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Chapter 5— Firefighter PPE

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1 Chapter 5— Firefighter PPE

2 Chapter 5 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to identify, use, & maintain FF protective clothing & equipment following the policies & procedures set forth by FrPD

3 Protective Clothing Goes by many names: Bunker gear Turnout gear
Bunkers Firefighter PPE

4 Protective Clothing Designed to cover & protect your body
Protects you from: Heat/cold Contact/impact Must meet NFPA 1971 Designed for use with SCBA

5 Protective Clothing Failure to wear PPE can lead to injury
It is a system You must wear all of it Must be worn correctly Keep it clean PPE works best when clean NFPA requires cleaning every 6 months

6 Protective Clothing PPE does not protect you in all IDLH situations
Haz Mat Gases Chemicals Wear PPE appropriate to the hazard

7 Protective Clothing Helmet Protective hood Protects head from impact
Protects head from scalding water, products of combustion Protective hood Protects portions of face, ears, neck not covered by helmet or coat collar (Continued)

8 Protective Clothing Protective coat/trousers
Protect trunk, limbs against cuts, abrasions, burn injuries Protect from heat/cold Provide limited protection from corrosive liquids

9 Protective Clothing Gloves Safety shoes/boots Eye protection
Protect hands from cuts, abrasions, burns Safety shoes/boots Protect feet from burns, puncture wounds Eye protection Protects wearer’s eyes from hazards (Continued)

10 Protective Clothing Hearing protection
Limits noise-induced hearing loss Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) Protects face, lungs from heat, smoke, toxic products of combustion & airborne contaminants (Continued)

11 Protective Clothing Personal alert safety system (PASS)
Provides audible means by which a lost, trapped, or incapacitated FF can be located Built-in on newer model SCBAs Do not let your PASS go to alarm if you are OK If your PASS alarms during a test, you fail Do not remove PPE to check heat levels Gloves, hood

12 Helmet Characteristics
Benefits Prevents hot water, embers from reaching ears & neck Protects head from impact Protection from heat, cold Secondary protection of face/eyes with faceshield Colored helmets, removable shields provide I.D. (Continued)

13 Helmet Characteristics
Structural fire fighting helmets must have ear flaps or neck covers Chin straps ensure helmets stay in place upon impact For secondary face/eye protection, faceshields are attached to helmet

14 Eye Protection Characteristics
Several styles of safety glasses, goggles available Must meet ANSI Standard Z87.1 for severe exposure to impact, heat Primary eye protection Note: Helmet faceshields are NOT considered primary eye protection

15 Hearing Protection Characteristics
Most common use is for FFs who ride apparatus exceeding maximum noise exposure levels (>90dB) Intercom/ear protection systems provide dual benefit Earplugs/earmuffs may be used

16 Protective Hood Characteristics
Typically made of fire-resistant material Provide higher level of protection than facepiece alone when used in conjunction with SCBA Facepiece-to-face seal is important

17 Turnout Coat Characteristics
NFPA 1971 requires Outer shell Moisture barrier Thermal barrier (Continued)

18 Turnout Coat Characteristics
Outer shell- protects FF from heat & contact Moisture barrier- protects FF from hot water & steam Thermal barrier-protects FF from heat Barriers also contribute to heat stress on FF (Continued)

19 Turnout Coat Characteristics
Features that provide additional protection/ convenience (Continued)

20 Turnout Coat Characteristics
Drag Rescue Device DRD Built-in harness for a rescuer to grab & drag a FF (Continued)

21 Turnout Coat Characteristics
Should be cleaned to manufacturer’s specifications, reflective trim maintained to NFPA standards Reflective trim: increases visibility of wearer to others

22 Turnout Pant Characteristics
Integral part of protective ensemble, only NFPA-compliant lower-extremity covering Pants are constructed w/ same materials & barriers as protective coats Have reinforced knee pads (Continued)

23 Turnout Pant Characteristics
Provided w/ suspenders to support the weight of wet pants Must fit properly Should be cleaned according to manufacturer’s specifications; reflective trim maintained to NFPA standards

24 Hand Protection Characteristics
Protect against heat, steam, cold penetration; provides resistance to cuts, punctures, liquid absorption Reduces dexterity & ability to feel things Must fit properly

25 Foot Protection Characteristics
Available in variety of styles, materials Must fit well Protects from potential hazards Firefighters should have Protective boots Safety shoes (Continued)

26 Foot Protection Characteristics
Many safety boots incorporate steel for extra protection Most rubber firefighting boots have insulation FrPD uses rubber & leather boots

27 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why should FFs never wear clothing made of synthetic materials, such as nylon or polyester, when fighting a fire?

