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I want I.D. Help - - finding strategies for a lesson.finding strategies for a lesson. - connecting a: word or phrase strategy theory name About this.

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Presentation on theme: "I want I.D. Help - - finding strategies for a lesson.finding strategies for a lesson. - connecting a: word or phrase strategy theory name About this."— Presentation transcript:

1 I want I.D. Help - - finding strategies for a lesson.finding strategies for a lesson. - connecting a: word or phrase strategy theory name About this.

2 Finding strategies for a lesson: Which of these is more important? –The learnerThe learner –The subject matterThe subject matter –The class environmentThe class environment –The outcome.The outcome. Back

3 Strategies for Learners. Are your learners… –Not trying to learn?Not trying to learn? –Experienced and internally motivated?Experienced and internally motivated? –Having trouble with low level Bloom?Having trouble with low level Bloom? –Highly autonomous?Highly autonomous? –Highly social?Highly social? Back

4 Strategies for Learners. Are your learners… –Not trying to learn? Consider: – ARCSARCS –Behavior ModelingBehavior Modeling –Behavior ModificationBehavior Modification Back

5 Strategies for Learners. Are your learners… –Experienced and internally motivated? Consider: –Adult learning theoryAdult learning theory –Constructivist strategiesConstructivist strategies Back

6 Strategies for Learners. Are your learners… –Having trouble with low level Bloom? Consider: –Gagnes Conditions of LearningGagnes Conditions of Learning –Gagnes Nine Events of LearningGagnes Nine Events of Learning –MnemonicsMnemonics –Advance OrganizersAdvance Organizers Back

7 Strategies for Learners. Are your learners… –Highly autonomous? Consider: –Constructivist strategiesConstructivist strategies –Adult Learning TheoryAdult Learning Theory –Behavior ModificationBehavior Modification (if autonomy means bad habits!) Back

8 Strategies for Learners. Are your learners… –Highly social? Consider: –Constructivist strategiesConstructivist strategies –Behavior ModelingBehavior Modeling Back

9 Strategies for subjects/objectives. Are the specific subjects or objectives… –Confusing or Difficult?Confusing or Difficult? –Clearly related to each other?Clearly related to each other? –Clearly relevant to the learners?Clearly relevant to the learners? Back

10 Strategies for subjects/objectives. Are the specific subjects or objectives… –Confusing or difficult? Consider: –MnemonicsMnemonics –Advance OrganizerAdvance Organizer –Conditions of LearningConditions of Learning Think about: –C.I.P.C.I.P. –Structural Learning Theory Back

11 Strategies for subjects/objectives. Are the specific subjects or objectives… –Clearly related to each other? Consider: –Advance organizerAdvance organizer Think about: –ConstructivismConstructivism –Situated CognitionSituated Cognition Back

12 Strategies for subjects/objectives. Are the specific subjects or objectives… –Clearly relevant to the learners? Consider: –ARCSARCS –Adult learning theory (it works for some kids.)Adult learning theory Think about: –ConstructivismConstructivism Back

13 Strategies for learning environments. Does the learning environment… –Distract from the lesson?Distract from the lesson? –Include experts and beginners?Include experts and beginners? –Become an important part of the lesson?Become an important part of the lesson? –Extend beyond class space and time?Extend beyond class space and time? Back

14 Strategies for learning environments. Does the learning environment… –Distract from the lesson? Consider: –ARCSARCS –Nine Events of LearningNine Events of Learning Think about: –Situated CognitionSituated Cognition –C.I.P.C.I.P. Back

15 Strategies for learning environments. Does the learning environment… –Include experts and beginners? Consider: –ConstructivismConstructivism –Adult Learning TheoryAdult Learning Theory Think about: –Situated CognitionSituated Cognition Back

16 Strategies for learning environments. Does the learning environment… –Become an important part of the lesson? Consider: –Adult Learning TheoryAdult Learning Theory Think about: –Situated CognitionSituated Cognition –ConstructivismConstructivism Back

17 Strategies for learning environments. Does the learning environment… –Extend beyond class space and time? Consider: –Nine Events of LearningNine Events of Learning Think about: –ConstructivismConstructivism Back

18 Strategies for Results. Must every learner –succeed?succeed? –be challenged?be challenged? –be carefully evaluated?be carefully evaluated? –be happy and satisfied with the lesson?be happy and satisfied with the lesson? –be helped to continue learning on their own after the lesson?be helped to continue learning on their own after the lesson? Back

19 Strategies for Results. Must every learner –succeed? Consider: –Conditions of LearningConditions of Learning –Nine Events of LearningNine Events of Learning –ARCSARCS Think about: –C.I.P.C.I.P. Back

20 Strategies for Results. Must every learner –be challenged? Consider: –ConstructivismConstructivism –Adult Learning Theory (for some kids, too.)Adult Learning Theory Think about: –Situated CognitionSituated Cognition Back

21 Strategies for Results. Must every learner –be carefully evaluated? Consider: –Conditions of LearningConditions of Learning –Nine Events of LearningNine Events of Learning Think about: –BehaviorismBehaviorism –C.I.P.C.I.P. Back

