2Perspective Fundamentals 1-Point Perspective DrawingsPerspective FundamentalsDiminutionObjects appear smaller as their distance from the observer increases.This “truth” of seeing is a fundamental means of producing a sense of space and depth.
31-Point Perspective Drawings ForeshorteningLines or surfaces parallel to the observer’s face show their maximum size. As they are revolved away from the observer they appear increasingly shorter.
41-Point Perspective Drawings ConvergenceLines or edges of objects which in reality are parallel appear to come together as they recede from the observer.Convergence can be thought of as the diminution of closely-spaced elements of equal size.And it implies foreshortening since the surface is not viewed head-on.
51-Point Perspective Drawings OverlappingThis technique not only shows which objects are in front and which are in back - it also achieves a sense of depth and space in drawings. Notice the depth confusion when overlapping does not exist (top).
61-Point Perspective Drawings Shades and ShadowsWorking with light, shade and shadow will dramatically help to give a drawing form and a sense of the third dimension.
7Color & Value in Perspective 1-Point Perspective DrawingsColor & Value in PerspectiveExteriorValues and colors are bright and clear when close up but become grayer, weaker, and objects become fuzzier as distance increases.InteriorValues and colors are bright and clear when seen close up but become darker and more neutral as the view recedes into space.
81-Point Perspective Drawings Focus EffectBlurred foreground with a clear background might be used to emphasize the center of interest as well as a sense of depth.
91-Point Perspective Drawings Focus EffectConversely, when the eye focuses on foreground objects the background will appear blurred and unclear.
10Understanding Perspective 1-Point Perspective DrawingsUnderstanding PerspectivePicture PlaneAn imaginary viewing plane that can be represented by the drawing surface.
111-Point Perspective Drawings Picture PlaneA box drawn in one-point perspective has its front plane parallel to the picture plane.
12Eye Level / Horizon Line / Vanishing Line 1-Point Perspective DrawingsEye Level / Horizon Line / Vanishing LineA straight and horizontal line that is always on the same level as the observer’s eyes.Usually 5’ up from the ground plane or floor.Vanishing points for all horizontal lines in a given drawing are located on this horizontal line.
131-Point Perspective Drawings Choosing an Eye LevelHorizontal planes will show their undersides when above eye level, and their tops when below eye level. At eye level they foreshorten altogether and appear as simple lines.
141-Point Perspective Drawings Vanishing PointsAny 2 or more lines that are in reality parallel will, if extended indefinitely, appear to come together or meet at a point - the vanishing point of these lines.
151-Point Perspective Drawings Vanishing PointsThe only exception to this occurs when the parallel lines are also parallel to the observer’s face and to the picture plane. In this case, they neither recede nor converge and therefore do not have a vanishing point.
161-Point Perspective Drawings Vanishing PointsLines oblique to the picture planeIf oblique to the picture plane, a set of parallel lines will appear to converge toward a common vanishing point as it recedes.Horizontal oblique lines will vanish somewhere on the HL.Inclined oblique lines slanting upward will vanish above the HL.Inclined oblique lines slanting downward will vanish below the HL.
171-Point Perspective Drawings Vanishing PointsRegardless of direction, each set of parallel lines will converge toward its own vanishing point.
18One-Point Perspective 1-Point Perspective DrawingsOne-Point PerspectiveIn one-point perspective, all lines perpendicular to the picture plane (or back wall) point to the single vanishing point on the eye level (horizon line).
19Principles of One-Point Perspective 1-Point Perspective DrawingsPrinciples of One-Point Perspective1 plane parallel to the picture plane.1 vanishing point on the horizon line.Back wall can be measured in scale.Vertical lines remain vertical.Horizontal lines remain horizontal.Only lines perpendicular to the picture plane are drawn to the vanishing point.
21Estimated One-Point Perspective: Grid 1-Point Perspective DrawingsEstimated One-Point Perspective: GridThis method is based on a 10’ square.People are drawn with their eyes on the horizon line in all perspective drawings.
22Estimated One-Point Perspective: Grid 1-Point Perspective DrawingsEstimated One-Point Perspective: GridThe 10’ cube can be adjusted to the size of the desired room.The back wall can be drawn as an elevation. Choose an appropriate scale.Extend lines from the VP through the corners.
23Estimated One-Point Perspective: Grid 1-Point Perspective DrawingsEstimated One-Point Perspective: GridDraw a 10’x10’ grid in an appropriate scale. Continue the grid to the desired width of the space.If the ceiling is higher than 10’, add this to the top of the grid.If the ceiling is lower than 10’, lower the ceiling to the required height.
24Estimated One-Point Perspective: Grid 1-Point Perspective DrawingsEstimated One-Point Perspective: GridPlace the horizon line at 5’.Place the vanishing point on the horizon line to the left or right of the back wall center.
25Estimated One-Point Perspective: Grid 1-Point Perspective DrawingsEstimated One-Point Perspective: GridExtend floor and ceiling lines from the VP through the corners of the back wall.
301-Point Perspective Drawings ASSIGNMENT #9IN CLASS:create a grid for a 1-point perspective drawing of the living room using the fireplace wall for your dimensionsHOMEWORK:collect magazine images of all the items used in the space—furniture & accessories—and bring them with you to class next weekthese images are CRUCIAL to helping you to visualize what is happening in the space while you learn how to build a perspective drawing.