28 Station/Work Uniform Characteristics
Must meet requirements of NFPA 1975 Will not ignite, melt or separate when exposed to 500°F (260°C) for 5 min. Designed to be fire-resistant but not for firefighting Adds protection to FF while doing work

29 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why is it important that the manufacturer’s recommendations for the care & maintenance of FF protective clothing be followed whenever cleaning or repairing it?

30 Considerations for Use and Limitations of PPE
Removing liner of turnout coat compromises effectiveness DO NOT REMOVE ANY PARTS OF YOUR PPE! Wearing PPE may increase risk of heat stress FFs may suffer burns w/ no warning (Continued)

31 Considerations for Use & Limitations of PPE
Structural PPE provides no CBRNE protection C = Chemical B = Biological R = Radiological N = Nuclear E = Explosion

32 Considerations for Use & Limitations of PPE
Decreased ability to feel ambient heat Damaged PPE causes greater risk Using appropriate PPE is only way to be properly protected

33 Care of Personal Protective Clothing
Must be cleaned & maintained according to manufacturer’s specifications If contaminated, should not be worn until properly laundered according to manufacturer’s recommended procedure (Continued)

34 Care of Personal Protective Clothing
Do not wash PPE at home Can lead to cross contamination Decontaminate PPE after interior firefighting & medical calls Do not dry clean or use bleach Do not launder gloves Do not dry in direct sunlight (Continued)

35 Care of Personal Protective Clothing
Care of helmets Cleaning considerations Do not use scrubbing pads

36 DISCUSSION QUESTION How should contaminated protective clothing be washed & handled?

37 Respiratory Hazards IDLH atmospheres Inhalation hazards
Lungs are susceptible to respiratory hazards Interior of a burning building is an IDLH atmosphere (Continued) District Chief Chris E. Mickal, NOFD Photo Unit

38 Respiratory Hazards Four common hazards
Oxygen deficiency (causes hypoxia) Elevated temperatures Smoke Toxic atmosphere (w/ & w/o fire)

39 Oxygen Deficiency Combustion process consumes oxygen while producing toxic gases Deficiencies can occur in below-grade locations, sewers, chemical storage tanks, etc. Can only be checked by instruments (Continued)

40 Oxygen Deficiency Some departments are equipped to monitor atmospheres, measure hazards directly FrPD does not use Where monitoring is impossible or readings questionable, SCBA must be worn

41 Oxygen Deficiency Air is 21% oxygen
Oxygen-deficient is less than 19.5% 1st sign: muscles do not work right at 17% 2nd sign: dizzy & headache at 12% 3rd sign: Unconsciousness occurs at 9% Death at 6% (Continued)

42 Elevated Temperatures
Exposure to heated air can damage respiratory tract Excessive heat taken quickly into lungs can cause serious decrease in blood pressure, failure of circulatory system (Continued)

43 Elevated Temperatures
Inhaling heated gases can cause pulmonary edema, which can cause death from asphyxiation Tissue damage from inhaling hot air is not immediately reversible; prompt medical treatment needed

44 Smoke Consists of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon particles, other products Particles enable condensation of gaseous products of combustion Some particles in smoke irritating; others lethal

45 Toxic Atmospheres Associated With Fire
Inhaled toxic gases may have several harmful effects on human body Some gases cause impaired lung function Other gases pass into bloodstream & impair oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells

46 Toxic Atmospheres Associated With Fire
Type, amount of toxic gases released at fire vary according to Nature of combustible Rate of heating Temperature of evolved gases Oxygen concentration

47 Toxic Atmospheres Associated With Fire
Toxic Gas Characteristics Caused by Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Colorless, odorless Free-burning Carbon Monoxide (CO) Incomplete combustion Hydrogen Chloride (HCL) Colorless to slightly yellow, strong odor Burning plastics Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Colorless, almond odor Burning wool & plastics Phosgene (COCL2) Colorless, musty hay Burning refrigerants or halons

48 Toxic Atmospheres Not Associated With Fire
Carbon Monoxide Product of incomplete combustion Odorless, colorless, tasteless Responsible for most fire deaths Displaces oxygen in the bloodstream

49 Toxic Atmospheres Not Associated With Fire
Carbon Monoxide 1% exposure can cause unconsciousness Takes hours to leave the body In addition to being toxic, also highly flammable Causes backdraft Darker the smoke, the higher CO levels