22 Strategies for Results. Must every learner –Be happy and satisfied with the lesson? Consider: –ARCSARCS –Adult Learning TheoryAdult Learning Theory –Behavior ModelingBehavior Modeling Back

23 Strategies for Results. Must every learner –be helped to continue learning on their own after the lesson? Consider: –ConstructivismConstructivism Think about: –Situated CognitionSituated Cognition Back

24 Words and phrases activity & dialogical processinstructional objectivespositive punishment anchored instructionLearning as experiencepositive reinforcement apprenticeshipslong term memoryProblem Based Learning classical conditioningmemory modelsscaffolding cognitive apprenticeshipmore knowledgeable othersensory memory cognitive developmentnegative punishmentshort term memory communities of practicenegative reinforcementstimulus - response conditioned responseoperant conditioningunconditioned response conditioned stimulusperformance analysisunconditioned stimulus discovery learningperformance improvementZone of Proximal Development Back

25 Strategies Behavior Modification Behavior Modeling Mnemonics Conditions/Events of LearningConditionsEvents of Learning Advance organizers Constructivism ARCS Adult Learning Others Back

26 Behavior Modification Who: B.F.Skinner When to use: teach desired behavior in class, good work habits, change personal behaviors; usually NOT for cognitive domain stuff. Where used: AA, Weight watchers, class discipline, bad work habits (tardy, etc.). How: 5 phases: 1.specify goal: identify and describe desired behavior, then decide how to accurately measure it. 2.find current baseline: carefully observe and measure current behavior, competing behavior, antecedent conditions and current reinforcers and/or punishments. 3.design contingencies: choose reinforcers, decide how to administer; may include punishments, desensitization, modeling, etc. 4.intervene: inform learner, structure environment, reinforce, measure behaviors 5.evaluate program: compare behavior data, reversal when reinforcers dropped?, (gradually?) stop reinforcement. Why I like/dislike: measurable, sometimes unethical, addresses motivations, in a black box way. Back

27 Behavior Modeling Who: Bandura When to use: to teach interpersonal skills, affective domain, adjust habits of current practitioners. Where used: coaching, manager or sales training, for constantly varying situations, changing attitudes. How: 1.Identify critical steps or specific competent behaviors. 2.Show credible model with above steps; not unattainably perfect. 3.Rehearse critical steps in realistic scenarios 4.(Instructor facilitates) positive peer feedback. 5.Gradually increase difficulty and realism of scenarios. 6.O.T.J. reinforcement (often, managers must be coached in how to do this.) Why I like/dislike: good to adjust persistent habits; manipulative. Back

28 Mnemonics Who: Pressley, Levin When to use: verbal info, lists in sequence, etc. Where used: languages, sequences. How: : Rhyme or alliteration music or pattern, acronym, Dual encoding visuals: loci, peg words the walk Emotional dual encoding: story or joke Why I like/dislike: it adds links. Often boring stuff is linked to interesting: emotional, visual… If mnemonic doesnt command retention, it can add to confusion, or hinder long term recall. Back

29 Nine Events of Learning Who: Gagne When to use: when efficient instruction is needed, with high success rate. Works for all domains. Where used: U.S. military, business, etc. How: 1. gain attention (often a video) 2. state objectives, specific, with demonstrations 3. stimulate recall of prior knowledge (Socratic?, based on visuals or other known examples) 4. present content; point out important features. 5. give learning guidance: help with framework or organization 6. elicit performance: learners try doing x. 7. give feedback: immediate, specific. 8. assess performance: learner performs without assist. Feedback after. 9. enhance retention and transfer: varied practice, review and feedback over extended time. Why I like/dislike: This gives a specific recipe for all domains, with good results. Back

30 Conditions of Learning DomainInternalExternal Cognitive Verbal info (Knowledge & comprehension) Recall related material; make connections Short term memory capacity (<7?) Chunking, context, imagery, organizers, Themes, mnemonics, environment learned = environment recalled? Cognitive Intellect. Skills (Analysis thru evaluation) Info overload, identify critical features, patterns, etc. Above, plus: pacing and spacing, cues and organizers, Varied practice to facilitate transfer. Cognitive Strategies (How to learn better) Rule and concept knowledge, Familiarity and prior experience. Demo, modeling, Socratic questioning? Varied practice, feedback Evaluative reflection Affective (Attitudes) Habits: preexisting knowledge, behavior patterns, and attitudes; motivators. Open to change? Expect success. Role model? Feedback, repetition to build new habits. Psychomotor (Motor skills) Component skills familiar, Knowledge of exec. Subroutine (big pic.) Demo, explain, and then cue subroutine, then guide component skills, chained. Complete practice of new skill. Back

31 Advance Organizers A visual and/or verbal meta-overview of the subject about to be taught. Gives a structure to new stuff. Helps: chunking, integration with pre-existing knowledge. Who: Ausubel When to use: Gagnes cognitive: verbal info and intellectual skills; should work almost anywhere. Where used: textbooks, manuals, etc. How: –give the overview at a more abstract, meta level, prior to instruction. –Make it concise. Why I like/dislike: reduces cognitive load, helps integration, retention. Probably bad for affective goals that are deliberately hidden at first. Back

