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Kingdoms. Basic Branches of Life  More than 200 years ago, Linnaeus began with only the Plant and Animal Kingdoms.  Later Kingdoms Protista, Fungi,

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdoms. Basic Branches of Life  More than 200 years ago, Linnaeus began with only the Plant and Animal Kingdoms.  Later Kingdoms Protista, Fungi,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdoms

2 Basic Branches of Life  More than 200 years ago, Linnaeus began with only the Plant and Animal Kingdoms.  Later Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, and Monera were added.  Recently the Kingdom Monera was divided into two kingdoms (Archae and Eubacteria),

3  According to scientific theory, the earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old.  According to fossil records, bacteria has been on the earth for 3.5 billion years – it is the oldest known organism.

4 Prokaryotic Cells  Where did the FIRST cell come from?  No one was present to observe this event, so we really don’t know; what we do know is nobody has ever created a cell from scratch in the chemistry lab.

5  Kingdom Archaebacteria (Archae)  Tiny prokaryotic cells, less than 2 micrometers in size  All live without oxygen; they obtain energy from inorganic molecules or light  Live in extreme environments and include  Methanogens – methane producing, live in marshes, swamps and guts of animals  Halophiles – salt loving – live in salt pools and seas  Thermophiles – live in hot springs and volcanoes  Acidophiles – acid loving – live in volcanoes

6 Volcanic vents on the sea floor

7 Chemosynthetic bacteria use the sulfur in the “smoke” for energy to make ATP.

8 The red color of this snow is due to a blue-green bacteria

9  Kingdom Eubacteria  By far the more successful kingdom of bacteria  Today, it accounts for most of the prokaryotic cells on earth.

10  Typical Bacteria Cell

11 StructureFunction Cell WallProtects and gives shape Outer MembraneProtects against antibodies (Gram Neg. Only) Cell Membrane Regulates movement of materials, contains enzymes important to cellular respiration CytoplasmContains DNA, ribosomes, essential compounds Chromo-someCarries genetic information PlasmidContains some genes obtained through recombination Capsule & Slime Layer Protects the cell and assist in attaching cell to other surfaces EndosporeProtects cell against harsh environments PilusAssists the cell in attaching to other surfaces FlagellumMoves the cell

12 Anatomy of a Bacterial Cell 1. Cell envelope (the glycocalyx, cell wall and cell membrane) a. Glycocalyx  Substance secreted on the surface  Outside cell wall  Usually sticky  not found in all bacteria  loosely attached types are called slime layer  mucoid, sticky types firmly bonded to the cell are called a capsule  both types of glycocalyx can also be antigenic and stimulate the production of antibodies needed for the body to eliminate bacteria with these structures from the body

13 Glycocalyx  Both types of glycocalyx can benefit bacteria by:  allowing better attachment to various surfaces, even when smooth  biofilms on medical devices like pacemakers, catheters, IUDs, also on industrial filters and pipes, plaque  helping to prevent the dehydration of the bacterium  helping to prevent the attachment of bacteriophages  serving as a storage depot of nutrients inhibiting phagocytosis by white blood cells  this increases the pathogenicity (bacteria with capsules are usually noted to be more pathogenic than the same species without capsules)

14 Figure 4.11 Fimbriae  Fimbriae short non-locomotor appendages used to attach bacteria to various surfaces

15 No Nucleus-DNA in Cytoplasm

16 Classification of Bacteria  1.) Morphology- involves shape, size, appearance & structure  A.) Bacteria have 3 predominant shapes:

17  Basic shapes: i.) Cocci (pleural) Coccus (sing.) Sphere shaped

18 Cocci bacteria

19 ii. Bacillus (sing.), bacilli (pleural) – rod shaped

20 Bacillus bacteria

21 iii.) Spiral Bacteria (spirillium) Spirillum Spirochete Vibrio

22 Spirillium bacteria have a corkscrew shape

23 Spirillium bacteria

24 b.) Arrangements  Single: micrococci, monococci  Pairs: Diplococci, diplobacilli  Clusters: Staphylococci  Chains: Streptococci, streptobacilli Figures 4.1a, 4.1d, 4.2c

25 diplococci bacteria Ex. causes gonorrhea

26 staphylococci bacteria ex. causes common infections of cuts

27 streptococci bacteria Ex. causes some types of sore throats

28 Diplobacilli bacteria

29 Streptococci bacteria

30 Staphylococci bacteria

31 The tip of a needle. The red and yellow dots are bacteria.

32 C.) Other structures – ex. flagellum or cilia? Figure 4.7

33  D.) Average size: µm in diameter and µm in length

34 Bacteria are very small

35 This is a pore in human skin and the yellow spheres are bacteria

36 Bacteria are very small compared to cells with nuclei

37 Bacteria compared to a white blood cell that is going to eat it Bacteria

38 Skin has about 20 million bacteria per inch 2


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