50 Toxic Atmospheres Not Associated With Fire
Many industrial processes use extremely dangerous chemicals Hazardous materials Common calls may also require SCBA When in doubt, wear SCBA

51 Physical Factors Affecting Use of Respiratory Protection
Physical condition Agility Facial features Hair in the seal area Eyeglasses Fit testing conducted yearly Mask sizes to fit face S,M,L,XL

52 DISCUSSION QUESTION What is the impact of poor physical condition on SCBA use?

53 Medical Factors Affecting Use of Respiratory Protection
Neurological functioning Muscular/skeletal condition Cardiovascular conditioning Respiratory functioning

54 Mental Factors Affecting Use of Respiratory Protection
Adequate training in equipment use Self-confidence Emotional stability Using SCBA can cause anxiety

55 Limitations of SCBA Equipment
Limited visibility Decreased ability to communicate Increased weight SCBA & PPE add lbs. Decreased mobility

56 Limitations of SCBA Air Supply
Physical conditions of user Degree of physical exertion Emotional stability of user Condition of apparatus Cylinder pressure before use Training/experience of user

57 DISCUSSION QUESTION How can training & experience be a limited factor for SCBA use?

58 Air Management Air supply left after low-air alarm sounds may not allow enough exit time Low air alarm sounds at 25% remaining air Comply with accountability system in use, maintain situational awareness, manage air supply Responsibility for safety rests w/ FF

59 Basic Elements to Effective Air Management
Know point of no return Know how much air is available Make conscious decision to stay or leave when air down to 50%

60 Basic Elements to Effective Air Management
Always work in pairs-2in/2out Check your facepiece seal Leave dangerous areas immediately when low air alarm sounds

61 Checks to Maximize Air Supply
Beginning of shift When donning SCBA & opening cylinder valve While working During egress from hazard zone When refilling/replacing cylinder

62 Air-Purifying Respirators
Used in atmospheres containing normal levels of oxygen but contaminated with airborne particulates Most basic type — Surgical-type filter mask More sophisticated models have air-purifying filter, canister, or cartridge

63 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Must be used in atmospheres that are oxygen-deficient, contaminated with smoke or other toxic materials Two types Open-circuit: Used by FrPD Closed-circuit: Used in shipboard operations, extended haz mat incidents, some rescue operations (Continued)

64 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Closed-circuit SCBA Uses small cylinder of O2 Recycles exhaled air Duration of 4 hours Open-circuit airline equipment Uses an air supply connected by hose Maximum hose length of 300’

65 SCBA Harness Assembly Rigid frame with straps to hold air cylinder on firefighter’s back Adjustable shoulder straps Waist straps put weight on hips Common problem — Failure to buckle waist straps

66 SCBA Air Cylinder Assembly
Cylinder, valve, pressure gauge, PASS device Main weight of breathing apparatus Various cylinder sizes, capacities, features offered Cylinder weight increases physical stress

67 SCBA Air Cylinder Assembly
All connections on SCBA are hand tight

68 SCBA Regulator Assembly
High-pressure hose with low-pressure alarm, bypass valve, pressure-reducing device Reduces pressure of cylinder air to slightly above atmospheric pressure, controls flow of air to meet respiratory requirements of wearer (Continued)

69 SCBA Regulator Assembly
When wearer inhales, pressure differential created in regulator Depending on model, will have control valves for normal/emergency operations Remote pressure gauge shows air pressure remaining in cylinder, mounted in position visible to user (Continued)

70 SCBA Regulator Assembly
Bypass Valve For use when the regulator fails Cylinder air goes straight to facepiece Usually located on regulator or mask Only used in emergencies Normal position is closed If you use it, leave the area immediately (Continued)

71 SCBA Regulator Assembly
According to NFPA 1981, all new SCBA must be equipped with rapid intervention crew universal air connection (RIC UAC)

72 Facepiece Assembly Facepiece lens, exhalation valve, low-pressure hose; sometimes includes voice amplification, head harness, helmet mounting bracket (Continued)

73 Facepiece Assembly Provides some protection from facial/ respiratory burns, holds in cool air Lens made of clear safety plastic, mounted in flexible rubber facepiece Mask held snugly against face by head harness Nosecup reduces fogging

74 Methods of Storing Protective Breathing Apparatus
Placed on apparatus in many ways If placed in seat mounts, donning should be possible without unbuckling seat belt

