Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution August 10, 1792 – July 27, 1794 By: Olivia Zhao"— Presentation transcript:
1The French Revolution August 10, 1792 – July 27, 1794 By: Olivia Zhao
2Review of the Causes of the French Revolution “Little by little, the old world crumbled, and not once did the king imagine that some of the pieces might fall on him.”― Jennifer Donnelly, RevolutionReview of the Causes of the French Revolution
3August 10, 1792: Storming at Tuileries Event: Storming of the royal palace at the TuileriesCause: King Louis XVI published the Prussian Duke of Brunswick’s threat against ParisDestroy city if revolutionaries resisted or harmed royal family.Effect: King Louis XVI forced off throne, and is suspendedAssembly loses legitimacy, as half the Assembly members flee ParisRemaining deputies call upon elections in the National Convention for republican constitution and determine actions against the kingMarks the end of the old regime“Peoples do not judge in the same way as courts of law; they do not hand down sentences, they throw thunderbolts; they do not condemn kings, they drop them back into the void; and this justice is worth just as much as that of the courts.” ― Maximilien Robespierre
4Reforms of the National Assembly By 1792, the National Assembly implemented:Liberty:A small form of self-governmentLegislative representationRemoved constraints of seigneurialism from peasants,and quelled the persecution of religious minoritiesEqualityRevoked privileges of the upper classes of clergy andaristocracyPromoted civil equalityDenounced absolutismFraternityEstablished uniform institutionsConstitutional government
5The Radicalism of Revolution Causes:Growing opposition from threatened, European monarchs, aristocrats, opposing priests, absolutist supporters (royalists) in France, and fled/exiled aristocracy (émigrés)1792: Threat of counterrevolution and military defeatsEffects:Split between revolutionaries:Radicals VS Conservative revolutionariesFormation of alliance between the prominent, radical Jacobin Club and the Parisian militants, the sans-culottes (made up of the middle class)Opposed against aristocratic classWore trousers instead of popular knee breechesAlliance leads to a second revolution, of a growing democratic republic, and a form of radical suppression…
6Panic and ReboundSeptember Massacres: A three-day slaughtering of two thousand and more prisoners in early September by Parisian groupsThe set up of “popular tribunals”Prisoners: Political enemies and common criminalsDate: Early September, 1792Cause: A panic set off by radical journalists such as Marat, who believed of a plot to open the prisonsRebound: The easing of panic, which coincided with the French victory at the Battle of Valmy on September 20 against invadersTwo months later: French victory against enemies at Jemappes, located in Austria NetherlandsThe declaration of the Convention that France is now a republic“I believe in the cutting off of heads”Jean-Paul Marat: “The People’s Friend”
7Death of a King and the Rise of Two Parties Louis XVI: Guilty of treasonThe Convention voted 334 (Pardon) to…387 for death.January 21, 1793: King Louis XVI guillotinedDeputies have become regicides (king killers)Execution has now closed negotiations with counterrevolutionariesTwo main parties in the Convention:Girondins: Party that advocated free, laissez-faire economy and liberty in the provinces. The conservativesThe Mountain: The core of the radical revolutionaries. Deputies were leading members of Jacobin Club: Robespierre, Danton, and Marat.More military-basedMost deputies: Centrists (the Plain). Were uncertain revolutionaries on how to continue the revolution
8Difficulties and Political Purging By spring of 1793:Austria and Prussia alliance along with Piedmont, Britain, and Spain bring danger of coming invasionForced militant drafts lead to inner civil war in western France by peasants.Vendeé: South of Loire River, area of rebellions from guerilla bands and finally the “Catholic and Royalist Army”Lyon: Also federalist activityEconomical crises: Inflation (Big hit to sans-culottes)Caused by hoarding of goods, poor harvests, food shortages, and profiteeringThe drop of Republic’s paper money, the assignat by 50%Sans-culottes urge for “purge” of Girondins, and price fixing, persecution of speculators and hoarders, and claiming of grainEncouraged a committee for “public safety”Threatened Convention with military powerJune 2: Purge of GirondinsReluctant aid by centristsExpelling and later execution of 23 Girondins for treason
10The Jacobin Dictatorship September 5: Large demonstration for policies that can secure food supplies.Urging by the sans-culottes lead the Convention to create two laws:Law of the Maximum: General price controlsLaw of Suspects: Allowed any revolutionary committee to arrest citizens who are suspected as traitorsJune: The Mountain finishes drafting a new democratic constitutionPlaces the power of Republic in a twelve-man committee:Committee of Public SafetyLeader: Maximilien Robespierre: Part of the Jacobin ClubThe support of war effort and egalitarian (for society) valuesDemand for unity, that stopped freedom of expressionDiffering groups crushedUltrarevolutionaries: Led by Jacques-René HébertLeading radical journalist who questioned leniency to enemies; executedIndulgents: Led by Georges-Jacques Danton (one of Jacobin Club)Argued for loosening of strict measures; executed
