinsically safe tools in flammable atmospheres Do not remove safety shields or compromise built-in safety devices

63 Power Tool Safety Grinders, drills, saws, & welding equipment are common If improperly used can cause serious or life-threatening injury (Continued)

64 Power Tool Safety Only FFs who have read & understand manufacturer’s instructions should use power tools Tool repairs must be made by a trained & authorized person (Continued)

65 Power Tool Safety Keep accurate records of repairs
Any electrical tool not marked “double insulated” should have a three-prong plug Connected to ground

66 Power Saw Safety Match the saw to the task & material to be cut
Never force a saw beyond its design limitations Wear proper PPE Remove loose clothing & contain long hair (Continued)

67 Power Saw Safety Have hoselines when cutting materials that generate sparks Avoid using in potentially flammable atmospheres Keep bystanders out of work area Follow manufacturer’s procedures (Continued)

68 Power Saw Safety Allow gasoline-powered saws to cool before refueling
Keep blades & cutting chains well sharpened Use extreme caution when operating any saw above eye level

69 Safety in Training Always wear appropriate protective gear
Refer trainees with symptoms to a physician prior to participation Take into account environmental conditions (Continued)

70 Safety in Training Do NOT allow horseplay or unprofessional conduct

71 Safety in Training — Live Fire Exercises
Must be conducted according to NFPA 1403 Key requirements of NFPA 1403 Site preparation Clear site of potential hazards (Continued)

72 Safety in Training — Live Fire Exercises
Key safety requirements of NFPA 1403 Student-to-instructor ratio of 5:1 may not be exceeded Must be a designated safety officer & an instructor-in-charge Cannot use human beings as victims (Continued)

73 Safety in Training — Live Fire Exercises
Key safety requirements of NFPA 1403 Fires may not be set in egress routes Uniforms & PPE must conform to NFPA standards (Continued)

74 Safety in Training — Live Fire Exercises
Key requirements of NFPA 1403 Prerequisite training — All participants must have had basic fire training Water supply — Adequate supply must be provided; separate for attack & backup lines (Continued)

75 Safety in Training — Live Fire Exercises
Key requirements of NFPA 1403 Training plan — Must be prepared & a briefing held Don’t do this! (Continued)

76 Safety in Training — Live Fire Exercises
Key requirements of NFPA 1403 Fuel — Must have known burning characteristics Ventilation — Means must be provided to prevent uncontrolled flashover & backdraft

77 Maintain & Service Equipment
Equipment for fire training Must be in good condition Frequently wears out sooner Should be inspected before each drill (Continued)

78 Maintain & Service Equipment
Records & testing Records must be maintained on all equipment for training Training equipment should be tested according to: Manufacturer’s instructions Applicable standards

79 Emergency Scene Preparedness
Accidents or injuries at emergencies Often caused by a series of events Can be prevented by being in a ready state

80 Actions for Preparedness: Beginning Work Shift
Be in the proper uniform, physically rested, & mentally alert Ensure all tools & equipment are in place & working Ensure PPE is in proper location (Continued)

81 Actions for Preparedness: Beginning Work Shift
Ensure SCBA is fully functional Ensure MFR equipment is checked & restocked

82 Actions for Preparedness: In the Fire Station
FFs must never put themselves in a position to delay response When alarm sounds, stay calm & listen to the officer Quickly & calmly mount apparatus

83 Actions for Preparedness: Any Stage of an Emergency
FFs must never act so they become a part of the emergency or creates a new one We should never be part of the problem

84 Emergency Scene Safety
Incident Commander (IC) Officer of the 1st-arriving unit begins to control incident by assuming Command & using ICS (Continued)

85 Emergency Scene Safety
Initial IC must size up critical factors Life safety hazards Nature & extent of emergency Building type, arrangement, & access Resources Special hazards (Continued)

86 Emergency Scene Safety
IC must determine overall incident strategy Offensive operations: working inside the hazard zone Defensive operations: working outside the hazard zone Defensive Operations (Continued)

87 Incident Action Plan IC develops IAP & bases operations around completion of tactical priorities Tactical priorities in a structure fire FF safety (Life Safety) Rescue (Life Safety) Fire control (Incident Stabilization) Loss control (Property Conservation) (Continued)

88 Incident Action Plan IAP is based on size-up information
Priority objectives are reflected in benchmarks of completion: Personnel Accountability Report (PAR) All Clear: Primary search complete Under Control: Fire progress is stopped Loss Stopped: property conservation complete

89 Offensive Fire Operations
Based around a controlled, aggressive interior search and fire attack Companies must be assigned according to fireground organizational structure Must work with the IAP (Continued)

