Presentation on theme: "Lab on a Chip Or: The Incredible Shrinking Science Experiment! Or: APOIBE! Dr. Eric Lagally Credits: Mathies Lab, UC-Berkeley Quake."— Presentation transcript:
Lab on a Chip Or: The Incredible Shrinking Science Experiment! Or: APOIBE! Dr. Eric Lagally Credits: Mathies Lab, UC-Berkeley Quake Lab, Stanford Agilent, Inc.
Lab on a Chip?
Microfluidics Microfluidics: The use of microfabrication techniques from the IC industry to fabricate channels, chambers, reactors, and active components on the size scale of the width of a human hair or smaller Credit: Dr. Karen Cheung, UBC ECE
Why use microfluidics? 1 molecule in 1 L = 1.6 x M 1 molecule in 1 nL = 1.6 x M 1 molecule in 1 pL = 1.6 x M Credit: Dr. Karen Cheung, UBC ECE
Sample savings – nL of enzyme, not L Faster analyses – can heat, cool small volumes quickly Integration – combine lots of steps onto a single device Novel physics – diffusion, surface tension, and surface effects dominate –This can actually lead to faster reactions! Why use microfluidics?
Some interesting LOC applications Genetic analysis –Portable devices for pathogen detection –High-throughput biology Chemical synthesis Metabolite analysis Drug delivery systems Courtesy of Dr. Boris Stoeber
Genetic analysis microsystems
Bacterial Pathogens Food poisoning Wound infections Biowarfare Food poisoning: Pathogenic E. coli: >1 in 10,000 in Canada Salmonella spp.: as high as 1 in 50 eggs Wound infections: Antibiotic-resistant S. aureus: as high as 50% Lung Disease: Pseudomonas spp. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biowarfare: Anthrax, plague, smallpox Lung Disease Dr. Sharon Peacock, University of Oxford
Methods for Genetic Detection of Pathogens OLD WAY: NEW WAY: Develop bacterial pathogen detectors that are: Rapid (< 1 hour) Sensitive (detect a single cell) Genetically Specific Field-portable General (many different types of pathogens)
PCR-CE Microsystem Fabrication
Portable System for Infectious Disease Detection System measures 8 x 10 x 12 inches Complete fluorescence detection including 488-nm solid-state laser, PMT, optics, and detection electronics Heater and RTD electronics 4 high-voltage CE power supplies PDMS microvalve hardware Simple PC interface
Time (seconds) Temperature (°C) Thermal Cycling Characteristics Time (seconds) > 5X faster than conventional thermal cyclers
Application: Tuberculosis (TB) detection Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis 9 million new cases of active TB every year worldwide 2 million TB deaths every year 450,000 new cases of multi-drug resistant TB / yr 10% of TB cases in South Africa are XDR TB strains, resistant to first- and second-line antibiotics Doctors Without Borders:
Current TB detection methods 1. Fixation and staining with acid-fast stains (Ziehl-Neelsen or auramine stains) 2. Optical or fluorescence microscope examination ( 10,000 organisms/mL) 3.Culture in biosafety level 3 containment facility In select cases, molecular detection is used to verify diagnosis "That TB destroys millions of lives around the world every year shows that the current approach is just not working…The tools we have to treat and diagnose TB are woefully inadequate and outdated, and we're not seeing the necessary urgency to tackle the disease." Dr. Tido von Schoen-Angerer, Director, DWB’s Campaign for the Access to Essential Medicines