11The Reign of TerrorAn organized form of suppression that was to prevent panics such as the September MassacresKilled armed rebels, counterrevolutionaries, and as many as 300,000 ordinary citizens for opinions, social status, or past actionsOver 17,000 individuals executed, and others died without trialEventually, Robespierre, the instigator the Terror, will be executed as well“...more men and women were slaughtered in a couple of weeks of the terror of the atheistic French Revolution than in a century of the Inquisition.” ― Michael Coren, Why Catholics are Right
12The Sans-Culottes and Popular Attitudes : Parisian sans-culottes weremain political activists for the second revolutionConsisted mainly of middle class workers,shopkeepers, artisans, carpenters, shoemakers,tailors, café keepers, and building contractorsMain concern: Supply and price of breadOpposed inflation and diminishing suppliesAgainst laissez-faire, and supported pricecontrolHighly anti-aristocraticRevolutionaries make many breaks from pastDécadi: Ten-day calendarEliminated signs of upper society(ie. Palais Royal to Equality Palace)Use of citizen instead of monsieur andmadame
13Popular PoliticsThe Convention: want to enforce a centralized government when the democratic Republic was in a state of emergencyThe sans-culottes: want participatory democracy and less centralizationYear II ( ): Forty-eight sections of Paris were autonomous republics with local politicians leading themGave people the feel of having “real” political powerSociety of Revolutionary-Republican Women founded in 1793Eventually led to the Convention forbidding the formation of female political clubs“Clubs and Societies for Women”The sections gave Convention complaints, threats, and petitionsThe Convention limited the power of the sections severely, and, with force, slowed the political craze of the sans-culottes
14The Revolutionary Wars French revolution was originally not supposed to have a direct threat on European state systemHowever, counterrevolutionaries and growing enemies from outside led to an aggressive stanceRevolutionary principles spread to other statesBefore 1789: “Patriots” in the Dutch Netherlands, Geneva, and the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) failedWith French Revolution, attempts started againPressure groups formed to urge reluctant Convention to help liberate other countriesResult: December 1792: Convention declared feudal practices and hereditary privileges removed in any place where French armies won.In return for liberation, special taxes and requisitions for the armiesRobespierre and others still did not want to become entangled with foreign movementsBy 1794: France had position in Belgium
15Troops of the Revolution 1789: National Assembly allowed officer careers to ordinary soldiersIn 1792: the government had 100,000 and more volunteers for short-term serviceIn 1793: during the enemy’s second coalition, lacking recruitsAugust 1793: The Convention makes the levée en masseA mass levy for males between the ages of to join the army, without replacementAbout 300,000 new recruits joined, 200,000 fledBy end of 1794: 750,000 menMilitary formation:From old regime’s organized line formation with less casualties to large columns of troops that suffered greater casualtiesArmies powered by revolutionary spiritIn late 1793 and 1794: French won many battles, culminating in the Battle of Fleurus in June 1794, liberating Belgium for the second timeAlso won in the Péyérnes and the RhineSpain, then Prussia sign peace treatiesImproved military from an army that suffered from lack of training and discipline
16Comparing and Contrasting The First and Second Phase First phase:A liberal, constitutional movementLegislative, National Assembly“Declarations of the Rights of Man and Citizen”French Constitution of 1791Limited monarchyShared power of one legislatureReconstruction of FranceThrough National AssemblyCatholic incorporation into StateA democratic systemSecond phase:Radical, authoritarian republican societyJacobin DictatorshipMountain's Constitution of 1793Reign of Terror ( )No monarchyLouis XVI executed for treasonReforms and lawsThrough Committee of Public Safety and National ConventionDe-ChristianizationMore oligarchic than democratic12 men Committee of Public Safety“Times of emergency”
17Results of the French Revolution The development of two models of governmentAuthoritarianism (Napoleon Bonaparte) or Representative (Republic)More centralized state with better administrationExpansion of new civil rightsPolitical influence of propertied malesCareers became basis for talentEquality before the lawRemoval of privileged rightsChange in popular politics and culturePopular participation in politicsNationalism (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity)Less religious societyEconomic and social changesRemoval of guildsGrowth of middle class (bourgeoisie) due to political power and the confiscation of church lands (1790)A uniform code for tradeBusiness class viewed higher
18Questions for Analysis The Ideology of the RevolutionDid revolutionary thought come before action?Enlightenment was a major factor that contributed to thought“The Revolution had been accomplished in the minds of men long before it was translated into fact.”French Historian: Albert Mathiez (La Révolution)Was the social and political chaos the actual motivator for thought?Progress for What Cost?Was the transition from feudalist, traditional monarchy to a capitalist, representative republic worth the amount of casualties?“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness,”Charles Dickenson (Tale of Two Cities)Manipulation of SocietyHow did the lower classes became the ones to carry out the savagery of the revolution under such lofty principles of “liberty, equality, and fraternity”?
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