90 Offensive Fire Operations
Company members inside hazard zone must be within contact with each other at all times through: Voice (talk) Vision (see) Physical (touch) (Continued)

91 Offensive Fire Operations
Companies must have at least one portable radio on correct tactical channel After primary All Clear & Under Control are complete, efforts must be focused on controlling loss

92 Defensive Operations Based on:
Determining boundaries of hazard zone Potential collapse zone Keeping companies out of these boundaries Highest priority on all defensive fires is firefighter safety

93 Minimizing Risks Work within the IAP/No freelancing
Adequately assess the situation & maintain situational awareness Wear appropriate PPE Work together as a team Follow all departmental SOPs (Continued)

94 Minimizing Risks Maintain communications with team members & Command
Do a risk/benefit analysis for every action Employ safe & effective tactics Use a personnel accountability system (Continued)

95 Minimizing Risks Have one or more RICs standing by
Set up Rehab at fires or other incidents Use appropriate emergency escape techniques Maintain company discipline & team integrity Go to rehab as a team

96 Highway Incident Guidelines
Position fire apparatus to block oncoming traffic Turn front wheels of blocking apparatus away from emergency (Continued)

97 Highway Incident Guidelines
Set out traffic cones, signs, or other devices to detour traffic Turn off lights that face opposing traffic Emergency responders must never walk with their backs to the traffic (Continued)

98 Highway Incident Guidelines
Wear reflective vests when PPE is not required Close at least one traffic lane next to incident Move apparatus not directly involved to the shoulder or off roadway

99 DISCUSSION QUESTION What precautions have you noticed emergency responders taking (or not taking) at vehicle accidents?

100 Crowd Control Usually responsibility of police or security
Sometimes performed by firefighters or emergency responders IC is responsible for ensuring scene is secured & managed (Continued)

101 Crowd Control Usually done by ISO Must be done at all emergencies
Bystanders should be restrained from getting too close People can be emotional Restrain relatives & friends

102 Cordoning Off Maintain scene security by cordoning off
No specific distance established for control zones Incident size Hazard involved Keep bystanders at a safe distance Control zones must be established at all emergency scenes (Continued)

103 Cordoning Off

104 Cordoning Off Can be done with rope, barricades, or caution tape
Boundary should be monitored

105 Personnel Accountability System
Every department must use some system of accountability that tracks personnel in the hazard zone Used at all emergency scenes (Continued)

106 Personnel Accountability System
Accountability is vital when there is: Sudden & unexpected change in fire behavior Structural collapse Personnel Accountability Report (PAR) is an important method for accountability

107 Personnel Accountability System
PAR is a roll-call or report to the IC All FF’s are safe & accounted for PARs should be taken after: Changes at the scene Change of tactics Evacuations Building collapse

108 Personnel Accountability System
Passport & SCBA Tag System Tags collected by officer Tags attached to board Board is kept at entry point Tags are returned upon exit of hazard zone

109 Personnel Accountability System
Lets IC know how many FFs are on scene & where they are located Maintain team integrity Useful for sudden changes where FFs can become trapped or lost

110 Interior Operations Techniques
Scan the outside of the building before entry Wear full PPE including SCBA Take appropriate tools & equipment Maintain team integrity (Continued)

111 Interior Operations Techniques
Remain in radio contact Take a hoseline or tag line Pay attention to surroundings (Continued)

112 Interior Operations Techniques
Increase chances for survival Situational awareness Maintaining awareness of your surroundings Know protocol for Mayday

113 Emergency Escape Involves breaking through doors, windows, or walls to escape life-threatening situations (Continued)

114 Emergency Escape Situations can occur when:
Sudden & unexpected change in fire behavior Structural collapse May also be necessary if a FF becomes lost or disoriented & is in danger of running out of air

115 Rapid Intervention NFPA standards state that whenever FFs are in an IDLH atmosphere: IDLH: Any atmosphere that poses an immediate hazard to life or health Must work in teams of two or more At least two fully trained & equipped FFs must be outside (Continued)

116 Rapid Intervention Outside team must be ready at a moment’s notice
Known as the “two-in/two-out” rule RIC members may be assigned other duties but must be able to fulfill primary function (Continued)

117 Summary FFs are sometimes put at some risk during training & emergency operations It is the FFs’ responsibility to maintain their physical & mental readiness to handle these situations (Continued)

118 Summary During fires & other emergencies, FFs may be ordered into inherently dangerous situations To protect themselves they must be aware of the hazards & risks involved (Continued)

119 Summary FFs must always remember that along with their department they are responsible for their own safety FFs must remember the most important of all FF safety rules: Everyone looks out for everyone else

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