75 PASS Devices Personal Alert Safety System Required by NFPA 1500

76 PASS Devices Designed to alert others that a FF has stopped moving & may be in distress May be integrated into SCBA

77 Recommendations For Use of PASS Devices
Use only those meeting NFPA 1982 Maintain according to manufacturer’s instructions; test daily Conduct realistic training Retrain semiannually (Continued)

78 Recommendations For Use of PASS Devices
Check SCBA, PASS devices when coming on duty or before use Train rescuers to listen for distress sound Silence PASS device to facilitate communication when FF located

79 PASS Device Warning Alarm signals produced may be significantly reduced at temperatures as low as 300°F (150°C) By as much as 50%

80 SCBA Precautionary Safety Checks
Check air cylinder gauge — No less than 90% of cylinder capacity Check remote & cylinder gauge to ensure they match (Continued)

81 SCBA Precautionary Safety Checks
Check harness assembly, facepiece to ensure all straps fully extended Operate all valves to ensure proper function Check PASS device

82 General Considerations — Donning the SCBA
Check air cylinder gauge 90% full Open cylinder valve fully Compare remote gauge to cylinder gauge Check PASS device SCBA Inspection.wmv (Continued)

83 Donning SCBA Stored in Case
Both methods require SCBA to be positioned in front of firefighter with all straps extended, ready to don Over-the-head method Coat method

84 Donning From Seat Mount
FFs can don SCBA while on the way to the call Do not unbuckle seatbelt to don SCBA Hardware Lever clamp Spring clamp Flat hook (Continued)

85 Donning From Seat Mount
Makes checking equipment more convenient Necessitates more care when exiting apparatus Never stand to don SCBA while vehicle moving

86 Donning From Compartment or Backup Mount
Can be ready for rapid donning Some compartment doors may interfere with donning (Continued)

87 Donning From Compartment or Backup Mount
Other compartments may be too high, making donning difficult Some mounts feature telescoping frame Backup mount provides quick access to SCBA

88 Donning the SCBA Facepiece
Steps for most SCBA similar One difference — Some use rubber harness with adjusting straps while others use mesh skullcap with adjusting straps

89 General Considerations — Donning the SCBA Facepiece
No hair should come between skin, sealing surface Chin should be centered in chin cup, harness centered at rear of head Facepiece straps should be tightened Facepiece should be checked for proper seal, operation (Continued)

90 General Considerations — Donning the SCBA Facepiece
Facepiece straps should be tightened: Lower Cheek Temple Head Pull both straps at same time (Continued)

91 General Considerations — Donning the SCBA Facepiece
Positive pressure should be checked Facepiece must be secured before hood is pulled over it; all exposed skin must be covered & vision not blocked Helmet should be worn with chin strap secured

92 General Considerations — Donning the SCBA Facepiece
A poor seal is dangerous because: You lose air You may die (Continued)

93 Doffing SCBA FFs should make sure they are out of contaminated area & SCBA is no longer required Discontinue flow of air from regulator to facepiece Disconnect low-pressure hose from regulator or remove regulator from facepiece (Continued)

94 Doffing SCBA Remove facepiece
Remove backpack assembly while protecting regulator Close cylinder valve Relieve pressure from regulator in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions Turn off PASS device (Continued)

95 Doffing SCBA Extend all straps Refill, replace cylinder
Clean, disinfect facepiece Wash w/ warm water & approved disinfectant Special care should taken w/ exhalation valve Air dry & wipe facepiece off w/ soft cloth or paper towel

96 Storing SCBA Cylinder full (90%+) w/valve closed Straps extended fully
SCBA & facepiece cleaned Store in clean area Ready to be donned & used

97 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why should a FF check his SCBA daily?

98 SCBA — Inspections & Care
Requires checks & inspections to be made; NFPA 1404 & 1500 FrPD SOPs Worn, damaged parts must be replaced according to manufacturer instructions FrPD SCBA program includes inspecting, disinfecting, maintaining & storing SCBAs (Continued)

99 SCBA — Daily/Weekly Care
Include checks of: Cylinder pressure Facepiece All gauges Harness system Low-pressure alarm All valves All hose connections Built-in PASS devices (Continued)

100 SCBA — Daily/Weekly Care
General considerations Breathing apparatus should be cleaned, sanitized immediately after use Facepiece should be thoroughly washed Dry facepiece Damaging actions

101 SCBA — Monthly Care Inspections should include removing equipment from service & checking All components for deterioration Leaks around valves, hose connections Operation of all gauges, valves, regulator, exhalation valve, low-air alarm