32 Constructivism Theory & strategy. Both stress affective, relevant, autonomous but interactive learning. Who: Jonassen, Duffy, Dougiamas, When to use: collaborative projects, subjects with rapidly changing knowledge bases; many other uses. Where used: team projects, distance learning, less-defined objectives? How: 1.choose or create a relevant, real-world or realistic, complex task (ill-defined). 2.Guide on the side as learners own task, and derive their own objectives. 3.Encourage interaction and experimenting. 4.present alternative views, support and challenge as appropriate. 5.Allow group time and solo thinking time; 6.Encourage analysis of learning process / students own cognitive strategies. Why I like/dislike: allows for student differences, shifts ownership of learning; but objectives too poorly defined for many uses. Back

33 ARCS Motivational strategy/mnemonic: attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction. It rides on top of other instructional strategies. Who: Keller When to use: If you think the lesson might not work, or it isnt working. Where used: classrooms, required learning situations. How: (do ADDIE for 4 motivational factors.) 1.Audience analysis: Which of the four ARCS factors are missing or weakest? 2.Develop motivational objective 3.Choose motivational strategy and lesson; balanced with instructional lesson 4.Implement and Evaluate motivational part of lesson. Why I like/dislike: this is a simple formula, but highly functional. Back

34 Adult Learning adults are: self-directing, experienced, motivated by usefulness of learning, not learning for its own sake. Who: Malcolm Knowles, Maslow, Carl Rogers… When to use: when learners have experience and pragmatic, internal motivations – adults or kids, too. Where used: workplace, college, adult ESL… How: 1.Prep learners with overview info, self analysis 2.Set environment: friendly, open, encouraging discussion 3.Involve learners in ADDIE process: –mutual planning ( use their experiences) –diagnosing own needs (use their cog strategizing experience?) –setting objectives (learning contracts or plans) –implementing their plans –evaluating their learning, per their plans. Why I like/dislike: learners own process; build skills for more complete ownership of future learning. But it assumes sufficient experience. If motivation is external, as in pay raise, can other methods work as well or better? Back

35 Theories Behaviorism Cognitivism Cognitive Information Processing Situated Cognition Constructivism Others Back

36 Behaviorism external stimuli cause all behaviors (responses). Dont consider mental processes, just I/O. Popular in early 1900s, less so after cognitivism came in in the 1960s. Watson –classical conditioning, s – r, ucs, ucr, cs, cr Pavlov –classical vs.operant conditioning Skinner –Behavior Modification, Thorndike, Bandura –social learning theory – partly cognitive Tolman. Back - more -

37 Behavioristic Buzzwords: –stimulus-response –un/conditioned stimulus/response –operant conditioning –positive/negative reinforcement/punishment. Instructional Objectives Performance Analysis & Improvement Behavior Modification Behavior Modeling Back

38 Cognitivism and Cognitive Information Processing Cognitivism: study mental black box processes. Popular in the 1960s, mostly replacing behaviorism. Cognitive Information Processing: computer-like analysis of human mind during learning. –Sensory memory short term memory long term. –Memory models: semantic; feature; proposition; dual visual/verbal; parallel distributed. Merrill –Component Display Theory or CDT Reigeluth –Elaboration Theory Gagne –Conditions of Learning –Nine events of learning Briggs Wager Bruner –moving toward cognitive constructivism Schank –scripts Scandura –structural learning Back - more -

39 CIP / Cognitivistic Buzzwords: Schema, schemata, I information processing, symbol manipulation, information mapping, mental models. Memory map and models Enhancing memory with: variable practice, linking, chunking, mnemonics advance organizers conditions/nine events of learning Learning Domains Component Display Theory Structural Learning Theory Back

40 Situated Cognition learning is increased participation in a community of practice. Cant separate knowledge from context and environment where its used. Collins Peters Bereiter Wenger Back - more -

41 Situated Cognitivistic Buzzwords: –apprenticeships, –communities of practice –Scaffolding –Fading Based partly on cognitive inquiry Learners observe/discover expert behaviors in context. Back

42 Constructivism learner builds personal and subjective meanings from interactions and social re-constructions before, during, and after interaction. Vygotsky –Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) –more knowledgeable other (MKO) Piaget –cognitive development Dewey Vico Rorty Bruner Back - more -

43 Constructivist Buzzwords: –Learning as experience –activity and dialogical process –Problem Based Learning (PBL) –anchored instruction –cognitive apprenticeship (scaffolding) –discovery learning. Constructivism is also a strategy. Back

44 Others Humanist Back

45 Names AusubelCollinsPavlovScanduraVico BanduraDeweyPetersSchankVygotsky BereiterGagnePiagetSkinnerWager BriggsKellerRiegeluthThorndikeWatson BrunerMerrillRortyTolmanWenger Back

46 I.D. Helper is - a quick and dirty job aid created to sum up EDIT 704. Info taken from class and: Models and Strategies for Training Design – Medsker Psychology of Learning for Instruction – Driscoll http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html Spring 2008 Bill Bimber Back


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