102 SCBA — Annual Care Should be done in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations Requires special training Service provider must be able to disassemble apparatus into basic components & conduct tests using specialized tools (Continued)

103 SCBA — Other Care Air cylinders must show date of manufacture/ last hydrostatic test Hydrostatic Testing: tests cylinder integrity New Scotts & Aluminum: 5 years Draeger: 3 years

104 SCBA — Other Care If a cylinder if found to need a hydro test, it must be tagged & taken out of service Always empty cylinders before returning them for servicing, testing

105 Safety Precautions — Filling Air Cylinders
Filled from cascade system Bank of 3 or more cylinders Filled directly from compressor purification system (Continued)

106 Safety Precautions — Filling Air Cylinders
No matter how they are filled, same precautions apply: Place in shielded fill station Prevent from overheating by filling slowly Ensure completely full but not over-pressurized

107 Precautions for SCBA Use
All FFs must be fit-tested annually or when new facepieces issued FFs should closely monitor how they feel while wearing SCBA; rest when fatigued (Continued)

108 Precautions for SCBA Use
Air-supply duration varies After entering contaminated area, do not remove breathing apparatus until away from contaminated area While in IDLH atmosphere Work in teams of 2 or more & in physical, voice & visual contact Check air supply status frequently

109 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
Important considerations for emergencies created by malfunctioning protective breathing apparatus Conservation of air Immediate withdrawal from hazardous atmosphere (Continued)

110 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
Using SCBA when regulators malfunction Intermittently open, close bypass valve Because air is bypassing regulator, bypass valve should be closed after each breath & opened each time another is needed (Continued)

111 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
Recommended actions in event of SCBA malfunction Rely on your training Do not panic, remain calm Withdraw to clear atmosphere (Continued)

112 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
Breathing control Use less air, live longer Two methods #1 Skip breathing Takes a breath Holds for 5 seconds Takes a short second breath, then long exhale (Continued)

113 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
#2 Controlled breathing Breathe in through nose & exhale through mouth Each breath should take 5 seconds (Continued)

114 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
If separated from team or lost or disoriented: Declare Mayday Follow FrPD SOP Stop & think Hold breath & listen Remember ways to find a way out Lie flat on floor close to wall (Continued)

115 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
If separated from team & trapped Follow your training Use portable radio to declare Mayday Activate PASS device Escape through any available opening Use personal escape rope if window available (Continued)

116 Emergency Situations Using SCBA
If separated from team & trapped Control the door Place flashlight on floor w/ light shining toward ceiling Slow breathing as much as possible (Continued)

117 Emergency Evacuation Signals
Used when IC decides all FFs should abandon building or hazard zone All FFs must be familiar Two common ways Radio Airhorn blasts Evacuation signal triggers PAR

118 Team Integrity Always work in pairs
If one FF leaves, at least one must go with him Two-in/Two-out rule always applies No one is ever inside or leaves alone

119 Areas of Limited Visibility
Moving Crawling Crouched walk Likely IDLH atmosphere Operate in teams of two or more Have some sort of tag line

120 Exiting Areas With Restricted Openings
Restricted opening — One that is too small to pass through while wearing SCBA in normal manner May be necessary to slip out of harness assembly while leaving facepiece in place, exit, then put assembly back on There are 3 methods FFs can use

121 Considerations When Exiting Restricted Areas
Methods Loosen straps & slide SCBA to one side Take non-regulator side arm out of harness Last Resort - take SCBA off & push in front Maintain contact with SCBA at all times, do not take off facepiece!

122 Summary FFs must have the best protective clothing & equipment available Even if all departments furnish FFs with the latest protective gear & it is used correctly all the time, safety is not guaranteed because safety clothing & equipment have limitations (Continued)

123 Summary FFs must be thoroughly trained in the use of their protective gear & must be capable of maintaining their protective clothing & equipment so that they are ready when needed

124 Skills Don firefighting PPE & SCBA.
Doff firefighting PPE & SCBA & prepare for reuse. Demonstrate controlled breathing & air conservation Replacing an empty SCBA cylinder Pass through a restricted opening while wearing SCBA Initiate & complete SCBA emergency procedures for SCBA failure & air depletion

125 Skills In obscured visibility, implement SCBA emergency procedures & follow guidelines to exit a hazardous area Clean & maintain firefighting PPE & SCBA per manufacturer and/or FrPD guidelines Report deficient and/or malfunctioning equipment. (Skill Sheet FF-I-102) Negotiate an SCBA maze (Exercise 1)

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